Introduction and applicability
Generally the American psychological association consists of specific ethical standards, the main five general principles as well as the preamble. According to the rules and the regulation of the APA style, introduction must discuss thoroughly the consideration involved in the process of procedure, the scope of the application of the ethics code and also not forgetting the intent and the organization (Gregory, 2003).
For psychologists to attain a high ideal of psychology, general principles and preamble have to be taken into place. An ethical course action requires the preamble and general principles are very important. However, ethical standards depend on the context although ethical standards have to be considered. In any case where conduct is not well discussed by the ethical standards, this does not mean that it is not ethically accepted or not.
Illustration from Gregory, (2003), only those psychologists whose activities are part of scientific and have to do with professional roles have a right to exercise fully the ethical codes. There are a number of areas that are usually covered of where a few of them are administration, counselling supervising the trainees, conducting public service social intervention developing the relevant assessment instruments, organizational consultation policy development and evaluation among others. The way in which these ethical standards are applied depends on the context that is the person, internet, electronic transmissions involved and other instances telephones may be involved. The above activities which is a few of the existing list is differentiated from the list of pure private conduct of different psychologists.
The current rules and procedures of APA Ethics Committee outlines the procedures to conduct filling, resolving complaints and investigating. Any member who violates the above procedures and policies have to face the consequences of terminating their membership where they even consult other bodies of the same. In addition, the members may face the sanctions from other bodies such as Psychologists Association or even Federal Agencies that have carry out health services. Secondly, worse of it is being impeached from psychological association in the state and even loss of license to carry out any psychological activity.
According the rules and regulation of 2001, a person is not supposed to have chance in the hearing the case but resolving is done in the basis of the record available (Gregory, 2003). Psychologists have an obligation to seek guidance from the ethics and their code of conduct have to guide on the same of which these rules prohibits the use of codes as a basis of civil liability but other bodies may be guided by the same.
If for any case a psychologists violates the conduct of conduct, the ethics code do have the authority to judge the individual nor take any action in a court of law against him or her. In addition, no legal consequences can be taken against them. Explanation by Aguinis & Henle, (2002), the concerned modifiers involved in the entire process of making the principles and ethics does the following:
a. Have a role in eliminating any injustice or even any form of inequality.
b. They ensure that activity is applicable when the psychologists are conducting the process.
c. In any case where judgement has to be done, professionalism has to be applied.
d. Any rigid rule is protected against any form of being outdated.
Reasonability is necessary to prevail professional judgement whether concerned psychologists made us e their knowledge or not. Any decision made by psychologists must bound to the rules and regulation and ethics codes where other relevant materials are adopted. It is usually an obligation that every psychologist must produce a high quality ethical standards. In the process of undertaking their work, they do experience any conflict, they are responsible of resolving the conflict in a recommendable manner at all cost.
Any psychologists has a task of ensuring that every individual u8nderstands their content and may use their their knowledge to make the whole society understand too. In addition, all of them have to respect human rights and freedom of inquiry and how teaching and publication is done. They also have a role of ensuring that every member of the society through social intervention, expert witnessing, therapist, educator, supervising, consulting as well as researching (Aguinis & Henle, 2002).
Specific standards are outlined to solve in difficulty experienced in the whole process of research. According to the standards the welfare of the society is protected, members are educated while the general public is informed of the acceptable standards which are both ethical and cultivates discipline among members. The career life of being a psychologists requires an individual to be committed and patient enough to persevere with the difficulties encountered. As a result, students are encouraged and consult the supervisors on matters concerning ethical problems.
When comparing general principles with ethical standards, they are very aspirational as they guild each and every psychologist towards producing a high quality work and meeting the standards (Aguinis & Henle, 2002). In here there is no sanctions and have no any capacity to represent obligations. As a result, their meaning can be easily lost or even loose purpose easily. A number of principles are discussed in here:
i. The principle of beneficence and non-maleficence.
According to this principle, psychologists do have an obligation to protect and do no harm to anyone. The welfare of their colleagues, the society and even animals have to be put into place and no violation is accepted. In any case where a conflict may occur, they have to find solutions using their psychological knowledge in a reasonable way of escaping any form of physical or emotional harm. Many of the actions undertaken do harm even the society financially and hence an alert is important. Any organization and even individual are informed to avoid any loss that may occur. Mental and physical health is always their responsibility towards their fellow colleagues
ii. Principle of fidelity and responsibility
Trust in any organization is important and as a result, psychologist hold it with a lot of esteem. With this they ensure that the responsibilities allocated to them are dealt with appropriately ensuring that the society and other communities involved. Work professional standards is important too, any responsibility must go along with expected behaviour. The interest of those being served must be at the forefront while undertaking any psychological task. Any time they contribute towards the research is not compensated or even little compensated if it happens (Alderson & Morrow, 2004).
iii. Principle of integrity
In any work to do with psychology, honesty, truth and accuracy must be present. No cheating, stealing, fraud or n any misinterpretation of facts is allowed. Every promise given must be fulfilled to the expectations of the society and other relevant bodies. When there is any case of fraud, psychologists have an obligation of ensuring that possible consequences are prevented by taking appropriate actions. Better to have minimal benefits having minimal harm other than vice versa. Responsibilities in this case are done correctly to enhance trust and commitment and avoid any form of technique that could have resulted to the same.
iv. The principle of justice and respect for people’s rights and dignity
Alderson & Morrow, (2004) states that fairness and justice ought to be practised at all cost for every individual to access the psychologist work and benefit from it to the maximum. Special safeguards are put into place to ensure the overall society is safe from any harm that may happen. According to the ethics, individual factors that cause differences are looked at very keenly such as language, disability national origin and culture among others. All people are worth and their dignity is bound to be protected, they also have to be assured of their privacy too. Any form of biasness is eliminated where any form of prejudice is discouraged.
We also have the various standards which are expected such as resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, upholding privacy and confidence as well as advertising and other public statements among others.
History and effective date
It was on august 21, 2002 where the American psychological association adopted this version. Later some amendments were made on June 1, 2003.
Language of the 2002 ethics code with changes marked
It included the introduction under which the following issues were addressed: managing conflicts between the law, and even any other governing authority. Secondly, conflict between ethics and organizational demands.
In any research paper, the following concepts needs to be taken into account:
This is one of the major problems in research of which has divergent views in tackling its definitions. Plagiarism in research distorts the credibility of the content as it is accompanied by dishonesty (Alderson & Morrow, 2004). There exist a number of ways in which one can avoid plagiarism in any give n paper that you write;
1. Whenever you read an abstract or a paragraph and find that it has the correct information you want, one should rephrase and put it in your own words.
2. There exists some content which is very hard to paraphrase and one has no alternative than to copy paste, if you are in such a situation then citing is important.
3. Regularly quoting the sources for a researcher to avoid any plagiarism allegations.
4. Last but not least, you should cite your own words and reference appropriately.
Alderson & Morrow, (2004), the following principles are used in risk assessment for any research;
a. For any project to meet the required standards, it has to be assessed basing on its own merits.
b. Depending on the type of research, appropriate risk assessment strategies should be applied.
c. The researcher should ensure before undertaking any research that risk assessment is done accordingly.
d. It should clearly outline the expected cost and design.
e. Overall project staff have to all the risks that can occur.
f. Risks should be independent hoping for the best.
Informed consent in research
Any given research requires honesty and proper communication between the researcher and the participants (Alderson & Morrow, 2004). The document to be written should be in a conversation form where by the following concepts have to looked upon; benefits, duration, objectives, records should be confidential efficient contact between the researcher and the participants as well as compensation in case of any injury during the process. Reinforcement of key elements is necessary throughout the entire duration of the study.
Privacy and confidentiality
According to Belmont Report, privacy should include respect for persons where they should be in a position to exercise their autonomy and have a right to own personal information. The participants ought to have that confidentiality and be assured that there will be no harm which includes both physical and psychological harm. Understanding also that some communities do need privacy than others is also important.
Data handling and reporting
Hoeyer et al., (2005), refers data handling as the process of storing and disposing data in a way that is safe and reliable. Policies and procedures have to be followed to the letter in ensuring that data is handled accordingly through electronic means or non-electronically. Integrity of the research done should address issues such as confidentiality and the security of the data. However, data handling and reporting defers in consideration with the following;
Type of the data being handled.
The procedures involved.
Responsibilities accompanying data handling.
Type of the media containing data and how it is stored.
Mistakes and negligence
Any research information is susceptible to mistakes. In order to avoid this, innovative ideas have to be put into place to reduce such errors from happening. Due to the limitation of time and resources data at the end in misinterpreted. Hence, every research paper must be done carefully and one should avoid beyond honest errors that in most cases results to negligence.
Working with a mentor in research
Mentors share knowledge, skills, overlooks the researchers work and corrects available mistakes. The less-experienced researcher has a role of listening to the mentor, developing working hours and researching more on the topic. For the two to maintain a healthy environment, they have to agree on the working hours, matters to do with the ownership of the data and the researcher have to utilize the skills imparted on him by the mentor.
North central University requirements for IRB approval
Any individual or researcher involved in IRB activity has to undertake full training in research ethics, faculty, students nor the members are exempted from the same. The research reviews to be approved must be either exempt, expedited or full IRB Review. Exempt is granted only if the research has agreed with the regulations of federal ethics.
Laboratory safety in research
Human researchers in laboratories hold and interact with dangerous materials that may end up harming them. Hence, researchers need to regularly review the information and procedures with minimum attention of one year. Below are a number of areas to have a look at:
Adopt safe handling of materials in the laboratory
Operate each and every equipment in the required manner
Use the appropriate protective equipment’s
Be accountable of everything taking place
Have a way of assessing any problem that may arise
Have relevant emergency responses
Government rules and regulation must be implemented whatever the case
Sharing of research results
The information discovered after the research have to be shared through publication. This grants other researchers the permission to access the information. By properly citing will enable the users to free interact with the information and also research more on the topic. Other ways to distribute information include seminars, posters, conference talks and abstracts. The upcoming technology has contributed so much on disseminating data in a quicker and a broader way. Use of computational models among others is highly encouraged (Schwartz, 2002).
The researcher and the society
He or she has a responsibility of holding public discussions and act as experts in decision making processes. They should clearly reflect to the society the teachings and the content of their data. The society expects them to remain stuck to their objectives and be as accurate as possible.
Importance of ethical guidelines in research
Generally ethics can be defined as the code of conduct that defines whether a certain behaviour is acceptable or not in the society. The guidelines help the researchers to be discipline all through the process and meet the required behaviour standards.
Roy et al., (1991), discusses a number of reasons behind why important there has to be guidelines to be followed in doing research are;
a. With this guidelines in mind, they encourage the use of aims of doing research to avoid any error
b. Research all has to do with cooperation and coordination and hence they uphold the values of collaboration with the participants.
c. Any researcher who owns a particular work is held responsible by the public.
d. Public support is important as well, this will help you fulfil the objectives swiftly.
e. Moral and social norms such as responsibility, compliance with the law among others is cultivated.
It is true that, ethical scientific researchers have a commitment to all the participants in the research to be undertaken. Mentors, advisors among others have to be treated with dignity and every skill learnt have to be implemented. With this, the research process will be the most successful ever. As a result, many unexperienced researchers will always be at the forefront to use your research when modifying theirs too. If the above guidelines are well followed and utilized, the research gotten will be superb.
Aguinis, H., & Henle, C. A. (2002). Ethics in research. Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology, 34-56.
Alderson, P., & Morrow, V. (2004). Ethics, social research and consulting with children and young people. Barnardo’s.
Gregory, I. (2003). Ethics in research. A&C Black.
Hoeyer, K., Olofsson, B. O., Mjörndal, T., & Lynöe, N. (2005). The ethics of research using biobanks: reason to question the importance attributed to informed consent. Archives of internal medicine, 165(1), 97-100.
Roy, D. J., Black, P. M., & McPeek, B. (1991). Ethical principles in research. In Principles and Practice of Research (pp. 91-103). Springer US.
Schwartz, M. S. (2002). A code of ethics for corporatecode of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(1-2), 27-43.
Introduction and applicability