River civilization in in Mesopotamia and Egypt had the following differences in terms of economic activities ,most of the economic activities in Egypt took place in farming while in Mesopotamia economic activity took place in trade .Some similarities in religion were both believed in many gods, or polytheism civilization‘s gods were humanoid and both built temples that they worshiped on religion the following differences. Egyptians worshiped their pharaohs as gods while Mesopotamians made figurine to pray for them while they did other things. Pharaoh who is their “god” was buried in the temple while the 7 Mesopotamian gods represented elements.
In farming Mesopotamians used seeder plow for farming. While the Egyptians used farrow irrigation in the farming. Fertility of land in Egypt was very high as it was compared to Mesopotamia. In terms of living most settlements were mostly concentrated in the river valleys which were believed to have higher fertility to support agriculture. Trade was mostly base on agricultural products in both regions. taxation was very high in Egypt as its compared to Mesopotamia .Trade is mostly done by professionals like the merchants as compared to Mesopotamia which mostly was done by ordinary people.
It’s important to note that both societies traded extensively but there was a difference in economic. Mesopotamia was more based on productive technological improvements due to the fact that their environment was more difficult to manage than the Nile valley. The status of women in Egypt was greater as compared to in Mesopotamia. Both social stratification was emphasized with a noble landowning class.
Question 2: Indus river valley and Harappa culture.
The Indus river valley formed the basis of a bronze age civilization which matured in the period around 2600-1900BC .along with the ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia forming one of the three early civilization of the old world and of the three the most widespread .it flourished in the basin of the Indus river, one of the major rivers of Asia at its peak , the Indus civilization is believed to have had a population of around 5 million . Those who dwelled in around the Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft and metallurgy based on copper, bronze , lead , and tin .urban planning ,baking of bricks ,elaborate draining system, water supply systems and clusters of long non- residential building s are among the aspects the Indus cities were known of.
Indus valley civilization was is also known as the Harappa civilization and it was divided into early hardpan and late hardpan in the same area of the hardpan civilization . It’s given the name mature hardpan culture to distinguish it from other cultures. The hardpan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since in the Indus script it’s still un deciphered . Mature phase of the Harappa civilization included both predecessors and successor of culture. The geography the Indus valley put civilization that arise similar situations like rich agricultural lands surrounded by highlands, deserts and ocean. The mature phase of early phase mainly represented centralized authority and an increasingly urban quality of life .Trade network linked these cultures with railed regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials. There were domestically numerous crops. The houses were one or two stories high , made up of baked brick ,with flat roof.Each home had its own drinking well and its own private bathrooms. Men and women dressed in colorful robes. Women wore jewelry of gold and precious stones. clothing was for the most part similar for both men and women beautiful small bronze statue of advancer was found , this means that they usually enjoy dance and had great skill working with metals and music instruments were mostly sarangi, sitar, tabla, timbora and tambora and tanpura
Question 3: ancient china, yam shoa culture and long shoa culture.
The ancient china stands to be one of the oldest and longest lasting civilization s in the history of the world this can be traced back over 4000 years. And located on the eastern part of the continent .china was ruled by powerful dynasties one of them being the Shang and the last was the quing. The longest empire ever is among the things the ancient china boasts of. As there land s were managed by the feudal system where lords owned the lands and peasant farmers worked the land for them. Art, culture and religion were often tied together and Mongols were there greatest enemies who happened to be living on the north. Due to the enmity they had with the Mongols wall had to be built
The yan shoa culture was aneolithic culture that existed extensively along the yellow river in china. The culture is named after yan shoa the first excavated representative village of this culture , which its discovery is dated back in 1921 in heran province. This culture flourished mainly in the province of Henan, Shaanxi and Shanxi. Main food was mainly millet they also kept pigs, dogs, sheep, goats and cattle although much of their meat came from hunting and fishing. Pottery crafting was also practiced and artisans created fine white red and black painted pottery with human facial. Houses were built through digging around rectangular pit few deep .other area which touched the culture included the structure, archaeological sites phases and artifact,
The longshan also known as the black pottery culture being the Neolithic culture in the middle and lower yellow river valley areas of northern china was dated from about 3000 to 1900 BC .This culture is named after the nearby modern town of Longshan .it was noted for its highly polished black pottery this gave it high level of skills in pottery making which were among the most distinctive feature. Most agricultural crops grown were foxtail millet and pigs stood to be most common source of meat .There has been evidences of human sacrifices in Shaanxi which formed the basis of their ritual. Long shoe culture was also categorized into early period and late periods
Question 4: ancient a Gean world.
The Aegean civilization , the stone and Bronze age civilization s aroused and flourished in the areas of the Aegean sea in the period ,respectively about 700-3000 Bc and about 3000-1000Bc. This area consists of Crete, Cyclades and islands. The first high civilization on European soil, with stately palaces, craftsmanship, and writing developed on the island of Crete. It was later adapted by the people of mainland hence this formed one of the most important centers .Bronze age pottery from the Aegean has been found in Egypt in contexts which are datable and am any Egyptian objects have been recovered on the island of Crete.
The early Aegean civilizations were based on : (i) early culture which comprise of Paleolithic or old stone age which can be identified with chipped stone tools made by Paleolithic hunters have been found in many parts of mainland .cultivation of hybrid grains , the domestic action of animals , and organized community tuna hunts which had already began .Neolithic through this stage its evident agriculture was being practiced in some Aegean areas as early as the 7th millennium .Aegean is one of the most favored region of the Mediterranean basin , this has been due to similarity in climate and ecology.
Water ,which is a problem in the present century ,was more abundant in early times when forests were more extensive than they are today. Hence agricultural were eventually established in every part of Greece in which they made pottery by hand and ground stones to shape edged tools , wheat, barley, were among the crops grown, supplementing wild grapes ,pears, nuts, and honey arrowheads of chipped stones were used on the mainland and in the Cyclades, but none is recorded from Crete where bones served to tip arrows.
Question 5: south pacific, ships, trade and government organizations.
South pacific formed in 1971 also known as pacific islands forum is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the pacific ocean. Its mission is to work in support of forum member governments to enhance economic and social well-being of the people of the south pacific through fostering mutual understanding between governments and between international agencies and representation of interests of its member .The trade had several agreements which were meant to establish free- trade areas between 14 of the pacific islands forum countries . It’s also aimed to ensure that tariff is removed on goods by the year 2021.
The trade agreement was meant offer duty –free and unrestricted access for specified products originating from the developing island member countries within the pacific island forum. The SPARTECA scheme enabled companies to utilize excess local areas content.
The organization in such a way that several heads of governments are brought .it has abroad membership encompassing all the 22 pacific island countries and territories. In which their mandate being to expand more than 20 sectors, to be concerned in addressing sustainable economic development, natural resource and environmental management and lastly to ensure there is human and social development .
Chong, L. M. A., & Thomas, D. C. (1997). Leadership perceptions in cross-cultural context: and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(3), 275-293.Chicago
Dikotter, F. (2007). Things Modern. Material Culture and Everyday Life in China. Hurst & Company.
Graf, W. H. (1984). Hydraulics of sediment transport. Water Resources Publication
. Dikotter, F. (2007).
Hawkes, J. (1973). The first great civilizations: Life in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and Egypt. Alfred