The bacterial cell wall consists of many layers of which among them includes the flagella and the glycocalyx. The bacterial flagella aids in movement, chemotaxis, and adhesion to an invasion into host cells. The flagella assist in bacterial adhesion and invasion by indirectly providing movement towards the target cells and receptors. It also adheres to these targets directly (Smith & Hoover, 2009). Glycocalyx, on the other hand, is a sticky substance which consists of polysaccharides, polypeptides or both. This substance is produced in the cytoplasm and emitted to the outer part of the cell wall.  Glycocalyx helps in distinguishing the healthy cells and the transplanted tissues, invading organisms or diseased cells. It also consists of cell adhesion molecules that give cells the ability to adhere to together and control the movement of cells as the embryo develops.
In most cases, intestinal infections are out of food poisoning, but in some instances, it can be out of a serious problem. The most common types of intestinal infections include viral infections, bacterial infections, and parasitic infections. If an infected person diarrheas and vomits, the doctor can take a sample of the patient’s stool. This is done by providing a small tin/ container that usually has a label on it written the name of the patient and any other important detail. The patient is supposed to collect a small amount of his/ her stool making sure that it doesn’t touch the inside of the toilet to avoid picking germs that aren’t theirs. The patient should also ensure that he/she does not overfill container and should make sure to include any part that is bloody, slimy or watery. It is also important to avoid mixing the stool with urine. The patient should take the sample to the doctor for testing as soon as possible. In this case, the stool is smeared inside a special sterile plate that enables bacteria to grow. These bacteria are noticed by the use of a microscope. If there is the presence of bacterial growth, then the patient has a bacterial infection, and the necessary treatment is undertaken.
The production of a greenish mucus or sputum as one cough shows that the body is fighting an infection. This color comes from the white blood cells as they try to fight against the infection. The greenish mucus could be caused by bronchitis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis or sinusitis  (Johnson & Hampson, 2008). In this case, where the examinations show that the patient is likely to have a lower inspiratory infection, which could be pneumonia, a sample of the sputum should be taken from Joe(the patient) since it’s still unclear whether  the sputum color can give accurate results on the diagnosis of bacterial infection. The patient should be issued with a small container which usually has a label indicating the patient’s name and any other details that are key. The patient is expected to put a little sputum into the container and give it back to the doctor for laboratory analysis. The physical requirements necessary in order for the organism to grow may include an optimum growth temperature to enhance the enzyme activity and also an optimum Ph, that is, not too acidic and too basic. The chemical requirements involve the supply of water, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. in order to provide a conducive environment for the bacteria to grow. After the sputum is exposed to these conditions the presence of bacterial infection causing pneumonia is then tested.


Johnson, A., & Hampson, D. (2008). Sputum color. Clinical implications for clinical practice, 450-454.
Smith, T., & Hoover, T. (2009). Deciphering bacterial flagellar gene regulatory networks in the genomic era. Adv. Appli. Microbiol. , 257-295.