Zika is a disease caused by a virus that has been transmitted by an Aedes mosquito (Health Organization, 2016). The mosquitoes can bite at day and night as well. The virus can be transferred from a pregnant woman to her fetus hence leading to defects during birth. The disease occurs in both tropical and subtropical areas around the world (Health Organization, 2016). Most people that have been infected by the virus will not exhibit any signs and symptoms while a few will register fever and muscle pain. The virus is likely to cause neurological disorders such as Guillain-Bare syndrome and congenital condition to the infected (Health Organization, 2016).
Epidemiology
Global prevalence of the virus has not been determined due to the reason that it has a clinical resemblance to other infections hence making it difficult to confirm the diagnosis (Disease Control, 2016). The virus has been reported in various hosts such as humans, mosquitoes and primates in approximately 15 countries across Africa and Asia in 2014 (Disease Control, 2016). The prevalence of the virus in Uganda was estimated to be 6% in Uganda in around 1951 with a population of 100 residents. Between 1977 and 1978, the prevalence of the virus was at 7% in Indonesia (Disease Control, 2016). Zika was first isolated in 1947 in Africa and spread to other parts of the world in countries located in Southeast Asia. The sporadic cases were later reported in 2007 at Yap Island and later 2013 and 2014 respectively across various parts of the world (Disease Control, 2016).
Description of History and Prognosis
Scientists at Zika forest in Uganda first detected the virus in a monkey in 1947 (Health organization, 2016). The virus was afterwards discovered in humans in 1952 across both the Uganda and Tanzania respectively. The epidemic of the dreadful ailment has since been recorded in various countries and continents across the world such as Asia, America and the Pacific (Health organization, 2016).
Most cases of Zika virus may go unnoticed because they are mild as well as self-limited (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Due to the meek nature, a large percentage of the infection may go unaccounted for. Rare cases have reported serious complications. However, a big concern has resurfaced because of congenital deformations that take place due to transplacental transmission of the virus (Mayo Clinic, 2016).
Description of Risk Factors
The key risk factors of the virus are areas where the mosquitoes that have been infected (Mayo Clinic, 2016) reside. Moreover, having unprotected sex with people who have recently been diagnosed with the virus is an also a major risk factor. Inability to take precautions against the mosquito bite also serves as a risk factor as far as the transmission of the virus is concerned (Mayo Clinic, 2016). An infected mother is also a risk factor in that the likelihood of transmission of the virus to the unborn is very high. Transfusions of blood or sharing of a needle with infected people can also serve as possible risk factors (Mayo Clinic, 2016).
Prevention and Treatment
To prevent the spread of the virus, one needs to protect themselves and others during sex as it is spread through unprotected sex (Disease Control, 2016). The protection must be done particularly when the partner is pregnant. Prevention of mosquito bites is essential in curbing the spread of the virus and should be done y clearing the shrubs around the houses as well as ensuring that there is no still water around the compound for mosquitoes to breed. Similarly, planning for travel is essential by learning what to do before and after the trip (Disease Control, 2016).
The virus has no specific vaccine or medicine so far. However, treating the symptoms is vital in curbing the spread and damage the virus can cause in the society (Disease Control, 2016). One should get enough rest and drink fluids to prevent dehydration. People should take medicine such as paracetamol to reduce both pain and fever (Disease Control, 2016).
References
Clinic, M. (2016). Overview – Zika virus disease – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/zika-virus/home/ovc-20189269
Disease Control, C. (2016). Treatment | Zika virus | CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/treatment.html
Health Organization, W. (2016). WHO | Zika virus. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/