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Book Summary
            The book, The American School by Joel Spring, was written in the year 2011. The author of the book focuses on providing a clear introduction to the political, historical, legal, and social foundations of education and the profession of teaching and learning in the U.S. The main focus of this paper is presenting a summary of every chapter of this book.
Chapter One
In this chapter, Spring provides views relating to educational history in the U.S with the aim of triggering critical thinking about history and school. The author introduces the idea of the culture wars and explains the effect of struggle to promote the supremacy of the Protestant Anglo-American culture in education and how it has influenced and shaped it n the United States. The author also discusses the globalization framework in this chapter. Globalization is used in this chapter as one of the historical themes where the author maintains that the colonization of North America and the development of American schools have continued in the framework of international society (Boyd, Crowson & Mawhinney, 2015).
Chapter Two
            This chapter focuses on showing the relationship between the social operations of schooling. The chapter also explores the connection between religion and education in colonial times (Spring, 2011). It presents opposing viewpoints of colonial people relating to the nature of the child. Also, it presents the view that it is important to use schools should in realizing nationalistic goals. The colonial society believed that Native American would realize their national goals by having education as part of their culture.
 
Chapter Three
In this chapter, the author highlights the education policies of Native American in the United States. The author discusses racial dominance, and English attitudes of cultural led to the emergence of the belief that there is need to deculturize and Americanize the Native Americans (Spring, 2011). The author also presents the differences between the value of Native American and English cultural. The federal government introduced educational programs that would de-culturize the people by destroying Native American religion, culture, and languages.
Chapter Four
The main focus of this chapter is to analyze post-Revolutionary education. The author explains that the aim of post-Revolutionary education was to build an integrated American culture (Spring, 2011). Additionally, the author discusses the effects of enlightenment and behaviorism on education. The common school movement was created with the aim of educating children, and creating a common culture and eliminates social class conflict (Boyd, Crowson & Mawhinney, 2015). Further, Spring explains that educating children from different social class, religious, and ethnic backgrounds in common schools can help in dealing with aggression and friction among various social groups.  
Chapter Five
In this chapter, the author reviews the Common School Movement about the manner in which it supported the values of republicanism, Protestantism, and capitalism. According to the author, the main concept of the common school movement was to use education as a tool to build a political community and solve social problems (Spring, 2011).  The common school movement played an important role in ending crime, providing equal opportunity, and improving public morality (Boyd, Crowson & Mawhinney, 2015). The author highlighted the importance of multiculturalism during the common school era.
Chapter Six
The author discusses the purposes and goals of Common School Movement. Spring also looks at the manner in which educational revolution can draw support from different groups despite the fact that their purposes may differ (Spring, 2011). Additionally, the author explores the inherent problems in common schools.
Chapter Seven
The main focus of this chapter relates to the feminization of the teaching profession. The author focuses on summarizing the growth and development of the bureaucratic hierarchy (Spring, 2011). Additionally, the author explores the effect of the factory on school pedagogy and structure. The chapter also focuses on multiculturalism relating to educational discrimination and segregation due to many groups of people, including Native American, Mexican American, African American and Asian American.
Chapter Eight
This chapter focuses on the role of educational racism, which affects Asian Americans and Native Americans in school. The author also defines and discusses the concepts of Americanization and deculturization in this chapter (Spring, 2011). The chapter also contains information relating to America’s welfare institution and consumer education. According to the author, the America’s welfare institution results from urbanization, global migration, and industrialization that has transformed the social meaning of American schools.
 
Chapter Nine
In this chapter, the author addresses the role of educational racism in the education of Asian Americans and Native Americans. The author also defines and discusses the concepts of Americanization and deculturization. The author also discusses the importance of education in increasing the human capital. The author argues that high school education in the country contribute to the social development of the youths (Spring, 2011).
Chapter Ten
            The main focus of the author in this chapter is explaining the connection between segregated schools and economic opportunity. The author also discusses the impact that laws and court decisions to the people’s access to education and citizenship rights. The chapter also includes information relating to Scientific School Management. The scientific, educational management aims at ensuring that administrators have greater control of the schools (Boyd, Crowson & Mawhinney, 2015). This helps in reducing public involvement in the management of education and doing away with governing role in the management of education.
Chapter Eleven
In this chapter, the author discusses the growth and development of the school as a social agency. The author also explores the importance of school about making positive changes to adults and members of the community. This chapter also contains the information relating to a political tussle between teachers and administrators. By explaining the importance of the media, school, and culture, the author maintains that ideas, philosophies, and attitude may be quickly captivated upon huge populations (Spring, 2011).
 
Chapter Twelve
The main focus of the author in this chapter is presenting the purposes and reasons for the expansion of public education, including the high schools. The author also has defined and offer discussion about the social efficiency and human capital (Spring, 2011). The author also explores the impact of vocational education and differentiated curriculums. The author also discusses how culture, media, and schools play a key role in manipulating the minds of children.
Chapter Thirteen
The main focus of the author in this chapter relate to defining and discussing the idea of meritocracy. The author addresses the increasing influence of the scientific method in standardization and structure of schools. The author also looks at the contribution of educational trust and an American university in influence institutional guidelines (Spring, 2011). The author maintains that there is need to introduce bilingual education so as to facilitate learning by taking care of all groups of people in the country. Additionally, the author talks about civil rights movement resulting from school desegregation where people from the specific ethnic group are discriminated.
Chapter Fourteen 
In this chapter, the author focuses on highlighting the depression’s effect on schooling about increasing role of the government in the management of education and teacher unionization. The author also explains the benefits of globalization, which relates to global migration, civil rights, and multicultural education. To explain bilingual education, the author explains that national minorities have the right to conduct schools about their cultural traditions (Spring, 2011).
 
Chapter Fifteen
The main focus of the author in this chapter is presenting a discussion on the modern history of American schools, particular under the Obama administration. The author explains the importance of accountability and standardized testing. The author also explains the importance of career education maintaining that it is the answer to student delinquency, rebellion, and unemployment (Spring, 2011). The author concludes by stating that, the American school during Obama administration was dedicated to realizing the economic goal of equipping workers with knowledge and skills suitable for the global economy.
 
References
Boyd, W. L., Crowson, R. L., & Mawhinney, H. M. (2015). The politics of education and the new institutionalism: Reinventing the American school. Routledge.
Spring, J. H. (2011). The American school: A global context from the Puritans to the Obama era. McGraw-Hill.