Depressive Disorders Case Study: Andrew Quinn
Depression is a major mental disorder that should be handled with special care. Moreover, patients suffering from this disease should undergo counseling and treatment to ease their pain. Andrew Quinn’s diagnosis is that he is suffering from depressive disorder and not normal bereavement. Some of the evidences in the case file that go concurrently with DSM-5 criteria are as follows:
Andrew has a deep sense of feeling worthlessness. In addition to this, he wakes up in the middle of the night overwhelmed by fatigue and sadness. He is also plagued by feelings of loss of self-confidence, enthusiasm, and sexual interests. Equally important, he is having suicidal thoughts emanating from guilt about his son’s death. Not to mention, experiences of severe mood swings. Andrew has shown that he is depressed on a daily basis which is characterized by feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and emptiness.
Depressive Disorder Versus Normal Bereavement
Basically, the difference between the two is that normal bereavement takes a short period and the mourning person may come out of it without clinical side effects (Stensland, Schultz, & Frytak, 2010). However, depressive disorder comes about when the individual in mourning experiences mourning for a significantly longer period accompanied by clinical side effects. Moreover, the treatment of normal bereavement only needs a little bit of counseling while depressive disorder requires a heavier dose of medication, intense support system, and a lot of counseling.
Andrew’s Risk and Prognostic Factors for Suicide and Suicidal Potential
Surely, without clinical help and support Andrew is likely to tumble into even deeper depression. Consequently, his guilt for his son’s loss coupled up with loneliness and suicidal thoughts may trigger Andrew to commit suicide. As a result, he needs immediate counseling and clinical support.
Safeguards for Suicidal Potential
To point out, there is a high need to engage Andre in deep and consecutive counseling sessions. Not to mention, he needs to be prescribed medication in order to calm him in cases of anxiety attacks. Noteworthy, he may also need to join a support group.
Bipolar Case Study: Olivia Jacobs
Olivia suffers from bipolar disorder. To begin with, Olivia suffers from mood swings that clearly change at any given time. With regards to this, her mood swings can be categorized as hypomanic and manic episodes. Namely, she experiences periods of high levels of excitement known as manic episodes to low hopeless moments known as hypomanic episodes. In addition, she does not enjoy things that excited her in the past.
Basically, the differential diagnosis for persons ailing from bipolar disorder is similar to those of major depression disorder. Since symptoms possessed by major depression disorder may be similar to that of bipolar disorder, at times there may be a misdiagnosis of this disease (Gu, et al., 2013). For instance, both disorders have symptoms such as suicidal tendencies and feeling of hopelessness.
Commonly Comorbid Disorders with Bipolar Disorder
For instance, some of the illnesses that co-occur with bipolar are anxiety disorder, eating disorder, substance abuse, or even psychosis. To enumerate, an individual suffering from intense mania or depression episodes may suffer from hallucinations (Bromet, et al., 2013). Due to these close similarities of the symptoms, psychologists must be careful to avoid misdiagnosis of this disease.
Difference Between Bipolar 1 and Bipolar II
Comparatively, the main difference between the two is that bipolar II is more severe than the later. Noteworthy, bipolar II is accompanied by both depressive and hypomanic episodes. However, the patient does not succumb to full-blown manic episodes.
Concern About Olivia’s Suicidal Potential
Truly, there is a high risk for Olivia to commit suicide. She has been contemplating it since the onset of her depression. It is imperative that Olivia is subjected to close watching and given hope about life. Furthermore, stronger medication than lithium and sertraline is recommended.
Greatest Potential for Committing Suicide
In comparison, Olivia has a higher potential to commit suicide than Andrew. By all means, Olivia has higher symptoms for suicide such as having suicidal thoughts. To explain, Andrew has guilt feeling for his son’s death whereas Olivia has suicidal feelings coupled up with her search for a gun.
APA Ethical Principles Relating Specifically to Assessing and/or Treating a Suicidal Client
Psychologists who are dealing with clients with suicidal tendencies need to have proper training on how to assess the situation. Through proper training, they may be in a better position to understand the motives behind the suicide. Moreover, training will assist in giving proper care to the client (Barnhill, 2014).
Further, the psychologist must be in a position to know the extent of the risk of suicide. To elaborate, some of the suicides may involve risk to other people such as arson, motor accidents, and homicide (Green, 2006). In addition, there is the need for confidentiality.
From the discussions above, depressive disorders are conditions that must not be taken lightly. To explain, caregivers, family, friends, and psychologists must slowly and carefully monitor the patient’s progress. Importantly, they must understand that individuals suffering from mental disease need constant encouragement to uplift their self-esteem and self-image. In addition, support and medication may be offered in order to ensure that the patient has a better and more comfortable life.
Barnhill, J. W. (2014). DSM-5 clinical cases (1st Ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing
Bromet, E., Andrade, L., Hwang, I., Sampson, N., Alonso, J., de Girolamo, G.,… Kessler, R.C. (2011). Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode. BMC Medicine, 9(90), 1-16
Green, M. F. (2006), Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(10), 1-478.
Gu, L., Xie, J., Chen, J., Chen, Q., Pan, R., Yan, Y., & Su, Li. (2013). Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in mainland China: A systematic review. PLOS One, 8(6), 1-9.
Stensland, M.D., Schultz, J.F., & Frytak, J.R. (2010). Depression diagnoses following the identification of bipolar disorder: costly incongruent diagnoses. BMC Medicine, 10(39), 1-14.