For several years, there have been a proliferation of the proposed mental modules with an effort to justify the various cognitive functions. Nonetheless, so far, there has not been any successful integration. Besides, the adaptive control of thought-rational (ACT-R) has been able to evolve into the theory consisting of several modules and explaining the manner in which they are integrated to generate a coherent cognition. Perhaps no aspect of the mind is more familiar and puzzling than the consciousness of self and the world. Just like any other science, psychology has seen an inevitable movement towards specialization (Heal, 2005). Along with these movements to specialization, there have also been topics moving parallel viewing the mind as consisting of set of specialized components. Nonetheless, with different level of consensus and controversy, the philosophers have been claiming for separate methods of processing visual materials versus the locations and for procedural against the declarative knowledge.
It is common to find the both the scientists and psychologists asserting that the human mind is massively parallel system. However, such assertions are simply false. With regard to information processing, the parallel systems mean that the systems contain more than one processor working independently. Besides, it could be argued that neurons are those processors. Nonetheless, the cognitive scientists do not hold similar position when they claim that the mind works in a parallel system. Scientists think that more processors that are complex have more capabilities than a single neurone, which might not be the case since processors do not exist in the mind (Leahy, 2003). Within the major thinking part of the part, cerebral cortex, there is no separate unit at all since each cortex region has direct connection to all the neighbouring tissues. Since some of these connections are direct, every operation within the cortex region is dependent directly on the activities of the other regions meaning that they are independent. Therefore, the mind does not contain several independent processors which make is not a massively parallel system.
Consequently, the cognitive scientists sometimes believe that there is psychological evidence for the parallel processing as opposed to the neurobiological and neuroanatomical views. Most of these pieces of evidence do not differentiate between the parallel processing and fast processing. The evidence claimed to be showing parallel processing should be able to show that the system itself is parallel considering its independent processors (Torey, 2009). Consciousness is the level of awareness of oneself and the environment. The neuroscientists tend to link the mind activities with the mental processes with researches indicating that there is a two-track mind. Conscious information processing enables people to exercise control and communicate their mental state by others. However, beneath the surface, unconscious processing tend to occur simultaneously on several parallel tracks. People’s awareness focus on the limited aspect of all that they experience. Scientists assume that the mind is what the brain as earlier stated by Marvin Minsky, a neuroscientist.
The psychologists reached the consensus that only two types of processing existed including implicit and explicit. Implicit processing explains the modular brain as put across by the evolutionary psychologist. On the other hand, explicit processing allows humans to imagine creatively of possible worlds rationally and in conformity to the moral model (Brown, 2006). The research indicates the substantial control of explicit processing compared to implicit processing. Explicit processing allows for the building of societies according to the required moral standards as societies could result in the widespread of dysphoria since they are in conflict with human proclivities thus contributing to the modular psychology. Every moment people interact with different environmental components, which triggers the distinct mind-set process. Therefore, the mind can only process single information at once. From the theory of the selective attention, at any moment, the awareness of the mind only focuses on the limited aspect of all that people experience. Selective attention might limit people’s attention since many stimuli could pass unnoticed.
In his book, How The Mind Works, the cognitive scientist Steven Pinker defended the theory that the mind of the human is a naturally selected system with organs meant for computation. However, Jerry Foder holds different claim since the Turing Machines cannot duplicate the ability of the human brain to perform abduction (Pinker, 1997). Though the massively module systems can prosper at abduction, they are implausible on the other grounds with the evolution adding nothing to people’s mind. According to Pinker, the mind is a computational system, which differs from Foder’s claim who view the mind as an architect of Turing Machine. Hence, the practical limitation of these machines is irrelevant. Foder tends to identify abduction with cumulative achievements of the scientific community over millennia. Nevertheless, such achievement differs from that of the human common sense. Therefore, there is supposed gap that occurs between human cognition and computational models could be illusory. The claim from the biological specialization as portrayed in the organ systems differs from Foder’s notion of the summarised modules, which means that the limitations from the latter are irrelevant.
References
Brown, D. J. (2006). Descartes and the passionate mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heal, J. (2005). Review: Mindreading: An Integrated Account of Pretence, Self-Awareness and Understanding Other Minds. Mind, 114(453), 181-184.
Leahy, R. L. (2003). Psychology and the economic mind: Cognitive processes & conceptualization. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.
Pinker, S. (1997). How the mind works. New York: Norton.
Torey, Z. (2009). The crucible of consciousness: An integrated theory of mind and brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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