There are a number of factors to be taken into consideration in sustainable development: the reduction in space, conservation of heritage and the increase in the population among others. As such, one of the measures that can be used to ensure that old buildings can withstand the effects of time is renovation and refurbishment. Buildings tend to wear out over time and as such, may call for strategies on how to renovate them for sustainability. However, the refurbishment and renovation of buildings are highly pronounced in those buildings which serve as a symbol of national significance. The main objectives of adaptation are standards compliance, environmental enhancement, modifications on the spatial realm and the fabric and structure upgrading (The Constructor, n.d.).
Therefore, building adaptation refers to the intervention that is done in building structures as an adjustment to any of the maintenance works. The adaptation procedure is therefore meant to bring about changes in the overall functioning, the capacity and the overall building performance (Douglas, 2006). Therefore, it is much more intense than just maintenance with other terms used including refurbishment and restoration. Nevertheless, the adaptation of a building may be due to various factors such as reconstruction, retrofitting, conservation, remodeling, and restoration among others. As such, it is dependent on the intended usage and the current nature of the building.
There are three specific scales of building adaptation that may be applied: the small scale, medium scale and large scale adaptations (The Constructor, n.d.). To begin with, the small-scale adaptation is done in order to improve the minor areas of the building. Basically, this is done by upgrading and extending the minor structures such as the floors, roof, among others. Therefore, it is done in order to improve the general appearance of the building structure. On the other hand, the medium scale adaptation is done in order to change a major aspect of the building structure. It brings about substantial changes to the whole building layout. As such, it is focused on the conversion of the different structural elements and the surfaces. Moreover, medium scale adaptation can be done in different sectors bringing about change in usage as well as the structural outlook. May include a change in an office building to a flat, use of cladding for improved thermal properties among others. Finally, large-scale adaptation is done in order to bring out changes in the overall building outlook and usage. It involves large-scale remodeling and reconstruction and may be done to the very old buildings. These may include structural changes, façade retention and spatial alterations (Douglas, 2006).
The adaption of a building is based on five criteria which are the convertibility, the ease of being dismantled, the expandability, the flexibility and the disaggregability (The Constructor, n.d.).The ability to be converted depends on the economies, legality and the technical ability; ability to be dismantled depends on the safety and the efficiency; disaggregability depends on the ability of the dismantled materials to be reused; expandability focuses on the volume and space addition\ while the flexible nature enables the building to be reconfigured into the desired layout and structure.
Adaptation of Historic buildings
The United Kingdom has designed a framework that will be used to ensure that the symbols of national inheritance are protected over the years. As such, the heritage aspect plays a fundamental role in the adaptation measures and steps taken as outlined in the UK national planning policies (MacCullagh, 2013). Some of these elements of national significance include monuments, buildings of historic nurture, sites and places and other landscapes that may have national significance. Therefore, these are elements that give the state an identity and the conservation and adaptation measures are usually undertaken in order to prolong the life at the same time keeping the original function into consideration.
Adaptation of a historic building is usually dome as per the laws and regulations. To begin with, any demolition, alteration, and extension of the building will be outlined by the listed building consent (LBC). However, this is if the works to be done affect the general structure and character of the building whereby the local planning authority may be specific on the aspects to be conserved. The authority may specify the environment, the architectural plans, the setting among others. Moreover, if the building is in an area considered for conservation, it is important that the works that are carried out consider the conservation area. Thirdly, the adaptation measures will require an outline of the planning methodology to be used and this is clearly stated in the National Planning Policy Framework. Furthermore, the measures undertaken should ensure that the adaptation reserves their original use and purpose for use by future generations as outlined in the goals of sustainable development. In this, there are 12 principles that are used to outline the conservation measures to be undertaken (MacCullagh, 2013).
The framework used in the adaptation of one building should not be used in another building. The buildings have different significances in the heritage of the UK and more to this, they are sensitive to changes on different scales. The changes applied to one building may not work in another building thereby requiring the framework used to be more open, rather than prescriptive (MacCullagh, 2013). Any developer wishing to bring about adaptation will, therefore, have to understand the building structure and its national significance prior to the changes. A review of the building structure provides insight on what can change as well as what should be conserved.
Understanding the building layout and its significance is outlined in the national planning policy framework with the level of detail provided on an application corresponding to the level of significance of the asset and the overall effect on the setting. Analysis of the building structure is, therefore, not an easy task and requires extensive historical analysis and review. Furthermore, the developer may opt to dissect the building structure in order to determine the blueprint and its significance. However, this is only done for buildings which have been listed (MacCullagh, 2013).
Refurbishment of Broadwood manor
As with any refurbishment option in the United Kingdom, there are a number of factors to consider. All this emanates from the fact that there is no clean state as to where the property developer can start. The customer is the ultimate decision maker when it comes to the sustainable design and refurbishment since this encompasses his/her safety and desire. The space available during refurbishment is limited as compared to the design of the new building and more so, the economies of scale may be limited by the amount and types of materials to purchase and implement in the already existing building. However, all this is an observation currently being witnessed in the United Kingdom due to the shortage of people well equipped with the knowledge of refurbishment.
Nevertheless, the design has to consider some of the evident requirements of refurbishment. To begin with,the space may be limited by the already available design. The current building occupies some portion of land space well within the current materials requirement. As such, the space nor the materials may not be suitable during refurbishment. Moreover, the design and adoption has to consider some of the requirements of the existing National planning and policy framework. Conservation and reconstruction of the existing space is significant in the framework which may require some adjustments to any design to be implemented. Secondly, the building, considering the current and previous use, was based on some energy efficient measures and materials. The adoption technique used has to consider the desired energy efficient measures and the material requirement. The building may be rated according to the various green building rating systems and as such, it is important to ensure that the materials are in line with the requirements and the criteria (Fowler, 2007).
Regardless of the shortcomings, refurbishment of the building may be a more sustainable approach as compared to the construction of a new one. The city of London is a major example why refurbishment may provide more desirable results because of the humongous number of old buildings. Vintage buildings may present an ideal location for refurbishment but all this has to be in sync as to why there is need to adapt building in comparison to developing a new one from the ground. Some of the advantages of adaptation include the speed as well as the cost. In this, there is faster planning and design considerations because of the initial design plans which reduces the labor as well as the work. Moreover, there are materials already available whereby adaptation may require only some additional factors.
However, there are three important considerations during the implementation stage: environmental factors, social factors and the economic factors. These are factors of sustainable development that will need a proper framework in order to achieve t. To begin with, the economic factor ensures that the building is in line with the long term goals of the adaptation which means that building will have to last longer with very minimal operating costs. Secondly, the social factor will need to address the issue of occupant safety and health while finally, the environmental aspect will need to address energy efficiency and carbon emission.
Broadwood manor is a property whose refurbishment will have to be in line with the NPPF requirements because of its significance in the area. The apartments building is located in Horseheads and more to this, located near various amenities such as shopping centers and highways. Some of the features of the apartments include the serene and spacious layouts, the large parking areas, and the heat efficiency among others.
As with the national significance of the building, it was once owned by King Henry the 8th.Conveyance of the manor was done by the Astons who owned the building till the year 1543 (Urban, 1811).All this is according to the information given by Mr. Broadwood.Nevertheless, the manor was conveyed later on to the new gates and later on to Mr.Burgon in 1636 (Urban, 1811). Ownership of the building later on went to the Duke of Norfolk which just indicates the significance of the building to the national heritage of the United Kingdom.