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PART 1
Midterm Exams (Chapters 1-6)
What first expedition laid the foundation for modern oceanography?
The Challenger expedition from1872 planted the foundation of the modern oceanography to 1876. Captain George Nares led the team, and it was named after the mother vessel HMS Challenger.
What past culture inspired the first sea-going ships?
The earliest seaworthy boats were made about 45000 years ago during the time of Julius Caesar, but the first or traditional Americans dug canoes. The dugout canoes were used to go fishing and hunting. The first sea-going ships were inspired by the rise in Mediterranean Sea trade as well as the looming war between kingdoms.
Where does the 6th Avenue drain at the SPSCC Lacey campus end up and where does the rest of the waste water go?
4220 6th Ave SE, Lacey WA 9850
What was the first oceanographic institute in the U.S.?
The first oceanographic institute in the United States of America was The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Who was the primary person to come up with the continental drift theory? What theory did Hess come up with later?
According to the theory of continental drift, parts of the crust of the Earth drift slowly on top of a liquid core. Continental drift theory was set forth by Alfred Wegener a meteorologist and a geophysicist in the year 1912.
What is paleomagnetism?
Paleomagnetism is a geophysics branch that deals with the study of the orientation and the intensity of the magnetism in rocks that was induced by the magnetic field of the earth at the time of their development.
What were some of the most important points in the article “Stop Googling Let’s Talk”? What institution supported this research?
The study by Sherry Turkle merely points out that the presence of a phone during conversations changes the connection degree we feel. It depicts how technology has changed our conversations as well as connections and the human resilience. This research was supported by the Pew Research Centre and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
 
Know the difference between active, passive, divergent, transform, submerged boundaries? What kind of fault is the San Andreas fault?
The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault.
North America is made of how many other continents?
Nine
Where did the water come from 3.8 billion years ago to form the ocean?
In order to understand where the ocean water came from, there are two theories; The first one is that about 4.5 billion years ago when the earth was formed, it held onto some water that created the proto-solar nebula including the ice and the sun. However, some of the waters remained with the surface and are recycled by the mantle layer of the earth. The second theory states that the Mercury, Venus, Mars and the land might have been closer to the protosolar nebula thus their water formed a vapor and thus they were formed while having water within them.
What are the units of measurement for salinity?
Practical Salinity Unit (PSU)
What water conditions give you more or less capacity for dissolved oxygen?
The water temperature gives you more or less capacity for dissolved oxygen. Cold water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warm or hot water.
 
How is acoustic thermometry used to study changes in the ocean temperature?
Using Trans-basin acoustics transmissions in the sea climate can be detected. Sound travels faster in warm water. The average sea temperature between two points can be determined by measuring the sound travel time between them.
What is an example of a natural feedback loop of melting icebergs?
Increase in temperature
Understand what each piece of equipment that will be used during the Swan Town lab is used? What does it measure? What ocean explorer is the water sampler named?
The water sampler is named after Jeremy Swan.
What is the average pH of the ocean? Is that number acidic or basic? How does excess anthropogenic carbon dioxide change the ocean water pH? What kinds of animals are affected by this change? What can ice cores tell us about the past climate?
The earth ocean has a pH level of about 8.1 units. It typically means that the ocean is slightly basic. However, over the years the ocean has received anthropogenic carbon dioxide and from the atmosphere at about 22 million tons a day. It has increased its acidity. Increased acidity has affected aquatic animals like the Coral Reefs, Oyster, Mussel, Urchin, starfishes, and other fish.  Over the last 10000 years, changing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, glacial and interglacial cycles, and climate stability, scientists learn by analyzing ice cores. Ice cores have notably been drilled in the Antarctica, and the sites and levels of training are recorded.
Understand what the continental shelf, sea mounts, notes, abyssal hills and trenches are? What is a terrene? How are island arcs formed? What type of rock are the continental plates made? What kind of rock are the oceanic plates made?
In geology, fault-bounded areas or regions with distinctive stratigraphy, geological history, and structure are known as a terrene.
The subduction of the lithospheric slab makes its edges to reach depths which are sufficiently hotter. It highly melted and hot material from the piece that has subducted rises and leaks into the crust. Volcano series is then formed. These series makes up the island arc.
The continental plates are made of volcanic silicates called granites whereas the oceanic plates are made of basalts.
What is the difference between poorly sorted sediment and well-sorted sediment?
Sediments grain size distribution is known as sorting. These sediments can either be in sedimentary rocks or unconsolidated deposits. Well, sorted sediments mean that the sorted grains are of similar sizes whereas the poorly sorted grains are of varying sizes.
What is the difference between biogenous, hydrogenous, lithogenous and cosmogenous sources of sea floor sediment?
Sediments are classified according to their sources. Biogenous is the second largest marine sediment. Siliceous and calcareous are the second most components within the biogenous. The deposits end up on the ocean floor as a solution in the rivers or are dissolved in the sea by the oceanic ridges. The sediments are extracted from the sea water by the normal activities of living things to build shells and skeletons for protection. Biogenous sediments are common in up well areas as well as continental margins.
Hydrogenous sediments are minerals that have precipitated from the seawater. Jorly found in submerged rocks, hydrothermal vents, and crisp crusts. It is made up of phosphate and manganese nodules.
Cosmogenous is the least abundant sediment. It is sourced from the interplanetary dust that falls into the atmosphere.
What do most bottom feeders feed? What are bottom feeders called?
Bottom feeders are used in aquariums. Biologists call the bottom feeders’ benthos. Most bottom feeders feed on the coral reefs, the zooplanktons, and the former aquatic life. Examples of the bottom feeders are; sea anemones, snails, bristle worms, crayfish, shellfish and the crabs.
 Why is there so much concern with coral and climate change?
Coral reefs are confined to tropical as well as semi-tropical water regions because of their strict environmental restrictions. For corals to build these reefs, they require water temperatures that are below 18° Celsius. The greatest global threat to coral reefs is climate change. Because of the greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity, the ocean and the earth atmosphere is increasingly warming. Infectious diseases and mass coral bleaching have become more numerous with rising in temperature. The seawater chemicals are altered by decreases in the ocean pH. This cause additional carbon dioxide levels within the ocean thus hindering the reefs building. When the climate has changed, the sea level will increase the intensity of the storms and the pattern of ocean circulation will be altered. It eminently impacts the coral reefs, and thus the benefits that people gain from them will be little or infringed.
Why does Hood Canal have so many problems with dead zones?
Fish and other sea animals are falling and dying because of the falling of the oxygen levels in the troubled portion of hood canals. This lack of oxygen has led to suffocation of a lot of fish.
PART 2
Mining the Seas
The sea can be mined for many things such as Phosphorene, Sulfur, Coal, and Oil, gas, cobalt, sand and gravel to name a few. And, we have all heard about the need to increase off-shore oil drilling. In our oceans, 16 million tons of manganese nodules accumulate each year. So why has the United States or other countries not pursued the mining of this valuable resource?
The United States of America and other nations have not continued the mining of these precious resources because it will lead to environmental degradation and inefficiency in the production of fish. The deep sea mining impacts, as well as the environmental risks, are immense and unavoidable. The vast ocean floor or area living organisms will be affected and degraded, species extinctions, the habitat will not be any more complicated, the reclamation is not quite certain, toxic plumes will be suspended, noises in the sea, spillage of oil and the pelagic ecosystem impact.
 
Look up information on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and see what you will get. Also, what are the mining laws and treaties for mining in international waters? For your homework assignment, pick one of these resources and do some research online. Find out how much of this resource is being extracted and where. Are there any regulations associated with mining this resource? Do we currently mine this resource or is another country mining it? Do we in the United States depend on this resource for our daily lives and how?
The United Nations Conventions on the law of the sea notes compressively the rules and order in the oceans and seas world. It has established norms and regulations that govern the use of the oceans and their explorations. It observes that all the sea’s problems are very much related and should be addressed as a whole.
Among the rules and regulations of the convention are;

  • All aircraft and ship of all the countries are permitted a transit passage.
  • Countries are sovereignty over the seas, oceans and the islands that are surrounding them.
  • All nations in EEZ have freedom of flight and navigation.
  • Landlocked countries have an equal right to explore the oceans and the seas.
  • States in the coast have continental shelf sovereign rights.
  • They also share their revenue with the international community.
  • All countries enjoy the traditional navigation freedom.
  • The land territory determines the limitation of exploring the oceans.

For several years, the United States of America has been mining Gold in California. Gold is extracted by minute quantity per ton or in dirt. The amount of gold mined in the USA is about 12 billion dollars per annum. We use this color in our daily lives as it engraved on jewelry and used as ornaments.  The United States of America is a fourth largest gold miner in the world. In 2016 in produced about 8 billion dollars’ worth of gold; that is about 290 tons of gold.