The chemistry between a therapist and the client determines the smoothness of the therapy. A huge percentage of people end up with therapists referred to them by other people and in turn, the sessions do not go on as smooth and effective as required. The most important determinant in the selection of a therapist is the compatibility. The compatibility determines the level of confidence as well as the openness of the client towards the therapist.
Therapists go through rigorous processes in trying to determine the necessary theories to be applied towards patients and the problem-solving processes. Therefore, a theoretical orientation of a therapist refers to the understanding of the concepts and the resolution of the problems (Granath, Ingvarsson, & Lundberg, 2003). It is the framework that a therapist uses in order to resolve problems brought forth. On the part of the patient, it is always an important decision to determine the theoretical orientation of a therapist before engaging him in the treatment process. Not only will this save money and time, it will also save the engagement process.
Some of the common theoretical orientations include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectal behavior therapy, eye movement desensitizing and reprocessing family therapy, feminist therapy, gestalt therapy, humanistic approaches, integrative therapy, narrative therapy psychodynamic therapy, psychoanalytic among others (Corey, 2005). All these are discussed below but the main focus of this essay is on behavioral therapy
The Behavioral Theories
The basis of this theory is that behavior is acquired through learning. One particular example is the Pavlov experiment of salivating dogs where dogs were taught that every time a bell rang, it was meal time. It is no different in human beings considering the capacity of the human brain to take in information. This particular type of behavioral response is referred to as the classical conditioning. Another form of behavioral response is known as operant conditioning which particularly focuses on the ability of a reward to influence the behavior.furthermore, punishment has been known to reduce the likelihood of a certain behavior.In this, the therapists focus on altering the negative behaviors through various modification techniques (Hodges, 2014). Therefore, the role of the counselor can be defined on the following bases: consultant, facilitator or reinforce; active and required to supervise the client in the environment of others so as to correlate the therapy needs; practicing varying forms of tests and diagnostics to achieve the therapeutical needs.
Therefore, the goal of a behavioral therapist is: improving the life of the client by providing various measures and techniques to cope with the personal and professional life. In this, four goals have been stated to be very effective:definition of the problem on the basis of how,why,when and the relationships that define the problem; the history of the problem and the development aspect therein including the treatment options that have been sought; the establishment of sub-goals that are to be benchmarks for the ultimate goal; the determination of the best method for behavioral change towards specific client needs.
In a nutshell, the therapists solve the behavioral problem through helping the client particularly by providing help on identification of beliefs and thoughts, challenge on behaviors and providing the necessary measures to adjust and improvise (Freiheit & Overholster, 1997).
It is imperative to understand that most people have problems with behaviors and as such this theory of counseling is a topic of intrigue. As in the case of Pavlov and the salivating dogs, it is really fascinating to understand the chemistry behind the response. As with human beings, a behavioral factor can severely alter the livelihood on the realm of professionalism and socialization. It is therefore important to understand how socialization and the typical human interactions affect how behavioral changes occur.in this regard, counseling and various forms of therapy venture into the deep insight of the underlying factors such as the conscious, preconscious and unconscious parts of human understanding
In an environment that is always changing, counseling is an important aspect considering the health benefits mostly associated.in regard to this, the main underlying factor is the increase in the interconnectedness of human being and thus imperative for professionals to address various mental disorders such as trauma, depression, addiction, academic concerns among others. Therefore, the professionals help people to live more joyful peaceful and productive lives. As such, the American counseling professional defines counseling as a line of work that enables families and various individuals to address mental health awareness, health, and academic achievements. It is thus no surprise that this line of work is on an exponential increase and according to the Bureau of labor statistics, the growth supersedes of most professions (Palmer, 2005).
One major aspect that affects the ability of a counselor is the lifestyle practiced. Mental health professionals and counselors need to practice healthy lifestyles as part of their ability to try and explore the problems associated with their clients. All this is because counseling is a very challenging profession and it goes on to regulate and maintain the lifestyle and mental health of the counselor him/herself.Furthermore, the ability may be clouded by the ability to be open-minded, nonjudgmental and the ability to learn. (Hodges, 2014)
The field of counseling primarily focuses on the ability to influence others to change, particularly on the positive side. As a matter of fact, most people change because of the counsel provided, albeit not professionally, by other people who may be related to the affected person such as peers, friends, family etc. It is therefore very important to understand how the behaviors and professionalism can interact for the general well-being of the society.
The behavioral change theory is a fascinating theory to understand and practice. As a theoretical orientation, counselors within this line are exposed to most of the life-threatening problems and as such, without their help, the world can be described to be uninhabitable. Some of the main concerns of behaviouralist theories include observable human behaviors, maladaptive behaviors which can be used to replace adaptive behavior, setting up of various measurable goals through the therapy process, the ability to use proved techniques to support behavioral therapy techniques among others.
Review of Presenting Problems
The attention deficit hyperactive disorder has been regarded as one of the most common childhood diseases manifested by attentiveness, hyperactivity, impulsivity among other symptoms.it is also important to consider that these symptoms vary between individuals and are manifested in different forms. In particular, these behavioral changes are observed in children who have very little interaction with their parents and as such, there is a change in the conscious and subconscious functioning of the brain (Hodges, 2014)
ADHD in children has no particular methodology for treatment. Therefore, the treatment process requires enough evidence and consultation with various sources to identify and assess the underlying factor of the restlessness of the child, particularly by focusing on the school and social interactions. Furthermore, an aspect of diagnostics includes the period when the child has suffered from this disorder and the severity. A treatment precaution is taken to children who have exhibited the said symptoms for more than six, months on a regular basis and in at least two settings. Considering that doctors are equipped with the necessary knowledge for counseling, the doctor can compare the behavior of the affected child with those of his/her peers to draw a conclusive and nonjudgmental approach towards the treatment process (Cuijpers & Smit, 2010).
Application of the Theory to the Problem
Considering that ADHD is a behavioral change in children, counselors within the behavioral theory orientation may play a big role in the ability of the child to overcome the disorder. Another field may be necessary for counsel but the main aspect is the behavior of the child and as such, some of the principles used in behavioral change theory will be the bases of judgment.
According to the behavioral theory of counsel some of the following will come into play when assessing and treating a child with ADHD: the observable characteristic of the child which basically mean the symptoms exhibited; the maladaptive aspect of the disorder; disregard for traits that most theories put into the human behavior among others that may be applicable to the child.
The treatment techniques that the counselor may prefer to use particularly should be focused on the final goal while setting up of benchmarks that indicate the progress of the therapy. One technique that can be used to achieve the overall goal is the reinforcement technique that aims at adjusting the life of the child on the positive scale. Furthermore, Primary reinforces are those that are intrinsical while secondarily reinforces are tokens that acquire their value by being associated with a primary reinforcer.
(Granath, Ingvarsson, & Lundberg, 2003)
Another technique that can be used by the counselor is the extinction technique. Through progressive counseling sessions, the child may be able to withdraw from all the undesired behaviors.In this, the process is a step by step process that requires withholding of the reinforcer (Granath, Ingvarsson, & Lundberg, 2003).Furthermore, by exposing the child to alternate behaviors that are beneficial to the general well-being, the child may deviate from this negative behavior
Finally, there is the punishment technique that entails subjecting the child to aversive stimuli (Palmer, 2005) which consequently results in withdrawal from the negative behaviors.punishment has always been a measure and a management practice and by subjecting the child to such a technique, there is bound to be changed. In this regard, the child will observe the negativity of his/her behavior and therefore withdrawal.
Corey, G. (2005). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy.
Cuijpers, P., & Smit, F. (2010). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and other psychological treatments. the British journal of psychiatry.
Freiheit, S. R., & Overholster, J. C. (1997). Training issues in cognitive behavioral therapy. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry.
Granath, J., Ingvarsson, S., & Lundberg, U. (2003). Stress management: a randomized study of cognitive behavioral therapy and yoga. Cognitive behavior therapy.
Hodges, S. (2014, November 13). The importance of counseling. Retrieved from www.niagra.edu/The importance of counseling
Palmer, S. (2005). Introduction to Counselling and psychotherapy.