Abstract
 
 
A database management system (DBMS) is simply an interface between the end users or an application program and the database. A DBMS ensures there is a consistent and organized arrangement of data, which ensures it is easily accessible. In practice, the DBMS manages three essential functions, the database engine, database schema, and the data. The database engine provides the functionalities of locking, modifying, and accessing the data. The logical structure of the data is defined by the data schema. As a result, DBMS determines the concurrency, uniform administration of data, security, as well as the data integrity.
A DBMS can be optimized in various ways in order to yield maximum benefits for its stakeholders. In general, however, the optimization will depend on the type of DBMS. Various programs are used in the collection and analysis of data, which is managed by the DBMS. In turn, this optimized information can be used by various departments depending on the type of obtained information. In order to have maximum utilization of a DBMS, it must be updated on a regular basis so that it can be abreast with the changes in the IT field.
Through the use of indexing, a DBMS can assist various departments of an organization to quickly and easily track various data that is managed in the system. In general, an index enables various queries to be made in the database. In turn, this queries enable the system to scan specific sections that contain the data that is of interest to a specific department. The Microsoft SQL servers can conduct these type of queries ((Ghencea & Gieger, 2010). This type of optimization is essential in ensuring improving the overall performance of a DBMS.
A database index is simply a physical access structure for a database table that assists in sorting registrations that are located on the disc. Through the formation of database indexes, the execution time of queries is greatly reduced. For example, in a DBMS, a human resource officer may use the employees’ employment registration number to track their salaries, benefits, leave days, and allowances. In this case, a database developer can develop an index of the employee’s registration number column, which can prevent the scan of the company’s entire data. In turn, this would save time and improves efficiency.
Through the indexing opportunities provided by a DBMS, the internal staff of my company in various departments can be able to track their performance. As aforementioned, through the development of an index of the employee’s registration number column, the human resource officer can track the performance of each employee (Ghencea & Gieger, 2010). Similarly, the maintenance department can be able to track the rate of usage of various products. For example, an index on the oil and lubricants registration number column can indicate to the warehouse manage the rate of usage of this consumables. In the above cases, the framework would be composed of a database that would be managed by a database management system. The data in the database would be organized in indexed columns. An application programming interface (API) will be used to ensure that programs are not modified when changes are made in the database. By using the indexed columns, a user will be able to track the performance of specific components of his/her department.
The main advantage of this system is its ease of use and multiple applications in the aviation industry. In addition, it provides opportunities for increasing its capacity to accommodate for additional changes in the database. The only weakness is the need for training of employees on how to use the system. In addition, it also faces the threat of misuse by unauthorized personnel especially when passwords are shared.
Cloud Computing
Simply, cloud computing refers to the delivery of computer resources to customers every time they demand through the internet on a pay-for-use basis. In light of this, customers can store and access data over the internet. There are various forms of cloud computing systems such as the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), the Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). SaaS refers to situations where a business subscribes to an application which they access over the internet. PaaS is simply the situation where the business creates its own application that is used by members of the company. Finally, IaaS is the situation where large companies, such as Google and Amazon, that have excess computing capacity, rent out some of these facilities through the internet.
The cost of owning both hardware and software systems is very expensive in the aviation industry. Moreover, there is always an overwhelming cost of data security, storage, and maintenance. In order to minimize these costs, a cloud computing system is appropriate for the company since it enables companies to share complex systems and implement various solutions. From this view, an aviation company operation and the financial department may be able to integrate the company’s services with those provided by other service providers (Adrian, 2014). In this case, the aviation company can link its payment services with partner banks to enable instant online payments. Similarly, the operations department can link its services with marketing companies to facilitate target marketing to potential customers.
The cloud system also provides a high level of reliability and scalability for a low cost. Through IaaS, cloud computing provides companies with extremely large scalable space, which they can use to increase and expand their activities. Due to the sharing of information among departments, partner companies, and between the aviation company and its customers, various departments such as the human resource, customer care, and finance department normally require huge data space. Cloud computing provides adequate and secure storage space for these departments (Adrian, 2014). In light of this, the company would be able to store its data in the cloud without the fear of security or lack of adequate storage space.
The most appropriate framework for an aviation company would be using in an IaaS cloud system. In this case, the company would hire computing facilities from a reputable company such as Microsoft or Amazon, where it would install its database, programs, and operating system. The company’s office computers would be linked to the service provider’s server through the internet.
The main strength of cloud computing is their scalability and elasticity. In case the aviation company needs more computing resources such as speed, it can simply hire more space from the service provider. In addition, it is cheap system and secure system than the company establishing its own infrastructure. In addition, it easily accessible in areas where there is proper internet connection. In the case of opportunities, currently, many cloud computing service providers are integrating their system so that there can be an easy transfer of data among them. In effect, it will enable easy synchronization and transfer of data among customers who use this services. The lack of privacy and government regulations is the main threat for cloud computing. Finally, the threat of failure of cloud computing is always imminent and may lead to huge loss of data and losses among individuals who use cloud computing (Kim, 2009).
Search Engine Optimization
SEO is simply a method of increasing visibility in organic search engine results. Therefore, it focuses on both the technical aspect as well as the creative aspect needed to improve awareness and increase traffic to a specific website by ranking it very high in the “search” results. SEO is an important aspect in Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and is primarily used to increase a website’s ranking.
In order for a SEO to be effective, the developers take to consider the manner in which search engines algorithms work, what online customers look for, and cost effectiveness of each method. In order to optimize a page, developers normally edit its contents and HTML codes in order to proper index in the search engines as well as to increase their relevance to specific keywords. In Google, a crawler named Googlebot assists in editing and indexing of pages (Gunjan, Pooja, Kumari, Kumari, & Rao, 2012).
Page rank refers to an algorithm that determines the weight of the websites URL and determines its web page. In order to improve a website’s ranking, there is need of both an On Page Optimization and Off Page Optimization. On Page Optimization aims at optimizing the website so that it is ranked better in the search engine, which is done by considering the nature and type of a business. Some of the methods used include modifying the title, hyperlinks, URL, text, ease of understanding context, and increasing frequency of keywords. Off Page Optimization mainly focusses on creating backlinks and social media marketing. This process entails link building methods such as blog posting, press release, link exchange, social networking, and video submission (Gunjan, Pooja, Kumari, Kumari, & Rao, 2012).
Through the use of search engine optimization, an aviation company can improve the page ranking of its website, which can increase customer’s awareness of the company. Therefore, SEO can be used by the marketing department when trying to reach out to more customers. In effect, this may increase the customer’s awareness of the company. Given that most customers usually search in only the first page, the SEO may in effect increase a company’s profits since buyers will most likely make a purchase from a company that is on the first page.
The search engine optimization would be made through On Page Optimization and Off Page Optimization. In the On Page Optimization, there would be a modification of the title, hyperlinks, URL, text, ease of understanding context, and increasing frequency of keywords. In the Off Page Optimization, there would be the creation of backlinks and social media marketing, which would be entail link building methods such as blog posting, press release, link exchange, social networking, and video submission (Gunjan, Pooja, Kumari, Kumari, & Rao, 2012).
The strengths of using a SEO is that it would result in more publicity for the company, which would result in more profits and increased awareness among the public of its existence. The opportunity presented by SEO is that its development would improve the page ranking of the company’s website and in turn increase its publicity, which would result in increased profits. The main weakness of a SEO is that despite almost full optimization, paid for websites may still have the privilege of being on the first page even when they are not fully optimized. In light of this SEO, may not be fully effective. Finally, even after full optimization, there may be the emergence of better-optimized websites by competitors which may have better page ranking than what is used by the company. In effect, this may result in poor performance and low page ranking.
Customer Relationship Management
Customer relationship management (CRM) is simply a method that companies and organizations use in the management of their customers using various marketing and information technology tactics. In order to have proper interaction with its customers, an organization implements a robust system that manages and nurtures its interactions by using technology to automate, synchronize, and automate its business processes (Zamil, 2011). In practice, the company organizes, automates, and synchronizes all the departments used in the business process, with greater emphasis on sales, marketing, technical support, and customer service.
Generally, a company conducts its CRM with an objective of retaining its existing customer while still attracting new ones. The CRM works as a companywide strategy that considers all departments that have a direct contact with the customer. Therefore, if the CRM process is effective, there is a synergy in the manner that a company’s departments work, which has an overall effect of increasing profits while at the same time reducing operational costs. Due to increased competition from suppliers, which has resulted in increased purchase options to customers, increased access to information through information technology companies have now been forced to have more focus on customers (Zamil, 2011). In light of this, CRM is formed on the understanding of the need of relationship marketing in order to increase customer retention, rather than transactional marketing that mainly focuses on closing a sale.
In order for organizations to conduct CRM, they must ensure that all departments work in unity to meet the needs of the customer. In practice, in order for employees to offer proper services, they must be adequately motivated to carry out their duties. Therefore, a company in the aviation industry must improve all its departments and streamline their activities with an objective of improving CRM. To begin with, the company must motivate its employees through the provision of proper working conditions. Ordinarily, motivated employees provide better services (Zamil, 2011). In addition, the company must also develop an easy to use website that enables customers to search for items that they need. Finally, it must ensure that the customer support department is properly trained to handle various issues that may be raised by the customer.
The framework for ensuring proper customer relationship management will entail development of a customer focused website. Thereafter, employees will be taught on how to use the website in their various departments, while giving adequate attention to the needs and concerns of customers. There will always be a feedback system, which will be used to assess and address issues raised by customers and employees. Finally, these responses will be used to improve the system and come up with an even better system.
The strength of a CRM system is that it facilitates for the long term positive performance of the company through the creation of a strong relationship with customers who in effect become repeat buyers. The CRM also provides organizations with an opportunity of learning customers’ behavior through their joint relationships. Effectively, these organizations are able to better predict on how to respond to changes in the market that are due to change in customer’s behavior. Nonetheless, CRM also has a weakness in that the relationship marketing that is emphasized through CRM does not always lead to sales in the long term, which is costly. Further, since CRM tactics can be duplicated by competitors, organizations that use this method are still threatened by competitors who are always developing better CRM tactics.
Supply Chain Management
Supply chain management (SCM) simply refers to the set of activities that are done by the business in order to ensure there is effective management of its supply chain. In order to have a functional supply chain process, the supply chain managers focus on all the activities which affect the supply chain process. These activities are broadly known as the SCM practices and include outsourcing, cycle time, supplier partnerships, information technology sharing, and continuous process flow (Li, Ragu-Nathan, Ragu-Nathan, & Rao, 2004). These SCM practices cover the strategic supplier partnership and the customer relationship side of the SCM process.
The strategic supplier partnership is simply the long term relationship between an organization and its suppliers. In light of this, it aims at leveraging on the opportunities presented through this relationship by utilizing the strategic and operational capabilities of the partner organizations. In this case, strategically aligned organizations work in unity and eliminate wastage of time and resources, which results in an overall improvement in the performance of the supply chain process. The customer relationship SCM practice entails all processes that are developed to handle and manage customer complaints, build long-term relationships with customers, and improve customer satisfaction (Li, Ragu-Nathan, Ragu-Nathan, & Rao, 2004). In practice, the proper development of customer relationships enables the company to sustain customer loyalty, differentiate its products, and increase the value that it adds to its customers.
The level of information sharing focuses on both the quality and quantity of shared information. Therefore, the level of information sharing focuses on how critical information is communicated to supply partners. The shared information varies from strategic to tactical and also from information on logistics to that of the general activities in the market. Generally, depending on the relationship and the manner in which information is shared in the partnership, the organization can use this process to improve its competitiveness in the market. The quality of information sharing is also an important perspective in the supply chain process. Its main concern is usually on how information is shared, the type of information that is shared, and the individuals that receive this information (Li, Ragu-Nathan, Ragu-Nathan, & Rao, 2004). Further, it also considers the dysfunctional effects that are caused by inaccurate information. Due to the competitive nature of business, there is usually the use of opportunistic behaviors among supply partners. In addition, the information asymmetries in the supply chain process may distort the quality of information. Finally, postponement in the supply chain management process focuses on the information that the business decides to use for future use as well as the period in which it determines to postpone this information (Li, Ragu-Nathan, Ragu-Nathan, & Rao, 2004). Therefore, adequate information is needed to determine the effect of postponement on the logistics and manufacturing process in the company.
In the aviation industry, the supply chain management process is essential for both strategic and tactical reasons. Currently, there is a high level of unpredictability of prices of fuel products which are mainly used in the aviation industry. Therefore, through proper development of a supply chain management process a company can be able to strategically position itself by determining when to buy its inventories, the quantities that it should buy, and how it should store these commodities. In addition, through a proper supply chain process, it can be able to understand the changes in the market, which it can use to restructure the manner in which it allocates its resources. Finally, the logistics aspect of the supply chain management process can be enhanced through various activities such as just in time supply process, which would minimize the overall cost of supply.
The framework of the supply chain management process would involve the use of the operations department, which would design the entire process. In generally, the supply chain process will be developed such that goods arrive directly into the company’s warehouse when they are ordered within the shortest period. As a result, the company would reduce the holding cost expenses. Noteworthy, commodities from strategic partners would be purchased in a just-in-time method to avoid holding and storage costs. The delivered inventories would be utilized according to the pre-planned schedules in order to minimize costs and waste.
The main strength of a supply chain management is that it minimizes costs and results in more value addition to customers through the provision of high-quality services and products. In addition, it also presents an organization with the opportunity of learning about the weaknesses and changes in the market. However, the supply chain management normally has dysfunctionalities due to opportunistic behaviors of partners. The main threat to the supply chain management is that of terrorists who may cripple the supply chain process. In addition, government regulations also harm and lead to inefficiencies in the supply chain process due to the need for detailed assessment of suppliers and also the supplied products.
Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reference List
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Kim, W. (2009) Cloud computing: Today and tomorrow, Journal of Object Technology, 1(1), 1-9.
Li, S., Ragu-Nathan, B., Ragu-Nathan, T., and Rao, S. (2004) The impact of supply chain management practices on competitive advantage and organizational performance, The International Journal of Management Science, Omega (34), 107-124.
Zamil, A. ( 2011) Customer relationship management: A strategy to sustain the organization’s name and products in the customers’ minds, European Journal of Social Sciences, 22(3), 451-460.