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Hazards Caused by Unexpected Startups or Overruns
Hazards caused by unexpected startups or unexpected overruns of machines occur mainly in workshops. Their exposure interval is not very high though they have a quite substantial level of risk. This paper will give an assessment of the risks posed by the unexpected startups or overruns.
Initial Risk Assessment
Hazards caused by unexpected startups or unexpected overruns of machines have a marginal impact on the personnel because these individuals know how to control these equipment. The equipment are normally fitted with protective handles to ensure there is no contact of the moving parts with the human body parts. In addition, the personnel wear protective gears, and the moving parts in the machines are usually covered with a protective shield.
These malfunctions only occur occasionally. Consequently, the exposure interval is occasional. Their risk to the working personnel is medium because when they occur they do not cause much harm to the personnel. However, unskilled individual or people who may interfere with the moving parts may lose their limbs or even life due to injuries (Friends, & Kohn, 2010).
On overall, malfunctions have marginal effects because the control personnel usually detect the unexpected overruns or startups in time. The probability of their exposure is minimal because in most scenarios the overruns are because of overworking of the machines. Overworking of machines is a probable event in workshops (Reese, 2015).
These malfunctions do not cause a lot of downtime because they only occur occasionally hence their severity is negligible. The exposure time is low; therefore, the probability of them causing a downtime is remote. In fact, overruns only occur when there is an unexpected increase in processing.
Malfunctions have a negligible impact on the environment because when they occur they do not last for long periods. Since they occur for short periods, therefore, their exposure interval is improbable. When malfunctions occur, they can substantially affect the quality of the products. As a result, their severity impact is classified as marginal. The level of exposure to the product may be occasional especially when the malfunctions are not fixed in time (Friends, & Kohn, 2010).
Post-Control Measure Risk Assessment
After controlling these malfunctions, their effects on the human personnel are low and hence their severity is negligible. Their exposure interval is minimal; therefore, the probability is remote. The risk code is also very low because the occurrences are infrequent.
When controlled these malfunctions cause minimal effects to the equipment, hence they have marginal severity. Their exposure interval to the equipment is low. As a result, the probability of them causing a malfunction to the equipment is remote. The risk code is medium because the equipment may also malfunction because of wear and tear (Goetsch, 2014).
When controlled, these malfunctions are likely to be infrequent. Therefore, their severity in terms of downtime is negligible. The exposure interval is also improbable. Accordingly, the risk code becomes very low.
The malfunctions are highly unlikely to affect the environment in any way especially when controlled. It then follows that the severity is negligible, the probability is improbable, and the risk code is very low. Post control measures can also be taken to ensure that the malfunctions do not affect the product in any manner.
Additional Control Measures
Some of the additional control measures that could be adopted to minimize these risks include:

  1. Proper selection, combination, arrangements, assembly, and installation as per the manufacturer’s instructions.
  2. Protection of the control circuit.
  3. Using these devices according to the required voltage and current ratings.
  4. Using these devices in the required environmental conditions. Therefore, electromagnetic compatibility, vibration, shock, contamination, and wash down must also be considered.
  5. The limit switch can also be replaced with a direct opening action tongue switch.
  6. The contactor can be over-dimensioned to offer additional protection against welded contacts (Goetsch, 2014).

Friends, M., & Kohn, J. (2010). Fundamentals of occupational safety and health (5th Ed.). New Delhi, India: Government Institutes Press.
Goetsch, D. (2014). Occupational safety and health for technologists, engineers, and managers (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishers.
Reese, C. (2015). Occupational health and safety management: A practical approach (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: CRC Press.