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  • Images | if you are referring to and discussing specific art works or buildings or architectural features, please illustrate them.

 
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**The images contained within the structure of the paper should be removed and placed at the END of the essay as per the instructions under section heading “Images”. Once this is done, a bit more writing is needed and should be done, especially, once you remove the images from the heart of the paper they’ll be lots of empty space and less of 10pages of writing completed.
 
 
**Chicago style: As the work is to be cited in this format, please correct the footnote errors found throughout the paper. Visit the site below for reference instructions and or examples:
 
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Same work and author; only source by that author
If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author’s last name and page reference:
First note

  1. Raúl Sánchez, “Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity,”College English74 (2012): 243.

Subsequent note

  1. Sánchez, 265.

-You’ll find errors highlighted in Green

  1. below.

 
[1] Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
[1] Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
[1] Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
 
 

Introduction

Christianity is among the leading religions across the globe. Mainly, the Christian religion teaches about morality and growing to be upright people with the capacity to ensure the world is better each day.  The Bible, which is the core book in the Christian faith comprises of many stories meant to teach about specific values among Christians[1].  Some stories in the bible are core while others are auxiliary of the book. The story of Jesus remains among the core pillars in which the bible is founded. In the bible, Jesus remains the source of redemption of man to God after sinning and living for many years under Jewish law.  Furthermore, Jesus came to replace the law with grace, whereby people would no longer live under condemnation but rather through grace, sufficient for all[2]. However, the redemption of man could not be a successful void of the crucifixion of Jesus, because his blood was to act as the symbol for the cleansing of the sins of men[3]. The crucifixion story is complex, especially to the ignorant masses, and therefore the need to present it in visual form. ß{Yes, but, read the sentence again. is it a complete thought/sentence? Especially the mid-end part? It just doesn’t seem to be complete once reading it? it just feel likes when reading after, “the need to present it in visual form” that something else will follow or that the sentence/thought will continue..? does this make sense?}   For this reason, many painters and other artists have taken the responsibility of providing artistic presentations of the crucifixion story to ensure that many people can understand. As Pope Gregory the Great pronounced the main function of images in the Latin West as: ‘painted likenesses [are] made for the instruction of the ignorant, so that they might understand the stories and so learn what occurred[4]. This paper discusses the different Arts on the crucifixion of Jesus, and their potential to instruct viewers both in the content of Christian stories and in the significant of this story.
 

Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce)

 
Figure 1: Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) 176.4 in × 153.5 in
Derived from [5]
 
The Crucifix (c. 1265) refers to a wooden crucifix, which was painted in distemper, attributed to mosaicist Cimabue, a Florentine painter[6]. This is one of the two largest crucifixes attributed to the painter. The crucifix is constructed from a complex arrangement of five major as well as eight auxiliary timber boards. The crucifix is renowned for its humanistic iconography as well as technical innovations. Both the monumentality in addition to the gilding, connects the crucifix to the Byzantine tradition. However, Christ’s still pose is quite reflective of this style. Nevertheless, the crucifix generally incorporates newer as well as more naturalistic aspects. This crucifix presents a realistic and physically impressive depiction of the passion at Calvary.  In this work, Christ is presented barely naked, ß{barely naked or barely covered?} his face defeated and lifeless while his eyes are closed. In addition, his body slumps body ß{is this correct? double wording?} is contorted by prolonged pain and agony[7]. The crucifix has remained in the Basilica di Santa Croce, in Florence from 19th century, and at the Museo dell ‘Opera Santa Croce, from the time it was restored after the Arno flooding of 1966 [8].  However, it is in poor condition regardless of the significant conservation efforts.

Comparison to earlier works

Compared to the earlier crucifix works, this work presents the body of Christ in a more physically corporeal way. In addition, Christ’s anatomy is presented been more closely rendered. ß{??What are trying to say here with this??} Furthermore, his feet are extending beyond the pictorial space, which is explained by the flat, colored borders of the cross. The ß{?}Christ’s body as well as his semi-circular aura are located at angles arising outwards and above the cross’ level. What is more, his body arches, and this forces his chest to ascend against the cross. The works provides blood oozing from the numerous would ß{wound/s/?} in the hands. His head falls and leans to one side because of fatigue, and the bodily reality of imminent death. Moreover, in this work Jesus is naked excluding sheer as ß{?} well as transparent loincloth only covering his thighs as well as his backside. Cimabue’s choice of a white, veil-cloth is modestly dramatically compared to the red garment in Arezzo work.ß{who? What? Where? If you’re alluding/comparing/contrasting with another work, make sure you include some details of that work, otherwise the “reader” has no idea what/why/where you are referencing. Make sense? Talk about it, in reference to ‘Cimabue’s pictured herein} Cimabue’s choice of Christ’s nakedness is not in vain. It helps to demonstrate Jesus’s suffering and vulnerability[9]. The nakedness function seemed ß{seemed or seems?} to be influenced by a meditation ß{is  “meditation” here correct?} of 13th century on ß{?}à Christ that emphasized on human-interest and grief in the suffering of the Passion. The meditation presents ß{?}à that people should turn away their eyes from the divinity of Jesus and focus on him purely as a human being.
On the other hand, his eyes are open and the skin is quite unblemished. In addition, the paint on the cross is deep blue, conceivably suggesting timeless or eternal sky. This provocation is named Christus triumphans, and it helps to distance the divine from the real human aspect of Christ [10] . It portrays Jesus as a savior who shared the burden and pain of humanity. This work too surpasses Cimabue’s c. 1268 Arezzo work ß{ again, who? What? Where? If you’re alluding/comparing/contrasting with another work, make sure you include some details of that work, even if it’s in brief, otherwise the “reader” has no idea what/why/where you are referencing. Make sense? Talk about it, in reference to ‘Cimabue’s pictured herein}in numerous ways. To begin with, it is very human and little reliant on romanticized facial types. ß{I think this sentence can be better expressed or written-in-flow; it just reads as (blah blah stop/period) it just doesn’t read as a complete or well flow/written thought.} In addition, the ß{?} Christ’s anatomy is highly convincing. ß{“Christ’s anatomy is highly convincing” ??what?? not a complete thought.. and/or sentence.. Lacks substance, meaning in what it’s being said? There’s not much here. Needs to be better expressed, longer, etc, as it really doesn’t mean anything much written this way.} Furthermore, Christ’s nose appears narrower and longer while the nose is ß{could this be removed from the assessment and still make sense? “..Christ’s nose appears narrower and longer while less idealized”} less idealized. According to[11], these features give Christ a coarser and a personal expression.
Cimabue’s work is quite convincing and informing than mere use of theoretical explanations. Using various features, Cimabue helps people to understand the passion at Calvary in a simpler way. For example, Cimabue’s choice of Christ’s nakedness is not in vain, it helps to demonstrate Jesus’s suffering and vulnerability. The feature shows that Christ dropped off his divine powers and class to become more of human in order to endure human suffering and pain in a quest to safe humankind from any form of condemnation. In addition, the blood oozing from his sides shows that Jesus suffered to a point of shading blood ß{what?? Read again this sentence, this highlighted wording just doesn’t make sense as is put herein} in order to safe mankind. ß{did you not already state this is some form in the previous sentence? Why again? Please express better thoughts with more substance/details.} In addition, the blood shows the value of human beings to God. ß{what? Not quite sure this makes sense? It just continues to be quick few word sentences with not much thought backing it nor enough substance details forth. This needs to be better} He chose the priceless blood of his son to show the unending and unfading love for humankind[12]. However, upon the head seems shiny and golden. ß{WHAT?? What’s this even mean? Not a complete thought/sentence. Again, makes no sense as put. No flow. Incomplete sentence and no flow from one to the other, needs tremendous improvement/revising. Just not acceptable. The work started off well but as I continue to look through it, it has increase in errors with incomplete thoughts; lacking substance, details and in some places it lacks real explanation for some of the things being mentioned/said.} The shiny and gold-like look symbolizes that despite all the suffering, Christ carried his glory and divinity to the cross. In addition, it shows that not even the suffering and rebuke could lower his godly standards.

The Crucifixion 1565, by Tintoretto

 
Figure 2: The Crucifixion of Christ painted by Jacopo Tintoretto
Derived from [13]
 
This particular painting is named, the Crucifixion of Christ, and was detailed by Jacopo Tintoretto in 1565 in the Renaissance era[14]. This is a religious painting portraying the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. At the center of the large scene, painting, appears the Christ, with a halo around his head and erectly crucified on a cross. Below the crucified Jesus are a group men, likely “the twelve”, whose depictions reveal a feeling of devastation for their teacher as he willingly hangs nailed to a wooden beam awaiting an innocent death to him. ß{this entire section highlighted in purple, I have completely revised and added. Please follow in suit of these example.} The assumption is that these are the twelve disciples. ß{is this needed now here??} At the backdrop of the painting, one finds several people who seem to have received the same fate as Jesus. In addition, there is a group of guards surrounding those going to be crucified. ß{too simple, not good enough for a research paper, needs to be better. More substance, wording, phrasing, details. More creativity is need with substance when writing. Please fix all these mistakes, as it stands, just not good enough. This is a Graduate School Research Paper, It reads and flows as a high school essay or essay in general. Remember, this is a Research Work, please treat it as such as you revise and rewrite.}
The figure looks significantly powerful and willful, energetically pugnacious, in its attentiveness, almost Herculean-like in its strength. In addition, the arms seem twisted backwards, as if showing off those mighty as well as fat-rope-like muscles. ß{what?? This needs revision and reassessing.} Instead of rolling back powerlessly, sympathizing with its maker for deliverance, his head leans down and appears swiveling to the right, as if observing, or orchestrating, the various events going on beneath its stare. From a close look, it appears that the head is much engaged in the scene. It ß{are talking about Jesus or some kind of “thing”? It, then, should be removed.} seems to know the events taking place. In addition, the head is more engaged as if knowing the reason why they are happening [15]. ß{I notice the citation, however, read this sentence again and see if it makes sense to you, especially after, “as if knowing the reason why they are happening” what’s they?? What are you referring to? A scene?? Describe} Furthermore, the figure is more confident, ß{?} a reflection that it knows its destiny and it is highly determining to driving ß{wording?} things along to their unavoidable tragic conclusion. All things are overlooked by the positioning of head from a marvelous height—The head of Christ is practically rasping alongside the enormous top edge of the canvas, which is skinning the frieze straight underneath the ceiling.
The entire scene is excitedly lively ß{perhaps even chaotic with much anxiety/stress}, with many human beings. ß{this sentence needs to be better, not enough substance here, very bland and common speech.} We can theoretically hear their noise, its continual agitation and movement.  One of the two things seems to be on the ground, while waiting to be crucified. ß{what? Not sure this makes sense?} In this picture, one thief is seated, waiting for his time.  Furthermore, the second thief is being raised on the cross. In this case, the thief is seems been ß{is this correct wording?} pulled up from the front and pressed up from behind. From the look of things, the soldiers pushing him seem to be rough. ß{this sentence and the three/four preceding it, could be better thought-out/descriptive/more substance detailing/organized} The two thieves are not given time to play more of a role in Tintoretto’s scene[16]. The audience is required to futilely speculate, as the artist appears to not want the depicted painting of Jesus to be viewed upright amongst the crucified thieves as it was the commonplace approach of execution. In this case, the artist draws forth the crucifixion featured at center of the scene as if to suggest to the agony of human defeat in the person of Jesus and triumphal messenger of God. From the picture, it is clear that nothing is placed at ease-all ß{syntax? Writing?} people and animals are disturbed. For example, some people are kneeling, others are standing, others are staring, and others are asleep, while others are jerking up. ß{could possibly be better described, wording, or left out altogether. The Entire sentence could/should be better expressed.} Furthermore, the animals are not at ease and seem to be disturbed by the event of Christ’s crucifixion. ß{you are double dipping statement/thoughts. Why? You have already said this in some form Two (2) sentences preceding this one. Revise both and make better, just not remotely good enough for a research paper!} The horses are butting, swiveling, and turning. The appearance of the soldiers watching the event on the side of Golgotha gives the place an inhospitable and spiky ß{?}appearance. In doing so, the painter portrays the mythical warriors springing from the seed of a Dragon’s teeth that were sown by Cadmus, only later to turn and slaughter each other at once.  In this painting, the Tintoretto is intentionally summoning up anti-Reformation ideas of disunity of Christ’s enemies, because the garment of Christ, which symbolizes the unity of the church, is placed antithetically ahead of the Roman army sign. ß{a sign, or, as a sign?}
In the midst of the anguish and suffering, Tintoretto depicts a great opportunity for happiness through repentance. The primary theme conveyed in the painting is the turning away from sins and starting a new chapter of doing only righteous godly things. Jesus thus serves as the main character in the painting and primary example of the righteous form in human morality to be followed. In addition, he has an aura of light around his head[17], indicating divinity. It helps most Christians to understand that despite the suffering and the pain that Jesus encountered on the cross, he was still God and maintained his divinity while taking up the burden of condemnation at the point of the cross. While being lifted for crucifixion, the thief displayed on the right hand side of Jesus appears to be showing some interest in him. His tilted head, in that direction, may even indicate to some type of utterance being express Jesus’ way. In contrast however, the thief on the left is depicted looking away from Jesus as he is being nailed to the cross. This particular draw in the painting however alludes to symbolism, that though Christ died for all people, according to the New Testament scriptures, the sole responsibility is with the individual  on whether they’ll accept him or dismiss his as God’s messenger and Himself God.  In addition, the placement of the “repenting thief” to the right side of Jesus may too indicate some type of a symbolic representation as the right hand often symbolizes sureness. The choice of having placed the repenting thief on the right indicates that Jesus was sure of his mission. In addition, it may also indicate to those individuals who are ready and sure of Christ’s mission of forgiveness and would stand firm with him for redemption.  In the painting, Jesus appears quite secure and sure of the unfolding of events, and thus determined to ensure success for humankind to be reunited with the Father.

Cross-of Mathilde

Figure 3: Cross-of Mathilde
Derived from [18]
 
This is an Ottonian processional cross which has been in Essen, Germany, from the time of its construction in the 11th century. The cross was made between 1000 and 1058. During 1000 Mathilde was abbess, while during 1058, Abbess Theophanu died. ß{what? Re-read this sentence, structurally/Grammarly, incomplete. Fix/revise} The two were Ottonian dynasty’s princesses. The size of the cross is 18 inches tall, and 12.0 inches. ß{ heading This needs to be removed and placed at the end of the paper with the corresponding image. Please Read the Instructions provided and also alluded to herein at the top of the paper under Section “Images” for correct referencing.} ß{Additionally, This paragraph, lack there-of, needs MORE WORK, poor as it stands and ineffective for a research paper. Just not acceptable. It needs re-working.Please Fix}àThe cross comprises of an oak core that is covered in a gold sheet[19]. Below the cross lies a modern glass ball, serving as a handle.
In this crucifixion, Jesus is standing at the suppedaneum, having his legs together and being supported. In this piece, his feet are not nailed. On the other hand, the loincloth is tied at the middle and drops evenly in audacious folds. In addition, Christ’s arms are not equal in length. From the Crucifix, his head is bent on one side, surrounded by a halo[20]. The duo round enamel medallions with the personification sun ß{?, could this be best put?} and mood symbolize the mourning and grief of the entire creation following the death of Christ. The personifications are placed on the cross’ horizontal beam. In addition, the duo personification seems to be looking up or in the direction of Jesus. The sun is gazing at Jesus from the left while the moon is looking at Jesus from the right. The enamel plaque’s background that is depicting the sun, is green. Normally, green symbolizes health. Having green as the background color shows that Jesus’ death on the cross would lead to life[21]. On the other hand, the sun’s bust contains a mournful expression and has its hands raised to the face. The sun wears a crown that has four jagged rays in his golden air ß{air?? or hair?? Is this correct?} and holds a cloth before his face. The mourning expression of the sun symbolizes that the mourning that people have gone through will not last for long[22]. Despite the gloomy expression of the sun, there is a great hope with the crucifixion of Jesus.
The entire cross is covered with gold coating. ß{have you not already stated this in some form or another, citing it earlier? If so, please remove and add substantive detail herein} This was not for granted. ß{what?? Why is this even here? Incomplete. Much of nothing and pointless to the paper. Remove/alter/revise/rework etc}The gold shining is meant to show the glory and divinity of God. The bible teaches that God is all-powerful and glorious and thus gold here is meant to symbolize his grandeur. In addition, it helps to show the many doubters that Jesus was wealth, (symbolized by the gold), but that he left all this wealth and humbled himself in order to ensure the salvation of humankind[23].
There are certain consistencies in the story of crucifixion of Jesus.  To begin with, in all the crucifixes Christ appears shining in the midst of the transgression that he is going through. In the visuals, he is presented while shining and glowing. Specifically, this shows that despite the many sufferings and pains, Jesus remained strong and carried his glory with him even when at the center of suffering. ß{can these sentences/statements be reworked/better expressed with more cohesion??}àThis is meant to encourage many Christians. It also shows that regardless of their lack of blemish, they should expect to be tried. ß{what?!? So you’re attaching this sentence as an indication to the one preceding it, well, once you rework the preceding statements/thoughts, this too will need to change. It is poorly written/stated needs to be revised and re-addressed if you are to keep this. More substance/detail to this statement. OR even perhaps best removed altogether and substituted with better writing/researched thoughts.} In the midst of the trials, they should not lose hope but rather they should remain strong and have stronger faith in God, who redeems all people and forgives every kind of sin.
In certain visuals, Jesus is portrayed fully naked, while in others he is not. ß{is he really portrayed “fully naked”?? where?? And what visuals are you referencing to? The ones contained herein?? Or others?? If others, please indicate to them and describe them as examples in relation to the Topic of this paper.} However, the main function of the nakedness is to show that Jesus surrendered everything for the salvation of humankind. He sacrificed his life, the peace, and love of his mother, brothers and the disciples. Furthermore, Jesus had to sacrifice and uncouth himself of his love and honor for humankind and the great godly power and love that he carried with him. ß{ Not quite I understand what you are trying to say here???}The sacrifice of and from all these elements, ensured that Jesus could be led to the cross distinctively from the rest.

Conclusion

Christianity is founded on the idea of ensuring high standards of morality is maintained in the society. ß{?} In addition, it ensures that human beings are able to live well with their fellow human beings with the least collision possible. ß{need to be reworked. OR Removed, alongside the first sentence herein this Paragraph. Why? Because the Topic of this paper is on “Early Medieval Art and Functions of religious imagery: The crucifixion” Not on the ideas of Christianity, thus these points that you are drawing forth here are useless to the overall/conclusion of this paper. Needs to be removed and reworked.}of Jesus However, many stories are central to the Christianity religion. ß{what???} The crucifixion of Jesus stands at the center of the Christian faith. With the death of Jesus, all people were redeemed. [à In addition, the shedding of the blood of Jesus was a symbol of cleansing of the human sins. The cleansing would ensure that man was in good standing with the Creator and would no longer be condemned. What is more, the death of Jesus introduced grace to the humankind and erased the need to follow the tough draconian laws introduced by Moses. Regardless of one’s sins, a prayer would be enough to ensure that they are cleaned of all their sins and transgressions. Additionally, the death of Jesus would ensure that people would no longer be judged by their actions but through the grace of God that is sufficient to all human beings. However, considering that theoretically the story of Jesus is difficult to understand. ] ß{This Entire section (IN RED) is useless to the Topic of this paper. Yet again, the Topic is “Early Medieval Art and Functions of religious imagery: The crucifixion of Jesus”. Your statements lack substance/details and they are not based on anything useful towards the topic of this paper. You have already hinted here and there throughout this paper of such key points, No need to re-visit these in galore here. You are straying away from the purpose/message of the paper herein your “Conclusion”. This Needs to be completely reworked. You allude to simple common knowledge statements must all people know of, “Jesus died for sins..” Not good, even if it were part of the topic. Not researched material. Again, please removed your conclusion and reworked so as to point/include substance to the topic of this paper. There is however, some sentence that have not been highlighted herein that can be worked with and/or kept. Those that are not highlighted you can keep and work along the new ones you’ll introduce in reference to the topic of this Research Paper.}  However, presenting it in visual format makes it easy to grasp the concepts. The Cross-of Mathilde, the Crucifix (c. 1265) and the Crucifixion 1565, by Tintoretto, provides a simplified story of the crucifixion of Jesus. Through the visuals the people are introduced, primarily those of the faith, but others as well, to a message that is much simpler to understand and imagined than through the lenses of reading scriptures.
 
 

References

“The Crucifixion of Christ, detail of the right-hand side, 1565 (oil on canvas).” (January 1, 2014): Credo Reference Collections, ß{should there be a comma here?}
Campbell, Gordon. 2006. The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts. Vol. 1, Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cannon, Joanna. 2002. “The era of the great painted crucifix: Giotto, Cimabue, Giunta Pisano, and their anonymous contemporaries.” Renaissance Studies 16, no. 4: 571.
Fulton, Rachel. 2002. From judgment to passion: devotion to Christ and the Virgin Mary, 800-1200. New York: Columbia University Press.
Garrison, Eliza. 2012. Ottonian imperial art and portraiture: the artistic patronage of Otto III and Henry II. Farnham, Surrey, UK, England: Ashgate.
Horton, Michael. The Christian faith: A systematic theology for pilgrims on the way. Harper Collins, 2011.

  1. Nees, Early Medieval Art (Oxford, 2002) – tracks the development of the distinctive artist tradition that emerged in Europe from c. 300 CE-c. 1000 CE, revealing different forms of artistic expression (mostly in Western Europe).

Migliore, Daniel L. Faith seeking understanding: An introduction to Christian theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2014.
Rakić, Ivana Čapeta. 2014. “A View from the South East. Works of the Santa Croce Workshop.” Il Capitale Culturale Studies On The Value Of Cultural Heritage 10, 215.
Smith, Christian. Disruptive religion: The force of faith in social movement activism. Routledge, 2014.
Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti. 1564. “Crucifixion (Crocifissione), by Jacopo Robusti known as Tintoretto, 1564 – 1565, 16th Century, oil on canvas, 536 x 1224 cm.” Bridgeman Education
 
[1] Horton, Michael. The Christian faith: A systematic theology for pilgrims on the way. Harper Collins, 2011.
[2] Migliore, Daniel L. Faith seeking understanding: An introduction to Christian theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2014.
[3] Smith, Christian. Disruptive religion: The force of faith in social movement activism. Routledge, 2014.
[4] L. Nees, Early Medieval Art (Oxford, 2002) – tracks the development of the distinctive artist tradition that emerged in Europe from c. 300 CE-c. 1000 CE, revealing different forms of artistic expression (mostly in Western Europe).
[5] Rakić, Ivana Čapeta. 2014. “A View from the South East. Works of the Santa Croce Workshop.” Il Capitale Culturale Studies On The Value Of Cultural Heritage 10, 215.
[6] Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
[7] Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
[8] Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta (2004): 61-79.
[9] Rakić, Ivana Čapeta. 2014. “A View from the South East. Works of the Santa Croce Workshop.” Il Capitale Culturale Studies On The Value Of Cultural Heritage 10, 215.
[10] Cannon, Joanna. 2002. “The era of the great painted crucifix: Giotto, Cimabue, Giunta Pisano, and their anonymous contemporaries.” Renaissance Studies 16, no. 4: 571.
[11] Cannon, Joanna. 2002. “The era of the great painted crucifix: Giotto, Cimabue, Giunta Pisano, and their anonymous contemporaries.” Renaissance Studies 16, no. 4: 571.
[12] Cannon, Joanna. 2002. “The era of the great painted crucifix: Giotto, Cimabue, Giunta Pisano, and their anonymous contemporaries.” Renaissance Studies 16, no. 4: 571.
[13] Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti. 1564. “Crucifixion (Crocifissione), by Jacopo Robusti known as Tintoretto, 1564 – 1565, 16th Century, oil on canvas, 536 x 1224 cm.” Bridgeman Education
[14] Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti. 1564. “Crucifixion (Crocifissione), by Jacopo Robusti known as Tintoretto, 1564 – 1565, 16th Century, oil on canvas, 536 x 1224 cm.” Bridgeman Education
[15] Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti. 1564. “Crucifixion (Crocifissione), by Jacopo Robusti known as Tintoretto, 1564 – 1565, 16th Century, oil on canvas, 536 x 1224 cm.” Bridgeman Education
[16] “The Crucifixion of Christ, detail of the right-hand side, 1565 (oil on canvas).” (January 1, 2014): Credo Reference Collections, ß{is this comma correct herein?? Should ‘Credo Reference Collections’ be in Italics or no? }
[17] “The Crucifixion of Christ, detail of the right-hand side, 1565 (oil on canvas).” (January 1, 2014): Credo Reference Collections,
[18] Fulton, Rachel. 2002. From judgment to passion: devotion to Christ and the Virgin Mary, 800-1200. New York: Columbia University Press.
[19] Fulton, Rachel. 2002. From judgment to passion: devotion to Christ and the Virgin Mary, 800-1200. New York: Columbia University Press.
[20] Garrison, Eliza. 2012. Ottonian imperial art and portraiture: the artistic patronage of Otto III and Henry II. Farnham, Surrey, UK, England: Ashgate.
[21] Fulton, Rachel. 2002. From judgment to passion: devotion to Christ and the Virgin Mary, 800-1200. New York: Columbia University Press.
[22] Garrison, Eliza. 2012. Ottonian imperial art and portraiture: the artistic patronage of Otto III and Henry II. Farnham, Surrey, UK, England: Ashgate.
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