Case 1
Alzheimer’s disease is a condition that affects the cognitive ability of the patient especially to the aged. Particular care is necessary to ensure that the patient survives through the stages of memory loss.
Jack has Alzheimer’s disease a condition characterized by memory loss and inability to conduct daily life activities. The disease is characterized by mental failure, especially in the aged persons. (McKhann  et al.,2011).  The early symptoms of the illness include mild memory loss, and later the disease affected the conversation and response of the patients to the environmental changes. Currently, no treatment is available for the cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Medical care and evaluation are necessary to establish the primary cause of the Alzheimer infection. Tests carried out include the blood test and the Brain Imaging. (Dubois et al.,2007) However, the disease can be tamed and or controlled. The diagnosis of the illness improves the quality of life for the patient. The therapy is conducted by the use cholinesterase inhibitors which slow the neuropsychiatric symptoms which include depression and agitation symptoms involved with the Alzheimer’s disease. The conventional inhibitors include donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine.
The disease was invented by the Greek and Roman Philosophers; he associated the condition with the aged person. The term later was aimed at after him. In a short spell, more people were discovered to have more disease.( Albert,,2011)Though in his explanation he viewed the disease to affect both aged persons .in later years the Alzheimer’s disease was seen to resemble the disease that affected the young person. So the age factor was neglected in the treatment of the condition. In the analysis of the situation the Alzheimer’s disease was grouped into two ideal conditions (diagnosis for the young and Senile Alzheimer (aged) later scientifically the disease was given medical term Alzheimer’s disease. (Hardy et al.,2002)
Given the current situation of the Jack the withdrawal and his unable to explain it becomes hard to justify the pain, he is undergoing. Also, the complicated views of the manifestation of the disease make the treatment carefully. Moreover, the lack of expression of the pain by the sick persons makes it hard to treat the diseases. Also, it’s hard to determine the person who will make the treatment of the disease a success as he has developed other complications in the health sector.
The study of Jack’s case aims to come up with a formulation of the best approach to the control and treatment of the infection. It will help the family members and the caregivers develop the mechanism of the diagnosis of the disease.
Case 2
Given the seriousness of the infection and earlier manifestation of heart disease and transient ischemic attacks, particular care should be provided as the symptoms have resulted in the decline in the job execution. The patient is being diagnosed with vascular dementia which affects the flow of the blood in the cells arising from stroke or failure in the thinking. (Sahathevan et .al,2012)As the disease mostly affects the brain care should be taken to ensure that the illness is controlled as it will result in memory losses.
The patient has vascular dementia which is characterized by confusion, vision loss, disorientation and inability to speak. (Emanuele et al., 2004).  The symptoms of the disease are grouped into three; Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) the symptoms usually last for less than 30 minutes. The symptoms appear soon after the injury and can last for different times maybe hours long or days. The symptoms can also be moderate which lasts for a duration more than 30 minutes with more severe brain damage lasting longer. Also, we have a severe traumatic brain injury which lasts more than 24 hours. The symptoms are usually more severe and last longer. In the advanced stage of development, the disease causes a headache, inability to walk or paralysis in some parts of the body.( Suzuki, et al.,2004) Increased stroke causes the damage in the brain which results in the impairment of the speech and the functionality of the brain. The disease may be due to the damage of the brain either through an accident or infections by micro-organisms. Subjecting the patient to a change of the environment may have made the person to get stress which frequently results in depression and finally withdrawal of the individual.
In the diagnosis, the information on the cause of the disease should adhere. There should be a collection of the information regarding the injury causes and the stage at which it is. Assessment of the confusion level . (Sahathevan et al.,2012)The two would give neurological examination an accurate time to enable the reflexive access to such factors as vision, hearing, and touch and balance which indicate the level of damage to the brain. The computed tomography and brain imaging are the treatment available.( Bjerke et .al, 2009)Depending on the severity of the brain injury, specialized health care is important where the patient should be introduced to rehabilitation measures. Close observation for mild brain injuries is manageable. It can be done either at home or in the health facilities. In the treatment, the history and the mode of manifestation should be looked. The cases may be sudden injury or evolve. The treatment should be formulated quick as they shorten the life and increase the management cost.
With no known cure then the treatment and cure of the infection become almost unattainable. The little knowledge among the practicing nurse makes it hard to treat the disease. In many cases, the patient ends up being treated for a different illness. This increases his suffering as well as shortens his lifespan.
With the information, it’s easy to prepare result oriented care plan as all the information on the symptoms, control and actual diagnosis has been availed.
Case 3
Delirium is a mental disorder resulting from low oxygen level in the brain. It results in the build-up of toxic chemicals that harbors the brains functions. The chief causative agent of the ailments is either drug abuse of infections associated with inflammation like pneumonia. (Kim,,2018) Taking poisonous substances and alcoholic drinks can also cause the disease. Given the seriousness of the infection, consideration should be made to ensure that the patients are taken care.
Delirium usually appears as infection of mind. It appears the body movement, sleeping patterns and the control of the muscles. The three factors result in a change in the emotional behavior. The patient seems confused and often finds it hard to concentrate. Also, the mood swings have been seen to the patients suffering from the disease.( Wass,2018) In later stages, the patients may find it hard to speak and think clearly and reduction in the short-term memory.
The treatment of the disease is conducted through the use of (CAM) confusion assessment Method. The method involves the behavioral examination of the patient. This is done by analyzing the day’s behavior, listening skills and rambling.
The disease may be caused by other factors in the brain. Analysis of the medical history and test could be run to determine the actual infection. Such tests include Blood chemistry test, urine test, head scans, chest X-ray test, drug, and alcohol test, thyroid test, and liver tests. The tests could give an accurate pictorial of the ailments and thus the treatment.
Delirium has different approaches to the treatment.( Sprigings,2018) The treatment ranges from drug consumption to the behavioral change. In fact combination of medications and counseling has been seen to have a great impact in curbing of the spread of the disease. In adults, care should be taken as delirium has similar symptoms to dementia. (Kilgore, 2017) However based on the causative agent of the disease prescription will be given. Such examples include the use of antibiotics to treat bacteria. If the illness has to do with the lifestyle, then the doctor may require one to stop the use of alcohol or other related drugs. For the depressed patients, antidepressant drugs are used. In other cases, sedatives may be added to help control the alcoholic persons.
In other circumstances, counseling is used to uplift the spirit of the infected person. The treatment acts to prevent the sick persons from engaging in crimes or unlawful acts. It brings comfort where the patients get the time speak his thoughts.
With little facts or known treatment of delirium. Then the health practitioner finds it difficult to treat the patients. Most practitioners attach the infection as evil sent or bad omen. In other cases, they view the disease as stressed based. Meaning the sure maybe could be found through the conduct of religious activities. However the truth is the combined effort between the caretakers, family members, and the health practitioners could give a solution to the ailments
Implementation of the methods listed above will make it possible for the cure and treatment of the infection. There will be full control of the infected person social and other primary engagements. The study of the change in behavior will bring an everlasting mark on the life of the patient.
Case 4
Front-temporal dementia is a disorder affecting the front and temporal parts of the brains. It affects the major areas that control the behavior, personality, and language. As the disease is related to other infections such as suicidal thoughts care should be taken to ensure that the person does not commit suicide.( Rohrer et al.,2015)
Depending on the particular part infected the symptoms vary. However, there are common symptoms such as emotional change, severe in language usage, stress. All these signs should work to sensitize on the care of the Alzheimer’s infected person. (Farina,2009) Also, the signs resembling the Alzheimer’s infection calls for particular attention to ensure the disease is discovered and treated well. It should be noted that Front-temporal dementia occurs a bit earlier than the Alzheimer’s disease. (Freischmidt,et al, 2015) Front-temporal dementia is a disease that affects s all persons regardless of the age factor. However, the most affected individuals are of the age 50-60 as this is the age the body immunity is decreasing. It is characterized by brain failure which can impair the judgment, foresight, conduct among many other combinational activities.In the second phase of the disease we have adverse effects on the language skills, writing and speaking. It occurs mostly in persons aged 65 years or more. In this stage, the patient portrays inability to formulate spoken the language. He becomes hesitant with many grammatical issues. Also, we may, experience motor dysfunction in the patient who is characterized by the inability to have controlled movement in his joints and muscles.
As the symptoms appear just like the other mental diseases, it becomes hard to discover the actual treatment that can be used. Also, the little knowledge on the infection makes the caretakers not to detect the ailments in the early stages. The cases are discovered late when the damage has already exceeded the one that can be controlled.
If the frontal, temporal infection is detected early the diagnosis could be a success and less costly. The available control measures could help in managing the development of the disease. It would be of great importance to the caretakers and the infected persons as it would prolong their lives.
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