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Business Communication
Communication refers to the dissemination of information from one source or person to another. Communication plays the vital role in both business and non-business interactions. It is that integral part without which there can be no understanding, and so operations and relationships would most definitely be seriously jeopardized.
Management communication aids in operations in the business world, creating and maintaining a cohesive workforce and building working and workable relationships that most definitely catapult any business to greater heights.
Effective communication norms
A norm referred to the standards of behavior set and enforced within a group. Norms in business communication are therefore those standards set by management and thereby enforced in so far as the flow of information a business setting is concerned. These norms are how one talks, the way of expression, and the distance between persons and how these affects communication. Since these interactions are on a business level, it is considered that such is formal. It is therefore of paramount importance that one conducts themselves in a manner that is `official` and not that they use in casual relations (Kaul, 2014). For example, while talking to clients or customers, politeness and courtesy are expected with levels of diplomacy. Full disclosure should be exercised carefully so that remarks that may hurt the reputation of the company are distantly avoided. Only situational information is important. As much as they are in place to aid information flow, they should be those that do not cause discomfort to the employees that use them.
Role of interpersonal communication
Interpersonal communication refers to the face-face exchange of information between persons. It is used and so important to both managers and other employees. While looking at the importance this type of communication plays, it is important to understand some few concepts about it. First, communication is inescapable. This, in essence, means we can`t communicate. In fact trying not to communicate is in itself communicating. Second is that communication is irreversible. Once a word has been spoken, it can`t be reversed. However much one may say apologies are made or statements issued in retracting inflammatory remarks or words earlier made, the damage and effects can`t be undone. As such, one will have through this created for themselves a categorization in the minds and view of recipients of such information (Bovee, Thill, Raina, 2016).
Managers by their positions command authority. This authority keeps things spinning as expected and desired. It is expected that they receive respect from their subordinates. This respect can be earned, maintained or degenerated through communications. Conducting oneself in so far as communication is concerned in a manner that makes them seen or considered to have mastery of language, the body languages used and the proper choice of words will make managers issue directions and directives that would be followed to the latter.
Employees have as well an obligation in conducting themselves right both before their superiors, customers, and clients. Communicating in harsh tones will mean someone is devoid of patience, respect and courtesy. This is as well extended in the interactions and co-ordinations among employees themselves. Getting instructions and sending feedback from employees depends on how one is used to communicating. Having proper information flourishes relationships and so aiding work (Bovee, Thill, Raina, 2016).
Overcoming barriers to communication
Communication barriers are the `noise` that may distort the effective flow of information between and among individuals.  These barriers are diverse and eliminating or overcoming them is of profound importance in having an effective communication. These methods are;

  1. Using simple language: Communication is only achieved if the sender and recipient can perform their decoding and encoding duties well. Using difficult words that may sound unfamiliar to the recipient or otherwise cause a delay in understanding hampers communication and so should be avoided or if not, used with moderation. In contrast, using simple language drives home the point easily and faster.
  2. Proper timing: Timing is essential in communication. Effective communication is compromised if one sends information to someone who is in the middle of something. For example, trying to or speaking to someone while they are giving a speech or engaging someone else not only disrupts their concentration but also sends an impression of discourtesy (Bovee, Thill, Raina, 2016).
  3. Avoiding noise: Noise disrupts the proper flow of information as such should be avoided. I prefer making a call when my music system is off as opposed to having it on even in low volumes. Also, calling someone aside and converse with them is effective as contrasted to shouting at them while in a group.
  4. Target person: It is no point engaging the whole world when the information is only intended for one person. The `world` may jump in with reactions that may either slow down the process or kill its flow.
  5. Active listening. Listening as opposed to hearing is desirable in communication. Moreover, listening while one is talking or responding effects proper communication. There is need to properly exchange the roles of talking or speaking and listening.
  6. Information overload: Bombarding people with volumes of information causes friction in communication. I in the process issue information in bits so that it is acted upon effectively.
  7. Emotional states: Emotions of both anger and happiness may not be good in communication, especially the former. I usually communicate especially on very important issues when am in normal and friendly moods.

Role of interpersonal and intercultural communication in global business
Proper communication is not only important in local business but also plays an indispensable role in aiding global business. In global business, people of diverse backgrounds, character, and culture are brought together with the specific role of closing deals. People of different cultures communicate differently even if and when they are communicating in a common language. Understanding these differences give one an upper hand and competitive edge in business. Intercultural communication helps in negotiating for contracts. As business competition gets tighter and stiffer, going overseas for markets may be inevitable. Proper communication in this puts a firm or individual in the proper position (Liu, Volcic, Gallois, 2014).
Some skills and expertise are better imported. It is not uncommon seeing expatriates working in different countries for companies. Intercultural communication helps here in interacting with them and so proper working that will put performance and productivity on an upward trajectory. This can only be possible if both the expatriates and hosts understand this.
International business involves operating in policies of regions, countries and companies that are different from one is used to. The success of business in such case is dependent in part to the degree of understanding that players have in respect of intercultural differences. Brushing shoulders with the country administration as a result of missing points here and there will not sound good for the certainty and future of business. Proper interpersonal communication will have the firm reading the same script as the policy and lawmakers, and this will go lengths in strengthening ties and so business operations (Liu, Volcic, Gallois, 2014).
Local markets may be saturated with products from companies of that particular industry, but the desire and quest to grow an additional financial muscle is unending to any business that operates as a going concern and has focused on maximizing wealth. As such, it would be prompted to venture into international markets. This means dealing with foreign competition, partners, clients, and customers. Exchange of skill, capital, technology, and financing is good but is only achieved when there is the proper understanding of cultures and so effective communication in respect of the same (Liu, Volcic, Gallois, 2014).
In intercultural communication, one can learn different personalities and approaches to business and life in general. This diversity can be adopted in firms by management officially or by employees in their private capacities. Combining it with what one already has produces people with a powerful blend of attributes that will spiral upwards operations as far as business and concerned. This will put the firm in question in a class of its own as far as success in vital dimensions is concerned (DeVito, 2015)
Verbal and non-verbal management communication
Verbal communication is sharing of information using speech. Management uses this form of communication in communicating decisions to subordinates as well as coordinating activities between and among different organization function departments. To achieve the desired effect, one in using verbal communication needs to observe tonal variations, pitch, and volume. Each aspect is used in different situations for intended meaning. Also, apart from these variations, one has to consider the choice of words they use. It is used in meetings, group discussions, disciplinary sessions, consultative engagements and sales pitches.
Non-verbal communication is the use of the body movements or language in delivering or receiving information. It is used together with verbal communication for effective communication. In communicating, management can use facial expressions, eye contact, the distance between communicating parties, gestures and `walk around` among themselves or when they are engaging employees. The use of these features is done with care and special considerations so that one does not send a wrong impression. For example, maintaining the reasonable distance between male and female colleagues shows respect and that the engagement is official. Walking up and down while talking shows unrest and seriousness of an issue at hand that may be contentious as well. Maintaining eye contact shows attention.
Approaches in engaging audience during presentation
A presentation is a form of information delivery that may cause fright and so jeopardize reception. As such, one needs to make considerations to achieve maximum effect.
Preparation: One needs to, first of all, have adequate preparation in the area or topic that they intend to present on. This way, one would avoid surprises from the audience that may make them look and appear empty and devoid of ideas. One has to work on his anxiety and proper dressing.
Audience analysis: Understanding the audience beforehand in so far as choice of language and depth of prior topic research is concerned (Bovee, Thill, Raina, 2016).
Interactive presentation: One would communicate well if they engaged their audience through interjecting with questions in between presentation. Additionally, the presenter can have the audience participate in quick brief discussions.
Language: A soft, simple language would keep the audience on the same script. People would not want difficult languages as it takes time to understand and may make them appear short of this comprehension ability (Bovee, Thill, Raina, 2016).
Gestures and illustrations:  A plain flat presentation is boring and so may most likely make the audience`s attention drift through the window and on to some other personal issues not related to the sitting. Using gestures, illustrations and visuals such as charts and graphs may make understanding easy and attention controlled. Also, use of vivid and real-life examples keeps the audience attentive during most of the presentation.
Movement: The speaker should command the stage. They should make use of it through movement. This will make the audience` follow` them literally and in as far as what they are saying goes. Moreover, it tells the audience the speaker has mastery of the topic being presented and so driving out the notion that they are being lied to and so not receiving value for the time and presence. The speaker can also climb down the stage and do in penetrative movement among the audience. One in part out of fear will be attentive as they are unsure where next the speaker is going to be at. This works well where the speaker uses questions and discussions (Bovee, Thill, Raina, 2016).
Effective methods of conflict resolution
A conflict is that situation where people have disagreements, collisions or having the contradictory opinion in a wider scope. Collisions are undesirable in any given situation and so avoiding them would be prudent. However, diversity of backgrounds and growing knowledge as well as different personalities make collisions somewhat inevitable. The methods are;
Mediation: In mediation, someone voluntarily offers themselves to resolve the conflict. The mediator in this informal method doesn’t compel parties to a decision and does not impose it upon them as well. Rather, they engage them in an open discussion and communication so that a consensus is reached (Fisher, 2016).
Arbitration: Arbitration is in some part like mediation only that it is formal and the impartial non-partisan arbitrator makes a decision based on evidence and submissions form the parties. There is an imposition of a legal obligation on the parties that are strictly adhered to avoid the same in future
Authority: By using authority or dominance, one can bring an end to a conflict. The authoritative figure should, of course, analyze the case and decides from a common ground, free from prejudice and preconceived mindset. In this case, disciplinary action may ensue, so that future recurrence is averted (Fisher, 2016).
Collaboration or negotiation: The parties to the conflict may agree on the agreement, as decided by a unifying party in most cases, to meet halfway. Some part of their submission is dropped to accommodate the other party`s part in this case.
Techniques for leading teams and groups meetings
Communicate the objective:  Teams are formed to perform a specific activity and or achieve a certain objective. This is effectively achieved if the idea or issue is well communicated to them.
Small groups: There is ease of coordination and communication in cases where teams and groups comprise a reasonably small number of participants. Communication is easy and effective.
Equal chance: All group members should be given equal chance to contribute ideas as they are working as one. No single person should dominate. Encouragement and distribution of chance are vital here. Also, let each member`s ideas as contributed count (Austin, E, Pinkleton, 2015)
Proper assignment: In assigning tasks for individuals, align people on those they are good at.
Productivity: As much as you may be working within time constraints, productivity and performance are what your focus should be on.
Trust and goals: Set realistic goals, trust the members and let them know it.
In conclusion, management communication plays a vital role in so far as business operations are concerned as well as maintaining a frictionless working relationship among employees and other players.
Austin, E. W., &Pinkleton, B. E. (2015). Strategic public relations management: Planning and managing effective communication campaigns (Vol. 10). Routledge.
Bovee, C. L., Thill, J. V., &Raina, R. L. (2016). Business communication today.Pearson Education India.
DeVito, J. A. (2015). The interpersonal communication book. Pearson.
Fisher, R. J. (2016). Third party consultation: A method for the study and resolution of conflict. In Ronald J. Fisher: A North American Pioneer in Interactive Conflict Resolution (pp. 37-71). Springer International Publishing.
Kaul, A. (2014). Effective business communication. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..
Liu, S., Volcic, Z., &Gallois, C. (2014). Introducing intercultural communication: Global cultures and contexts.Sage.