Natural law theory can be defined as a philosophy where some of humans moral and stands are inherent by human nature and are universally logical through human reasons. Moderate objectivism follows the natural law theory and can simply be defined as acceptable regulations that should be a general guide but in case of moral dispute may be substituted by another moral principle, which portrays moderation. Lastly Divine command theory, as the name suggests accredits human morals behavior as good only if they are commanded by a higher deity that is God. It can be defined as a theory that proposes that human behavior are only morally acceptable and right if they are commanded by God.
Of the three theories, the theory that stands out as the most problematic and subject to debate on some of its stands is the Divine Command Theory since there are proposed semantics to challenge this theory. Divine Command Theory if the most problematic of the three theories because William Wainwright argues that being morally obligated to do a particular deed and being commanded by God to do a deed, do not have the same meaning. William Wainwright goes on to say that Divine Command theory would make defining human moral obligation difficult. He also sights that since knowledge of God is required to be morally correct, then atheist and pagans could never be moral. The theory has also be challenged on modal grounds by others who claim that even if God’s commands are in sync with human morality in this particular world they may not be so in other worlds. The theory is also disapproved by some since it is impossible to disapprove any moral command that is commanded by God. There is also a flaw in this theory in that all commands are directed by One God who Cannot be relatable on a global scale due to diverse religions i.e. religion pluralism.
Of the three theories, the theory that would be termed as the best is the moderate objectivism. This is because of the simple reason that adheres to the natural law command which is the basis of the law governing humans but also incorporates an alternative moral principle in case of a moral dispute. This theory has moral duties that are to be adhered to and also remain a part of a person’s thought process since it is moral obligation.
What is relativism? What are the various forms of relativism and how do they differ? Explain all the varieties of relativism, and then choose one form to critically evaluate.
In philosophy, Relativism can be defined as the stand that all points of view and opinions are of equal validity and also that all real related facts are relevant to a person i.e. it depends on the consideration and perception of an individual.
The forms of relativism are:
1. Cultural relativism
2. Conceptual relativism
3. Alethic relativism
4. Epistemic relativism
5. Moral relativism
Cultural Relativism
Cultural relativism revolves around the idea of different cultures worldwide have different beliefs, and a certain unique way of life. These is because a people learn the practices from the previous generation and pass them onto the next generation and so the cycle goes. The evidence gathered by cultural anthropologist can support this scientific theory.
On cultural relativism we describe the diverse ethnicities worldwide and the different cultures and morality they embraced and still do to this day. This can be termed as descriptive ethical relativism a good example is that eating pork is an acceptable way of life in the States while in the Middle East it is immoral to eat pork. Killing of newborn in the USA is immoral while in China it is acceptable.
We can also look at normative ethical relativism which states that the moral fiber (moral rightness) and moral wrongness if different in the different societies and cultures and there is no set universal moral standard to bind the different societies.
Conceptual relativism
Conceptual relativism is a theory where what is part of a community (what exist) is relativized into conceptual schemes and categorical frameworks rather than epistemic and ethical norms of the community. This theory looks at the concepts a people in different comminutes
Alethic relativism
Alethic relativism is also called relativism about truth. This type of relativism elaborates the claims that what a certain group of people or community term as true may not necessarily hold for other communities or groups. What is termed true of false is always related to linguistic, conceptual or cultural framework.
Epistemic relativism
Epistemic relativism is also called factual relativism and it is mode of thinking which extends subjectivism and relativism to epistemic matter and reason. The logics used to prove the falsehood or truth of a statement are understood to be related to the perspective of those falsifying or proving the proposition.
Moral relativism
Moral relativism is also called ethical relativism. It can be defined as view that the belief and moral judgment on wrong and right greatly varies across context and time and also among individuals and also communities. Different communities have different beliefs on good and bad and what is acceptable and what is not.

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