Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliat
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Student’s Names
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frames of Social Movement
Social movements have emerged to be the current trend used by most reformist to pressurize the government to make their desired changes. Mainly, these movements have been effective, although some have failed terribly. Social movements are groups that empower individuals to protests various forms of social, political, or economic oppression in their communities (Massey, 2011). Usually, organizers of social movements use three frames: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational depending on the specific issue that they are addressing.
In diagnostic framing, the social movement aims at identifying the problem. Accordingly, these individuals hope that their actions will make the government change its policies and be more considerate. An example of this form of movement is the unsuccessful September 22, 2014, Hong Kong streets protests that were led by university students. These demonstrators were protesting against the Chinese government’s appointment of the city’s mayor, and primarily its decision to change Hong Kong’s “One Country-Two Systems” government (Massey, 2011). In their opinion, Beijing would have allowed the city’s residents to elect a leader of their choice. Unfortunately, this type of movement is usually ineffective since the demonstrators lack enough drive to force the government to address their grievances.
Prognostic framing refers to demonstrations that aim at providing solutions to existing political, social, or economic problems. Consequently, the organizers not only rally their supporters in the streets, but they also use soft tactics such as legal methods to address their grievances. An example of such organizations include the death penalty movements in the United States, which comprise of abolitionists and litigators. There are many such organizations in the country, and they have been particularly active since the late 20th century. According to the protesters, the death penalty violates the fundamental human right of individuals (Benford, 2000). Largely, these movements are effective. In the death penalty, in particular, there has been a significant decline in the number of individuals executed in the country.
In motivation framing, organizers usually call their supporters to use forceful and at times violent means to force the government to address their grievances. The most popular such movement in the United States is the anti-Jim Crow policies demonstrations. In this campaign, the protesters were mainly fighting against the racial discrimination in the country (Massey, 2011). Based on the historical performance of motivational framing, it is usually effective in forcing the government to address political, economic, and social injustices.
Although September 22, 2014, Hong Kong street protests were unsuccessful in forcing Beijing to allow Hong Kong residents to elect a mayor of their choice, this movement may have a significant impact on how the Chinese government administers its cities. Lately, there have been a lot of protests against states that are perceived as being dictatorial in their administration, as such, the Hong Kong’s demonstration indicated a desire for people’s participation in choosing their leaders. Accordingly, as China becomes more socially advanced, liberal, and open to public views, the government will allow its people to elect their leaders for it to ensure national stability.
Currently, technology, and especially the social media has enabled people to share information easily and quickly. Since it is difficult for governments to censor communications made through social media, cases of social injustices and violation of human rights are transferred easily through this medium. Additionally, social media has been used efficiently to organize protests in various countries. An example of such demonstrations is the 2012 Egyptian revolution, which unseated the incumbent President Hosni Mubarak. During the same time, the term “Arab Spring” became popular on both Facebook and Twitter and was used to refer to social media-inspired movements in the Middle East and North Africa regions (Shearlaw, 2016). In this protest, demonstrators used Twitter to organize rallies in Cairo and other cities in the country.
Finally, the topic that stood out in this week is “Social Movements as a Challenge to Authority.” In particular, I was unaware that social movements also target corporations (Massey, 2011). I believed that since most countries are capitalistic by nature, individuals and companies competitively bargain for the suitable terms of work without the need for protests. Further, I thought that unnecessary demonstrations could make corporations to relocate to other regions or countries, which may cause members of social movements lose their livelihood. On the contrary, the latter typically view these institutions as being most suitable to address their views.
 
 
 
 
References
Benford, R. (2000). Framing process and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26, 611-639.
Massey, G. (2011). Ways of social change: Making sense of modern times. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Shearlaw, M. (2016). Egypt five years on: Was it ever a ‘social media revolution’? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/25/egypt-5-years-on-was-it-ever-a-social-media-revolution.
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