Name of Centre:

City and Islington College
Centre for Applied Sciences
 
 

Learner achievement (please circle) NB: All learner achievement is provisional until confirmed at the AVA Awards Board
Level Achieved:   L3
Final Grade Achieved 
(Level 3 units only)

P

M

D

Resubmission? Y N

Title of Access to HE Diploma:       Access to Forensic Science
Unit title(s):  Cells Unit code(s):  CBA799
Learner:   

Tutor/Assessor:  Paula Messam

Description of Assignment: 
This unit is assessed through a mixture of long answers, and practicals.
AC 1.1 (task 1) Involves labelling electron micrographs of cell organelles.
AC 2.1 (task 2) involves microscope practical, drawing and labeling cell plasma membranes.  This practical includes examination questions, it is closed book and timed.
AC 2.2 (task 3) involves written descriptions to explain the difference between osmosis, diffusion, active transport and bulk transport.
AC 3.1 (task 4) involves use of microscopes to draw and label meiosis and mitosis and written descriptions to explain the difference between meiosis and mitosis and when each occurs.
AC 4.1 and 4.2 (task 5) involves labelling diagrams of organs and explaining the functions of tissues
Date set:  21 September 2016
 
Date for draft submission
(if applicable): 
Date for final submission:  23rd November 2016
 
Extension date
(if agreed): 
Signed by Tutor/Assessor to agree extension: Date
submitted:
Learner declaration: Tick the boxes below
€        The explanations and evaluations in this work have been developed and written by me.
€        I have not submitted material copied from the Internet, text books or other sources in place of my own thinking and writing.
€        When I have referred to the work of others I have done so to discuss, comment on or argue their ideas.
€        I have kept quotation and paraphrasing to an absolute minimum and only to support points I have made.
€        I understand that referencing the names of authors whose ideas I have used without including my own interpretation of those ideas, does not meet the assessment criteria and cannot attract the Pass, Merit or Distinction grades.
€        I have not copied the work of my peers.
€        A copy of this work (minus hand drawn images) is on Turnitin.
Learner comments: (please use this space to comment on any aspect of the assessment when submitting your work)
Signature: Date: 

TO THE LEARNER: Please attach this assignment brief to any written work you are handing in for assessment, or submit the brief as instructed. 
YOUR WORK CANNOT BE ASSESSED UNLESS YOU HAVE SIGNED AND SUBMITTED THIS FORM


Level 3
Unit title:  Cells  
This assignment addresses the following Assessment Criteria from the unit:  
AC no Level Three
1 Understand the basic structure and function of the cell 1.1 Explain the structure and function of the main cellular components.
2 Understand how substances are transported across a cell membrane 2.1 Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane.
2.2 Explain the difference between osmosis, diffusion, active transport and bulk transport.
3 Understand the process of cell division 3.1 Explain the difference between meiosis and mitosis and explain when each occurs.
4 Understand the nature of multi-cellular organisms. 4.1 Explain the need for cellular specialisation in a multi-cellular organism.
4.2 Describe major tissue types and their functions.
   
Level 3 units only:
Learners achieve a Pass if they meet all Level 3 Assessment Criteria for a unit.  You will achieve a Merit or Distinction by meeting the following Grade Descriptors.  Your tutor will give you feedback for all grades.
 
Grade Descriptor Merit
(Choose one or more relevant grade components)
Distinction
(Choose one or more relevant grade components)
 
GD 1
Understanding of the subject
demonstrates a very good grasp of the relevant knowledge base demonstrates an excellent grasp of the relevant knowledge base  
Grade Descriptor Merit
(Choose one or more relevant grade components)
Distinction
(Choose one or more relevant grade components)
 
GD7: Quality taken as a whole, demonstrates a very good response to the demands of the brief/assignment taken as a whole, demonstrates an excellent response to the demands of the brief/assignment  
Grade Guidance: Learners must carefully read the guidance below which is linked to the components above  
MERIT: To achieve a Merit
There will be an appropriate use of grammar, the majority of answers will use of full sentences.
Some citation in-text is present, it will be followed up with Harvard style referencing.   Answers are mostly structured logically, coherently, formally and impersonally (no use of I, we, you, he, she).  Few hyperlinks or websites will be included in any answers.  The word count will be frequently adhered to.
Work should be mostly provided in the correct order, clearly identified by Task number. [Quality]
 
Answers should include detailed coverage of all the key components of the tasks
Answers should demonstrate good judgement in the selection and use of reading materials for most tasks; they should be relevant and show detailed understanding of the form and functions of organelles, differences between transport energy requirements and transport methods, the difference between meiosis and mitosis and benefit of cell/tissue specialisation.   [Understanding of the Subject]
 
The laboratory drawing should demonstrate very good judgement in your selection of observational evidence, with a clear drawing that contains some detail.
Your work will demonstrate that you can interpret the electron micrograph images and can prioritise and illustrate the organelles form.  Your answers on movement across a cell membrane will show some use of the provided context and some solute examples.  The cell specialization answer should have examples gained from the laboratory practical sessions.  [Application of knowledge]
 
 
DISTINCTION: To achieve a Distinction
 
There will be an appropriate use of grammar throughout, with the use of full sentences.
Citation in-text will be followed up with Harvard style referencing, with published books, journals and some websites.  No quotes should be used; all answers should be original to the student.
Answers are structured logically, coherently, formally and impersonally (no use of I, we, you, he, she).  No hyperlinks or websites will be included in any answers.  The word count will be strictly adhered to.
Work should be provided in the correct order, clearly identified by Task number.  [Quality]
 
Answers should include comprehensive coverage of all the key components of the tasks
Answers should demonstrate excellent judgement in the selection and use of reading materials for most tasks; they should be current, relevant and show comprehensive understanding of the form and functions of organelles, differences between transport energy requirements and transport methods, the difference between meiosis and mitosis and benefit of cell/tissue specialisation.  [Understanding of the Subject]
 
Your work will demonstrate that you have a high level interpretation of the electron micrograph images and can correctly prioritise and illustrate the organelles form (focusing on relevant function related features).  Your answers on movement across a cell membrane will address the provided context and will be supported with solute examples.  The cell specialization answer should have appropriate examples gained from the laboratory practical sessions, these images should support the answer.
Specific named examples (of substances, organs/tissues) should be provided to apply theory. The laboratory drawing should demonstrate excellent judgement in your selection of observational evidence, with a clear, comprehensively detailed drawing.  [Application of knowledge]
 
 
   
Part A: Feedback on credit level  
AC no Credit achieved (L3) Location of evidence Tutor/Assessor comments on assessment criteria
(you could also indicate on the work itself
where each AC is met)
 
1.1    
Task 1
 
               Where the AC have been met is noted on the work  
2.1   Task 2
 
 
2.2   Task 3
 
 
3.1   Task 4
 
 
4.1   Task 5  
4.2   Task 5  
Level achieved   Tutor/Assessor’s signature:   Date:    

 

 
Resubmission (if applicable) If any of the assessment criteria for this assignment have not been met at Level 3, a resubmission may be permitted.  Resubmission must follow the QAA guidelines and be permitted only once.
Requirements for resubmission/new Task set:
 

Date Set:

 

Date due:

 

Date Submitted:

 
Feedback on resubmission:
 
Level achieved
after resubmission:
  Tutor/Assessor’s signature:  

Date:

 
Part B: Feedback on grading (Applicable only if all assessment criteria achieved at Level 3)
Grade Descriptor Tutor/Assessor comments against grade descriptors Grade indicator
(P/M/D)
 
GD 1
Understanding of the subject
   
GD7: Quality    
Tutor/Assessor’s reason for final grade decision (if applicable):
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
Task 1,
AC1.1 Explain the structure and function of the main cellular components.
 
The below electron micrograph images are of organelles in eukaryotic cells.  Show your understanding of what these images communicate by hand drawing the depicted organelles.

 
 
 
Label the organelle/s
 
 
Your hand drawing of the above image. Clearly label the organelle structure.
 
 
 
What is the function of the organelle? Maximum of 50 words.
Their main function is to produce the energy to be used during the process of respiration (Its main function is the production of the adenosine triphosphate). The Golgi body is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Additionally, eluded to as the Golgi contraption or the Golgi complex, it’s a piece of the cell’s end membrane framework. The Golgi body has various capacities, including sorting and preparing proteins. Proteins are orchestrated in the unpleasant endoplasmic reticulum, and then they go to the Golgi body. While in the Golgi body, they are prepared and sent all through the cell.
 
 
 
For each of this cellular organelle’s components, explain how they help the cell to carry out its function. Inner membrane is a shell- It controls the transfer of metabolites out of the cell this is permeable for oxygen only.
Matrix contains components of enzymes and proteins
Outer membrane -it allows free movement of ions into and out of the cell.
Cristae-This aids in the production of ATP
Mitochondria contain two functionally different membrane systems divided by a space; the outer membrane, which covers the whole organelle; and the inner membrane, which is immersed into the folds that penetrate inwards. These inward folds are referred to as the cristae.
Mitochondria play an important role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cells; this process comprises of the  number of composite pathways

 
 

 
 
 
Label the organelle/s
 
 
Your hand drawing of the above image. Clearly label the organelle structure.
 
 
 
What is the function of the organelle?
Maximum of 50 words.
Its main function is to produce the proteins.
The ribosome is a wide complex comprises of several molecules, including RNAs and proteins, and is also concern for processing the genetic instructions undertaken by an mRNA.
Ribosomes float easily in the cytoplasm or at times bind to another organelle referred to as the endoplasmic reticulum. A ribosome is a cell organelle. It works as a smaller scale machine for making proteins. Ribosomes are made out of uncommon proteins and nucleic acids. The translation of data and the linking of amino acids are at the heart of the protein creation process.
For each of this cellular organelle’s components, explain how they help the cell to carry out its function. Ribosomal RNA contains rRNA which comprises of some specific elements of the methyl group
Ribosomal proteins-constitutes of the protein contain which are used in various functions of the cells
Ribosomal enzymatic protein acts as the catalyst in the synthesis of the protein.
Proteins are important for the cells to undertake the cellular functions. Ribosomes are the cellular component that creates proteins from all the amino acids. Ribosomes are created from complexes of proteins and RNAs. The number of ribosomes in a cell relies on the activity of the cell. Ribosomes are freely hanged in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum creating the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

 
 
 

 
 
 
Label the organelle/s
 
 
 
Your hand drawing of the above image. Clearly label the organelle structure.
 
 
 
What is the function of the organelle?
Maximum of 50 words.
It contains numerous salts which are good conductors of electricity. It also contains the dissolved nutrients which help to dissolve the waste products.
It also maintains the shape of the cell and assists in the transportation of the nutrients across the cell. The essential capacity of cytoplasm is to hold the cell’s different organelles set up. Made out of a thick fluid known as cytosol, the cytoplasm fills the inside of the cell. As indicated by Hartnell College, cytoplasm is a typical element of all cells paying little respect to the sort of living being the cells originate from. The cytoplasm is contained inside the limits of the plasma layer or cell divider.
 
For each of this cellular organelle’s components, explain how they help the cell to carry out its function. Cytoplasm-It is a mixture of ions water, soluble protein and cytoskeleton which assist the cytoplasm in performing its work
Cytosol
Cytosol is among the elements one in the cytoplasm. It is the liquid that co-exists outside the organelles, and contains up about 70% of the relative cell volume. Cytosol is a mixture of water, soluble proteins salt, cytoskeleton, vaults and protein filaments, among other organic molecules.
Inclusions
Apart from the organelles and the cytosol which they’re hanged in, the cytoplasm also comprised of the cytoplasmic inclusions. They are non-living elements that don’t have membranes and metabolic roles, which exist inside the cytosol. The most rampant inclusions are lipid droplets, pigments crystals, and glycogen.

 
 

Guidance
 
The purpose of your drawing is to show you can identify organelles from each other and can identify important physical features of the organelle.  To evidence this include labels on your drawings and only label organelles you are certain of.
Use colour and a sharp pencil in your drawings to make them clear.
When you discuss the function of the organelle and organelle components, include the structural labels you used.

 
Task 2
AC 2.1 Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane
 
 
Laboratory worksheet
 
 
Aims & Objectives
By the end of this session you should be able to

  • Use a light microscope
  • Make a wet mount
  • View plant cells under a microscope

 
 
Apparatus
Light microscope, onion piece, slides & cover slips, iodine solution, dropper, filter paper, mounted needle, forceps, scissors.
 
 
Eukaryotic Cells
 
Method
 

  1. Peel off a piece of epidermal tissue from the inner, concave surface of a piece of onion.

 

  1. Transfer the epithelial tissue to the slide, make sure it is not folded.

 

  1. Place a drop of iodine solution onto the slide.

 

  1. Use the mounted needle to lower the cover slip onto the preparation.

 

  1. Use filter paper to blot up the excess liquid, press the cover slip down gently (tap to remove air bubbles if they are present).

 

  1. Place the slide onto the stage of the microscope and use the low power lens to locate the specimen.

 

  1. Use a high power lens to locate and minimum of three cells in the field of view.

 

  1. Complete the following activity.

 
 
 
Q1       Use a light microscope to observe, draw and label a eukaryotic cell (plant), ensure you indicate where exactly plasma membranes are located.
Drawings should be in pencil, no shading is permitted, label outside of the circle.
 
Student Name ……………………………………………………
Group A   B   C   D (Circle please)
 
Title………………………………………………………………………………………
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Magnification…………………
 
 
 
 
 
Q2       Using the image below, describe the structure of the cell plasma membrane. Ensure you identify and use A-E in your answer, 50 words maximum.
 
Q3       Refering to the image below, explain how the individual components mentioned above, contribute to the numerous functions of this membrane be?  Use  A-E in your answer, 200 words maximum.
 
 
 
 
 
Q4       Draw arrows on the picture above to show where each of the following substances pass through.

  • Steroids,
  • Vitamin A or D,
  • Large Proteins,
  • Water,

 
 
Q5       Explain the process by which each of the above substances pass through (making reference to the different components of the cell membrane which are involved)
 
 
 
 
 
Task 3
AC 2.2 Explain the difference between osmosis, diffusion, active transport and bulk transport.
 
Q1       Explain the energy requirements for the following transport processes.  Total word count is 100 words maximum for each transport process.  Give examples to illustrate your answers.

  1. Diffusion: Diffusion is the weak movement of a substance (molecules, atoms, ions) from a region of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until it balances.

 

  1. Passive transport: Passive transport involves the movements of the biochemical substances and the molecular substances bio energy requirement. It does not require any cellular energy because it has a capability of growing in entophytes rate of this relies on the permeability of the cell membranes. This also can be affected by the organization of the lipids and the proteins

 

  1. Osmosis: This is the process by which the molecules pass through the semi-permeable membrane moving from a lesser concentration to a higher concentration region, therefore, balancing the level on all the sites of the membranes. Osmosis is a specific instance of diffusion that includes the detached transport of water. In osmosis water travels through a specifically penetrable layer from a district of its higher focus to a locale of its lower fixation. The membrane specifically permits section of specific sorts of atoms while limiting the development of others (Albersheim, 2012 342).

 

  1. Active Transport: Active Transport is the energy requiring the transfer of the substance through the cell membrane against the concentration gradient of the cell, i.e. starting from the lower frequency to the higher concentration level.

 

  1. Bulk Transport: Bulk Transport is the massive particles, or the large mass of smaller substances is move along the cell membranes. Notwithstanding moving little particles and atoms through the layer, cells additionally need to expel and take in bigger atoms and particles. A few cells are even equipped for overwhelming whole unicellular microorganisms

 
Energy requirement during the diffusion
The simple molecules were coming and going through the cell membrane. This way constitutes of glucose and the amino acid. It is weak and thus needs no energy from the cell
When the molecules are changed on entering the cell membrane, the concentration gradient of the glucose will maintain high, and there will be the balance of one-way traffic. Osmosis uses the weak(passive) form of energy.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Q2       Water and oxygen can move across the membrane of the alveoli in the lungs.  How would their paths into the alveoli differ? Total word count is 150 words maximum.
(You can include labelled hand drawn diagrams to support your answer)
 
Oxygen will diffuse from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries surrounding it. Once there is an exhalation, the lungs deflate partially. The inhaled air will mix with the extra air creating a low-pressure region in the alveoli. Once in the lungs, oxygen will diffuse from the alveoli into the capillaries around the alveoli. Oxygens bind the haemoglobin present in red blood cells. The blood cells transport the oxygen where it separates the haemoglobin and diffuses into the tissues. Both carbon dioxide and oxygen move from areas of high concentration to those of low-density through diffusion. Oxygen will diffuse from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries surrounding it. Once there is an exhalation, the lungs deflate partially
 
 
Q3       In the motor neuron substances have to move across the membrane to ensure the correct functioning of the nervous system.  How is the movement of Na+/K+ different from the movement of neurotransmitters across a plasma membrane?   Total word count is 150 words maximum.
(You can include labelled hand drawn diagrams to support your answer)
 
Relationship between the neurotransmitters and sodium and potassium pump
Neurotransmitters play a crucial role in the functioning of the neurons. The underlying message which is conveyed is called the action potential. All the cellular membranes have charges. They are electrically charged due to the ions concentration which is available in the extracellular space. For the case of neurons sodium ions and chlorine ions exist in a significant amount of the extracellular space while intracellular space contains much of the potassium ions and other organic anions. The cell membrane constitutes the ions channels that regulate passing of these different ions between the internal and the visible part of the cell. When the cell is at rest, the intracellular space is more

Task 4,
AC 3.1 Explain the difference between meiosis and mitosis and explain when each occurs.
 
Q1       Use your drawings from microscopes to illustrate how meiosis and mitosis differ.
Explain the labels you have used and what the images are showing.
 
Mitosis takes place in all the eukaryotic cells tissues and gives rise to the similar daughter cells whit a whole set of chromosomes.in human beings mitosis gives out a somatic cell that is diploid
Meiosis takes place only in the testis and the ovary tissues leading to the production of the sperm and ova.
 
 
Q2       Explain the differences between the stages mitosis and meiosis in terms of chromosomal movement and number. It is not enough just to state the stages in each type of division you must be able to identify why and how each type of division is different. You must also comment on when each difference occurs within each type of division.
 

 Mitosis it involves the separation of the sister chromatid. Mitosis only goes through anaphases one it will only get separated when his sister chromatid separate.
Meiosis-During anaphase 1 to parting the homologous chromosome takes place here at the end of this process, it will yield two daughter cells with the similar set of the chromosomes. During the second anaphase, the separation of the sister chromatid happens.
production of ova. When the male reaches adulthood, he starts becoming sexually active due to the production of speech
.

 
 

Guidance
You can scan your hand drawn diagram and insert it if you wish.

 
Q2       Once a healthy biological male has reached adulthood, do his cells continue to divide by mitosis and/or meiosis? If so, when?  Maximum word count 100 words.
 
Meiosis it is precisely accurate in women. While the mitosis yields two daughters from every individual parent cell. Meiosis results in reproductive cells or gametes males and females. Unlike the cell which the results from the mitosis the sex cells are not similar to their parent cells. In men, the meiosis is also called the spermatogenesis simply because there is a production of the sperm cells. In the female, it is referred to as the oogenesis because the process involves
the involves the creation of haploid sex cells through the process of meiosis.
 
 
 

Guidance
 
In your answer, ensure you detail;
What type of tissue is produced by mitosis, what can start this process?
What type of tissue is produced by meiosis, what can start this process?

 
 
 
Task 5,
AC 4.1 Explain the need for cellular specialisation in a multi-cellular organism.
AC 4.2 Describe major tissue types and their functions.
 
Q1       Draw the different tissue types you would expect to see in the duodenum, in the boxes below, title and label the images accordingly.  AC 4.2
 
 

 Common bile duct
 

 
 
The duodenum in context

 Pancreatic duct
 
 Papilla of water
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

 Bile duct
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Criteria 4.1
 
Cell specializations lead the single-celled cell emerged into the multicellular organisms since it is the most efficient form of the organization cellular content in one’s body. Our bodies are the bodies of multicellular each has the different function as some protect the inner cell as others carry the nutrients and the oxygen. Working together is more efficient than working alone. They stay together for protection for sometimes. Over time the external cells evolve skin like the level. Different cells perform the various tasks. The inner cell developed into an organ like structured. Each cell works to achieve a certain task, but they are interrelated.
 
 
Q2       The duodenum is a highly specialist part of the small intestine.  Use the duodenum to identify and explain the functions of the different tissue types (maximum of 150 words).
 
Epithelial Tissue – Covers the whole surface of the one’s body.
The major function of this tissue is the secret filter and to ensure the effectiveness of absorption capacity (van, 2013, pp. 409). This is the tissues which are found mostly on the service of the skin. This fabric protects our bodies against a visible effect.
 
Connective tissue -The mot distributes, and they are numerous. The function of this is to reinforces the protection. It assists to bind our body together, reinforce other tissues and even transports substances.
 
Nerves Tissues-It comprises of the specialized cells which receive that stimulus and conduct the impulse from all parts of the body. They are stronger, and they look like the strings. Nerves tissue is the essential tissue that makes the focal sensory system and the fringe sensory system. Neurons are the essential unit of nerve tissue. They are in charge of detecting jolts and transmitting signs to and from various parts of a creature.
 
 
Q3       Why is it advantageous to a human to have cell specialisation? Use photographs from laboratory practicals to support your answer.  Maximum of 200 words. AC4.1.
 
.
(a) A cell does only one job which is more efficient hence enhancing full energy spend in their purpose. It allows for the corporation of the cells to form multi-cellular organs.
 
(b) They are organized to form tissues organs and system thus enhancing the efficiency. The tissue will help the organism in performing various functions. These tissues depending on their complex nature forms the organ system.
 
(c) It makes the organism to be very specialized and complex. If the cell has only job, it will have used all of its time in performing that job.