1. Vocabulary and Definitions

Use words or images to define the following terms:

  • Torque – It is rotatory force produced by the movement of a moment arm, by a muscle, for a particular length through a joint and for a certain distance.
  • Line of force application – This represents the path through which the moment arm moves during a torque in that particular direction.
  • Moment arm – It is the length between a joint axis and the line of force that is applied.
  • Force couple – It is a principle whereby two or more muscles acting in different directions impact the rotation of a joint in a particular direction.
  • Torque equilibrium – This is a stable condition whereby equal forces act in opposing directions to cancel out their effect
  • Net Torque – It is the sum of individual torques.
  • Center of Gravity – It is a middle point in which all the weight of the body appears to be concentrated at which may be hypothetical.
  1. Anatomical Influences on Joint Torque and Muscular Force.

During leg exercises the moment arm of the muscles usually has movement caused by the extension and relaxation of the muscles of the limb. Particularly, the moment arm makes different angles are observed to change at each instance of flexion. At full-extension, the joint muscles are relaxed completely. At mid-range flexion, the joint muscle and moment arm contract at a small angle to force the leg to extend by bending/ twist towards the direction of the contraction. Finally, at full flexion, the muscles have to contract completely and a large force is exerted on the leg causing it to twist to its maximum or full torque. After full extension, then the muscle is relaxed to bring the leg back to full extension thereby making a complete exercise (Jones 3).

  1. Bones of the Back and Neck
  2. Characteristics of the Bones of the Vertebra (Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar)
  3. Cervical Vertebra Bones
  • It is located immediately below the skull
  • It consists of seven bones in total
  • They are small and have a foramen (holes) in each transverse process
  • The cervical bones are relatively mobile through flexion and extension at joints.
  • They have a triangular vertebra foramen
  1. Thoracic Vertebra Bones
  • They are twelve in number next to the cervical vertebra
  • They are larger than the cervical bones and they increase in size from superior to inferior
  • They articulate with the ribs to form a bony thorax
  • They have two demi-facets located on either side of the vertebral body
  • The vertebral foramen of thoracic vertebrae is circular.
  • The spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae are oriented obliquely inferiorly and posteriorly
  • The Lumbar Vertebra Bones
  • They are five in number located below the thoracic vertebra
  • They are structurally specialized to support the weight of the torso
  • They are very large and are kidney-shaped
  • They lack features which are in other vertebra including: transverse foramen, facets, an bifid spinous processes.
  • They also have triangular shaped vertebra foramen


  Cervical Thoracic Lumbar
Allowable movement *C1 and C2 (atlas and axis) allow movement of the head.
*Allows extension and lateral inclination
*The upper and lower part of thoracic vertebrae allows rotation round a vertical axis.
*Allows for slight lateral inclination
*Extension and flexion are very free especially between the third, forth, and fifth vertebrae.
*Lateral inclination is very free for movement
Limited Movement *Between the second and third cervical there is restricted movement due to shallow intervertebral discs * Near the middle, there is limited flexion and extension *The lower three lumbar vertebrae do not allow rotation


  1. Muscles of the Back
  2. Intrinsic Muscles are those that are located deep within the body and they aid in the movement of the vertebral column while extrinsic muscles are located on the exterior part of the body. Hence the terms intrinsic and extrinsic refers to where the muscles are located in the body.
Intrinsic Back Muscles Extrinsic Back Muscles
Thoracombular fascia
Splenius muscles – splenius capitis, splenius cevicis,
Levatores costarum
Erector spinae muscles
Latissimus Dorsi
Levator Scapula
Rhomboids minor and major


  1. Qualitative vs Quantitative Analysis
  2. Performing a qualitative analysis involves obtaining an in-depth understanding of underlying reasons and causes of a particular question while quantitative analysis involves quantifying the data and assess the same on the basis of numbers.
  3. Quantitative analysis are easier to conduct as they do not involve much insight or deep analysis of data but mainly involve the generalization of numbers collected. The respondents to a quantitative analysis may not be asked to explain or give reasons as to their opinions unlike in qualitative analysis.
  4. Feedback of a pitcher throwing baseball
Quantitative Analysis Qualitative Analysis
What is the weight of the pitcher The pitcher looked stiff during the match due to previous injury
How tall is the pitcher in metres How did the height of the pitcher affects his throwing technique..

Works Cited
“Forces And Torques In Muscles And Joints”. 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.
Jones, Oliver. “The Intrinsic Back Muscles”. TeachMeAnatomy, 2018, https://teachmeanatomy.info/back/bones/vertebral-column/. Accessed 19 Oct 2018.
Jones, Oliver. “The Vertebral Column”. TeachMeAnatomy, 2018, https://teachmeanatomy.info/back/bones/vertebral-column/. Accessed 19 Oct 2018.
“The Articulation Of The Vertebral Column”. Imedicine.Com, 2018, http://imedecin.com/en/The-articulations-of-the-trunk/the-articulations-of-the-vertebral-column/Movements.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
Yilmaz, Kaya. “Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences.” European Journal of Education 48.2 (2013): 311-325.