Table of Contents
Literature Summary. 1
Summary 1. 1
Summary 2. 2
Summary 3. 3
Literature Synthesis. 3
Purpose and Hypothesis. 4
Materials Used. 5
Evaluative conditioning is a Pavlov concept in which definition is given by the effect and not necessarily neural or mental process. The evaluative conditioning involves an alteration in the stimulus valence that occurs due to previous pairings of that particular stimulus against another stimulus. In this context, the first stimulus is often denoted to as conditioned stimulus (CS). The second one that is utilized in the experimental set up is known as the unconditioned stimulus. Generally the experiment was done to analyze the effects of various stimuli on people. In this case, students ability to learn concepts of classical and cognitive conditioning was measured.
The concept of evaluative conditioning is accredited to the Pavlovian conditioning. It involves a change in liking which defines the Pavlovian concept of alterations that arises from the stimuli pairings. When the matching occurs, there can be a difference in liking for particular stimuli about how pairing occurs. Therefore, the experimental results in the research herein provide official results that are analyzed with use of ANOVA from the use of different types of cartoons.
According to Zellner et al. (1983), many factors can influence the liking effect of a given condition. Such factors include social, cognitive, conditioning, and a mere exposure. The experiment involved pairings of various flavors and tested within the population. The reasoning states that society ca develop its liking for a given stimuli through a mere exposure. Also, other factors may influence the result. For example, the experiment entailed flavor-flavor mixture in which slightly aversive or neutral flavor was mixed with positive flavor. The result indicated that people might develop the liking for the flavor when pairing occurs. Also, alterations in the characters may lead to change in the affection for a given stimuli.
When flavor-flavor linkage occurs in brands, it is true that people will react differently since the conditioning has changed. In such case, reactions will be mixed, but most probably variations will be wide since some people will respond based on the slightly aversive brand. However, individuals that concentrate on the good name will respond positively to the new blended flavor. The experiment was carried out with the use of different 24 sugar pairings in which the subjects gave a rating based on sweetness or bitterness. Four varied characters were used to conduct the research, with the teas and sucrose, which are common in real population was used in the experiment. The conclusion of the investigation has it that flavor-flavor linkage establish a technique for which people can develop a liking for food.
According to Razran (1954), conditioned stimuli revoked particular reaction when college students and 22 items were used to do the experiment. The experiment was more on the cognitive conditioning in which several factors such as paintings, girl’s pictures, musical selections, quotations, and slogans evoked the samples thereby presenting the food attitude condition. The indicators used to determine the results were determined by the frequency of talks on food related things, the number of times the food linked rhymes within the words appeared, and the speed at which the student samples scrambled the word connected to food-scrambles letters. During the post food conditioning research, the study revealed that the findings were more of unconscious cognition when the research was done without food presentations because the statistics were insignificant and samples were significantly few. The answer showed that the conditioned stimuli during the experiment were unconscious cognition rather than conscious sensory. It was a straightforward form of cognitive conditioning, in which the brain was tasked to think about food since it was a free luncheon moment.
According to Spielberger and Denike (1966), asserts that the development of the awareness is fundamental in the establishing of the enough theory for the human learning. The research involved the descriptive behaviorism and theory of learning. According to the study, the gauge herein is the verbal conditioning, in which the right response support possibility is of high expectation. When general questions are used during oral conditioning experiment, the awareness is developed as exhibited within the used samples of the study. Therefore, people are more likely to develop the theory of learning based on the created knowledge quickly.
When the stimuli variable is varied, the samples will react differently to the conditioned stimuli. The reactions of people thus depend on the perception or attitude towards a given stimuli. It is evident when flavor-flavor pairing led to a new understanding of the population. The positive flavor when paired with slightly aversive one, and instructions changed a bit, people developed a different attitude on the item, and it was no longer considered bad. The experiment on cognitive conditioning in which verbal food statement was rhymed in verbal conditioning during lunch hour in the college. The result showed that people had interest, and the result was significant when the term “food” was mentioned at that time, as opposed to posting food conditioning experiment in which no “food” term was used. Therefore, people develop perception when various are made on conditions appropriately. Cognitive conditioning involves brain activity in which people develop to evaluate a scenario. In most cases, a first case
To investigate the change in human attitude towards liking pictures when paired, with the use of positive ones, neutral, and negative ones. According to Olson and Fazio (2001), human is bound to change their perception on things such as images, when a mixture is provided as a blend.
When a scary cartoon is used to elicit fear in an individual, the chances of disliking even the following pictures for ugliness is higher, especially when individual’s cognitive perspective is absent.
The participants that were involved in the study were twenty-one, eight of which were male, while thirteen were females. The selected individuals were ninth grade students who were free to participate in the study. An individual was free to quit the study at will. It was through willingness. Noteworthy, the samples seemed to enjoy the study because there was cartoons display on the screen. The samples were recruited in a school after obtaining consent from the head of the school to continue with the study. The samples were then given screen display and scale of reaction markings on which they were to mark appropriately accordingly. Various images showed good, positive, neutral, and sad pictures. Based on the individual’s evaluation, the mark entailed a scale of -100 to +100 on which the response was to be given and analyzed accordingly.
- Two stimuli were used during the study. They included two Pokemon cartoons, namely, Shellder (CS-) and Metapod (CS+). The control experiment that was used entailed giving a portion of participants’ precise stimuli that show Pokemon without showing Metapod and vice-versa.
- The size of the display on the screen was 5 in by 5 in.
- Distractor cartoons for Pokemon were used to elicit different reactions in the participants. They included Pidgey, Kangaskhan, Venonat, and Dewgong.
- Filler stimuli were paired in which the neutral pictures or the ones in isolation were correctly used to elicit a reaction in the samples. The norm stimuli entailed five norm-referenced negative stimuli and ten norm-referenced Also, five positive pictures were retrieved from Dan-Glauser and Scherer (2011) database to help in eliciting the variety of reactions to the sample study.
- The computer was used to display the pictures after which ratings were done on which the samples marked their responses on the scale based on their perception. The HP Compaq LA2006x was used, screen resolution: 1600 x 900, and the screen size was 20”. The windows 2007 was used.
The cartoons were displayed for each and every sample during the study. They recorded the results through marking on the scale after the display. The pretest involved the presentation of Pokémon’s Metapod cartoon and Shellder separately to the samples. Afterward, the pairing was done on which the samples gave mixed reactions. It was clear that previous perceptions change when pairing is done, a concept of evaluative conditioning. Eleven people were provided with CS+ conditioning firsthand, and the remaining ten were provided with CS- in a pretest. Afterward, the mixture was done with the use of different types of Pokémon’s cartoons to blend the pictures.
The data was analyzed with use of ANOVA. The results according to the experiment, revealed the data as follows while considering the subject effects: The CS+ had data as follows: Sum of squares in the test part was 4200, df 1, means square 4200, F 4.719, p 0.042, and η² p-value was 0.191. The residual values indicated that among, the samples, sum of squares was 17800, df was 20, and mean square 890. The CS- results were as followed for the test 466.7 as value for the sum of squares, df was 1, the mean square was 466.7, F was 0.789, P was 0.385, and η² p was 0.038. The target stimulus provided the data as follows when analyzed with use of ANOVA, the sum of squares 152.4, df was 1, mean square 152.4, F was 0.341, p 0.566, and η² p 0.017. Lastly, filler stimuli data were recorded as follows: the sum of squares 1050, df 1, mean square 1050, F 1.694, p 0.208, and η² p was 0.078.
The descriptive data were given through graphical representation. The p-value for the CS+ test was 0.042, CS- (P>0.385), target value recorded (p>0.566), and filler (p>0.208). The F value for the stimulus was 2.853, test value was 0.202, and stimulus * test was 3.042.
The CS+ pretest mean value was -1.905. The posttest result was greater a value of 18.095. The majority responded positively, in a post-test, showing that people reacted well to conditioned stimuli. The CS- pretest mean value was 2.857, and it was high than the posttest means value of -3.81. People changed of perception was great when conditioned stimuli were altered. The target stimulus pretest mean value was 29.52, which significantly higher than CS+ and CS-. The posttest value for the same was 33.33, which was the highest of all tests. The response was very high. The filler stimuli likewise recorded positive mean of high value for both pretest and posttest of 28.1 and 18.1 respectively. The information can be described in the graphs as follows.
Figure 1: CS+ Descriptive Data
Figure 2: CS- Descriptive Data
Figure 3: Target Stimulus Descriptive Data
Figure 4: Filler Descriptive Data
The data below shows analysis of the various stimuli on the horizontal axis and equivalent values provided on the vertical axis.
The results as shown by F tests show that when stimulus and test were combined, the variation was broad since the recorded value was 3.042, which indicate that there was high variation concerning the responses from the samples. The information given were not much consistent, thus the high recorded F-test value. On the other hand, the test results showed much more uniform distribution since the f value was 0.202, value, which is close to reference F-test value of 1 for the null hypothesis. In summary, the pairing of the stimuli led to mixed reactions in mixed stimuli*test conditioning.
The reasoning can be deduced from the Pavlov’s concept of response to the stimuli known as classical conditioning in which a given stimulus provokes a reaction, as some samples marked the test scale based on the previous pictures without keenly analyzing the current pictures. However, the pairing of images has a significant effect on the reactions of the samples. When an appealing picture was shown on first sight, the reaction of positivity was much more than expected. Also, when a positive image was issued after that of the mixed bad image, there was a mixed response from the respondent. This response was because some people concentrated on the first positive image which made them to give a positive response that was based on the latter picture. However, some people did the opposite. So was the reason behind high F-test value in a mixed stimuli*test conditioning.
Evaluative conditioning has a significant effect on the perception of people towards various objects. It is what is called flavor-flavor mixture. The neutral pictures, on the other hand, provided a much consistent result, since the variation was not much wide. The smallest value of t-test of 0.202 was an indication of close association to the null hypothesis value of the experiment, which is 1. Therefore, pairing can lead to a change of attitude in people.
The stimuli conditioning has adverse reactions in people. When the conditionings are varied, the opinions tend to vary much as depicted from the variance levels on the test results of the experiment. Pavlov’s classical conditioning states that the second conditioning may be dependent on the first stimuli depending on the first stimuli. The instance, whereby, the second stimuli, is linked to the first one, the reaction can be much similar to the first one.
Evaluative conditioning has significant as well. It narrates about mixing different flavors in a different fashion to come up with the entirely different thing. For example, in this experimental outcome, different images, those of fear and positivity were mixed, samples produced a varied response, some of which, were dependent on the previous picture. If the previous image was appealing, the likelihood of positive response is much higher as compared to when the other picture was negative.
Also, a concept of cognitive conditioning is felt within the experiment. Some people would utilize the classical conditioning alone. However, others would mark the scale based on own thinking. The previous data did not trigger their response to react to respond to the second stimuli. It is interesting that other stimuli can be made to perform the function of first positive stimuli.
Dan-Glauser, E. S., & Scherer, K. R. (2011). The Geneva Affective Picture Database (GAPED): a new 730-picture Database Focusing on Valence and Normative Significance. Behavior research methods, 43(2), 468.
Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2001). Implicit Attitude Formation through Classical Conditioning. Psychological Science, 12(5), 413-417.
Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2001). Implicit Attitude Formation through Classical Conditioning. Psychological Science, 12(5), 413-417.
Spielberger, C. D., & Denike, L. D. (1966). Descriptive Behaviorism versus Cognitive Theory in Verbal Operant Conditioning. Psychological Review, 73(4), 306.
Staats, C. K., & Staats, A. W. (1957). Meaning Established by Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54(1), 74.
Zellner, D. A., Rozin, P., Aron, M., & Kulish, C. (1983). Conditioned Enhancement of Human’s Liking for Flavor by Pairing With Sweetness. Learning and Motivation, 14(3), 338-350.