While both Confucianism and Hinduism revolve around the belief of human beings and an external supreme being, the latter is more towards religion. Hinduism has been regarded by many as the oldest religion and as a ball into which all Indian cultures and traditions are rolled into. The belief in Hinduism is that all living things continue entirely in circles of birth, death and rebirth. The main teaching is the caste system in which a person’s the previous evolution determines a person’s hierarchical position in the current life. Confucianism on the other hand is regarded simply as a way of life though it encompasses features such as religion, tradition all of which are a result of the development from the teachings of Confucius, a Chinese philosopher. The main foundation of Confucianism is the daily and normal activities of a human being and is an expression of our moral health and relation towards each other.Accorfing to Hinduism, there are also some presumptions that are different from other religions. (mckenzie, 1922) In regards to the ethical issues of these two religions, the main concern is the perceived association with any godly atmosphere. To discuss the ethical issues, we need to first cover the major scriptures entailed.
In Hinduism the scriptures include Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita and Agamas. On the other end, the goals that Hinduism is based around are: ethics and duties; prosperity and work; desires and passion; and liberation, freedom and salvation. These describe the moral authority a believer is to uphold if he/she is to attain the ultimate spiritual life. In confiscuanism, the teachings, rather than scriptures and themes evolved over time. Confucian ideologies changed to the three principles of the people when the republic of china was founded. These principles later changed to Maoism when the state changed to the people’s republic of china and finally changed to work ethic when the East Asian community was developed in the twentieth century. To be precise there are about six ethical issues in Confucianism and include xi, zhii, li, yi, wen and ren (Waxman).
One of the moral obligations in confiscuism is honesty and should be accorded the highest possible rank in the lifetime of any human being. Some concepts in this religion encase a believer’s honesty in relation to his/her parents and to the neighbors and colleagues. This is to state that the survival of any believer revolves around those surrounding him/her. In the Confucian lifestyle, the Confucian ruler dominated the community and the family. This is to say that parents and the people that one needed for survival were to be accorded the highest levels of honesty.In comparison to Hinduism, honesty and to a large extent ethics are regarded as things that are done voluntarily with no rules written for guidance. So to say, honesty was accorded to the people that one felt obliged to with no supreme member given the highest accord.
The idea that confiscus instilled to his followers is that of the superior man. In other words, one was required to gain the impression of having attained higher than his past and higher than his fellows. This meant the highest levels of respect. The attributes that he accorded the superior man include: purpose, poise, self-sufficiency, earnestness, thoroughness, sincerity, truthfulness, purity of thought and action, love of truth, mental hospitality, rectitude, prudence, composure, and fearlessness among others. Hinduism in this respect regards human beings as being directed by actions of Saguru, an enlightened master. Knowing Saguru is essential to personal discipline, good conduct, pilgrimage, purification, self-mediation and surrender in God.
Respect to any particular problem is a doctrine of confuscuaism. In this relation there is either the practical response or the reflective approach. The reflective approach requires the human being to maintain some aspect of humility when facing very difficult situations. This is regarded as a not so correct approach since different situation require different approaches. An instance that exemplifies the irrational of this theory is the idea of turning in one’s father in order to stel a sheep. In Hinduism, beings are regarded as obedient with the emphasis on maintaining respect from all dimensions and more so on family matters. As such there is no option available to facing any problem but the requirement to be morally upright and accept the consequences or fate for hierarchical purpose.
While it is true that both confusciaism and Hinduism atttained the ideologies based on similar philosophies and the view of life. The achievement of this was basically on different terms with Hinduism achieving this through the caste system while Confucianism attained this through meritocrady.In Hinduism, there was this ideology of Dharma which simply meant obeying the religious symbols and laws. Furthermore, Karma indicated that a person’s afterlife was the determinant in the next step after life. Confucianism social kin was based on the educational system and work professionalism which were meant to determine the person’s position. On the Confucianism part, the main emphasis was that it was a political and social ideology. Some of the issues included non-aggression and Junzi. Junzi meant that some superior individuals were present in the society and they looked over all public affairs. They were perceived not to tolerate any personal influence and their roles were straightforward with no wavering on the roles stated.
Last, but not least, was the family stature in both these ideologies. In Confucianism, the family stature was patriarchal with the males having a higher stature than the females. This in respect required the females to be submissive and obedient. The women of this ideology were taught self-discipline, etiquette, house hold management, humility and chastity. According to Hinduism women were regarded as very brittle being with the need of protection. The first protection was from the father, later on the husband and in the old ages her sons. This ideology was mainly biased with many rights deprived. It is stated that women were even burned alive with their husbands’ dead bodies at funerals in an act known as Sati (fjarod, Rebekah , & Russell, 2017).
Though there are different factors in these two religions, some remarkable similarities have been observed between them
Hinduism and Confucianism share a number of similarities although the two beliefs are different. Both religions played a big role in determining the roles of women in the Indian and Chinese societies. Both believed that women were subordinates to the men of their societies. These religions viewed women lowly and as helpers to men. In Hinduism women were to be protected by their fathers, then their husbands and at old age by their sons. They viewed women as Servants to their husbands, mothers to their husbands’ sons and their husbands’ lovers in bed. Whereas in the Confucianism beliefs women greatest duty was to bring forth children and they weren’t supposed to control or take charge of the husbands’ duties. The two societies hence viewed women as subordinates to the men. Women in these societies mainly took house works and their role remained fairly minimal. Women were viewed as smaller to men and naturally they should have been humble.
Furthermore the two religions believed in peaceful existence to bring order to human beings .In the Confucianism religion they taught on peace and non-aggressive fighting. Confucius also stated that peace was achieved via harmony and harmony was maintained by virtues. Virtues were inculcated through education. Confucianism did not allow violence in the moral and in the practical standing point (Andromeda, 1999). They also believed that self-transformation for the society was a gradual and active process. Confucianism taught kindness, love, benevolence, truthfulness and sincerity in all that you do. All these are heavenly virtues that we all should have. In Hinduism their main teaching was of inner peace which contributed to world peace. They believed that if man worked hard in the cultivation of virtues there would be no conflicts and violence in the world. The Bhargava Gita is considered to be the Hindu’s key to achieving peace. Furthermore, the Bhargava Gita states that matters of contradictions between people should be resolved using disciplined actions (Georgetown University, 2010).
In these religions they believed in social orders. Order of people and interactions governed their relationship such as the ruler and the ruled. For Confucianism there were five pairs of relationships: the ruler and the subjects; Father and son; elder brother and younger siblings; friend and friend and husband and wife. Social harmony in this religion grew because everyone understood their roles in the society. Whereas in Hinduism they believed in the caste system of social order. In this they believed that people were different and they fit differently in the society. This showed that social order was a similarity in both Confucianism and Hinduism.
Another thing the religions have in common is their strict policies in education. The Confucianism had goals in education to produce men who were decisive in their roles of governance. The education was supposed to produce people of suitable behaviours and cultivate their cultures (McEnroe, 2013).In Hinduism vidya is the only way which a person can gain knowledge rightfully. In Hindu traditions an uneducated person was equal to an animal. This was because without education a person could not rise up against his physical self. They also believed that education was a sword and it could be used for construction or destruction of the society and that with knowledge comes power. In this religion they believed of two types of knowledge the higher knowledge and the lower knowledge. Lower knowledge was acquired via scholarly study of the scripture while higher knowledge was gained when on acquired self-realization. Furthermore, one could not live with higher knowledge alone and he/she needed knowledge of wealth in order to survive in the material world (Jayaram, 2002).
Both philosophies had life goals. In Confucianism the goal was to be the best Confucian as you can be. This was achieved by living a virtuous life. Confucianism tried to integrate people through relationships (McCombs, 1997).Confucianism was to teach people how to live good and honestly. On the other side, Hinduism had four goals of life and that is moksha, ardha , dharma and Kama. Hinduism believed that with these goals and that it was okay to seek all of the four goals. These goals also applied to men only (Whittemore , n.d.).
Hinduism and Confucianism had a system of leadership. In Confucianism they believed any leader should be noble and a virtuous. They believed that loyalty and trustworthiness should be the base of a good leader. Furthermore, they also said a leader needs council to advise him and to correct him when he is wrong. A leader was humble and cautious (Brown, 2016). Virtue was the basis to which a leader received his power. Confucius also believed a leader should be supportive of his/her subjects in order to be trusted .Being a good leader in the Confucius religion was not instantaneous achievement. Leadership was a gradual progress that required discipline and dedication (Chicung, 1997). In Hinduism they had four categories of socioeconomic of hierarchy. This comprised of warriors, priests and commoners. They also had the untouchables who used to do roles that nobody else would have wanted to do such as butchery and hunting (Hindu leadership, 2014).The hierarchy of the caste is based on the degree of voluntary selflessness, poverty and self-control.
Hinduism and Confucianism both influenced philosophy, In Hinduism it influenced the reason and morality. Hinduism believed that anyone who exercised steadiness in virtues was wise. They also believed that anyone whose judgements were not associated with pride, desire, profits and pleasure was also wise. They believed that forgiveness was a virtue of weakness and an ornament of the strong (Gangopadhyay, 2017). On the other hand Confucianism influenced behaviors and humanity by instilling virtues like peace and love. The philosophy that was influenced was the one of selfishness and this was turned to the philosophy of association. Confucius integrated relationships with others and inculcated Love and respect to one another.
Confucianism and Hinduism are among the oldest religions in the world. Both these ideologies are meant to empower human beings but Confucianism is mainly social and political while Hinduism is a religious and social system with the main focus on spirituality. As such, most differences and similarities are not well pointed out and require an in depth analysis and study.
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