The world is increasingly becoming connected through trade and cultural integration due to the expanding and efficient modes of communication. Today, the near excellent connectivity with other people across the globe has turned it into a global village. For instance, the internet connectivity through social media has brought people together regardless of their social or cultural backgrounds. It is easy for people to push campaigns for any humanitarian regardless of the location, for example, the “black lives matter” movement received support from nearly every part of this globe. Similarly, any trade decision by the major economies like the United States, China or UK have ripple effect to another nations. This paper reviews an article on the relationship between globalization and environment in India by Sugata Marjit.
India started liberalization of its economy in the 1990s to align herself with the global practices. Economic liberalization meant that the market was solely controlled by the forces of demand and supply with government only playing a supervisory role. In the article Globalization and the environment in India, Sugata Marjit looks into how globalization led to the climatic changes in India. Particularly, he focuses on the how Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has impacted the climate change with reference to India.
Even though there are few scholarly articles that focus on the relationship between FDI and Indian environment, there exist studies primarily focus on the general environmental issues like carbon emission (Marjit, 2018). Hypothetically, the 1990s trade liberalization had minimal impact on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. On the other hand, it has significantly effects on the country’s economy as it contributes to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In other words, FDI and trade do not have major direct impact on the environment in comparison with indirect effect that results from the positive influence on the GDP (Marjit, 2018).
The calculations from the World Bank data indicate a direct and proportional relationship between GDP and the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Any rise in the GDP result to proportionate rise in the amount of CO2 gas emitted into the atmosphere. The data further show that the relationship between these two variables (GDP and CO2 emission) is even stronger after the liberalization of the Indian market in the 1990s (Marjit, 2018). On the other hand, the trade shows an inverse proportional relationship with the CO2 gas emission. The inverse relationship results from the fact that most of the imports into India are finished products; CO2 primarily comes from processing factories and automobile emissions.
However, there is still need for more scientific studies to establish the impact of production and consumption patterns on the Indian environment. Current studies only focus on the impact of the climatic change on equal wealth distribution among the Indian population (Marjit, 2018). Whereas the current studies are critical in environmental conservation, there is need to fill the existing gap so as to promote only the methods of production and consumption that does not have adverse environmental impact.
In conclusion, globalization through the Foreign Direct Investment in India has significantly impacted her environment. FDI results in the growth of GDP which has a direct proportional relationship with carbon dioxide emission. As the world increasingly become a global village, more FDI is expected in India and other developing countries which in turn increases CO2 emission.
Reference
Marjit, S. (2018, January 28). Globalization and the environment in India . Retrieved from Asia Pathways: www.asianpathways-adbi.org/2018/01/globalization-and-the-environment-in-india/