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People have developed a culture where they have to go through written texts with the intent of grasping some knowledge. However, technology has advanced in such a way that massive amounts of knowledge can not only be found in written texts because other literary forms have been developed. In this regard, video games have been used to enhance learning and problem-solving skills.
Chapter 4 Summary
Chapter four addresses the different views people have about learning with one of them being that it does not involve the mind but the body. This view holds the mind as a digital computer where learning is based on principles, grand generalization, logical computations, and abstractions (Gee 80). The second view about learning is that individuals learn, solve challenges, and think, by reflecting on what they have experienced in the course of their lives. The concept here is that people go through experiences and later make associations and connections with the challenges at hand to come up with a lasting solution (Gee 84). To demonstrate this concept, a video game, Deus Ex has been analyzed in which the players of these games can select the learning methods, as well as problem-solving skills that best fit them (Gee 88).
Chapter 5 Summary
In chapter five of the book, information in the context of human learning has been identified as a vexed thing. People have been regarded to be poor at learning from a lot of overt information, especially if such information is not based on the context where it can be applied (Gee 125). However, if an individual happens to have experience in such settings and can simulate the same in their minds, reading and listening to any amount of information becomes easy (Gee 127). The concept of learning and immersion of overt information is demonstrated through a game, Tomb Raider. In the game, Lara Croft is taught how to play the game and avoid obstacles by her master, Von Croy. Generally, the game is designed to avail information to a user in a systematically designed manner and to train or demonstrate to them how this information can be used in making strategic decisions (Gee 130).
The Focal Concept Under Consideration
The two chapters are addressing the changed meaning of the term literacy. Traditionally, literacy was identified as the ability to write and read. However, the two chapters have focused on video games to demonstrate the new meaning of literacy, which also incorporates the ability to interpret visual and audio information. Today, for instance, symbols, images, artifacts, diagrams, and graphs, among other visual symbols have been incorporated in the current communication system (Gee 20). For example, when a person can read and interpret images in advertisement programs, they are said to be visual literate. However, a visually literate person should be able to capture the right message because there are different ways through which the visual images can be read, some that will even contradict with the interests and intentions of the advertisement (Gee 20).
Application of the Focal Concept 
The concept of using video games to enhance different forms of literacy and problem-solving skills can be applied in many scenarios. For example, in the current society, almost each and every child in a homestead has different toys or other channels through which they engage in video games. It has been identified that children who participate in video games have better and well-developed thinking capacities compared to other children of their age who are not exposed. This difference indicates that video games enhance thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and different learning methods.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the paper has analyzed and put to detail how video games are used in improving learning and problem-solving skills. Literacy forms have evolved from reading and writing to images, artifacts, diagrams, and graphs, among other visual symbols. Importantly, these forms have the incorporation of various visual and audio features has improved the learning skills of children and increased the role and importance of video games in their development.
 
 
 
 
Works Cited
Gee, James. What Video Games Have to Teach us About Learning and Literacy. Palgrave, Macmillan, 2003.