1           GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1       GENERAL

Interpretation
Owner: Means the same as “principal” or “proprietor”.
Contractor: Means the same as “builder”.
Supply: Means “supply only” – do not allow for installation.
Provide: Means “supply and install”.
Required: Means required by the contract documents or by the local council or statutory authorities.
Proprietary or Trade: Means identifiable by naming the manufacturer, supplier, installer, trade name, brand name, and catalogue or reference number.
Standards
Use referenced Australian or other standards (including amendments) which are current one month before the date of the contract except where other editions or amendments are required.
Manufacturers’ or suppliers’ recommendations
Select, store, handle and install proprietary products or systems in accordance with the current published recommendations of the manufacturer or supplier.
The recommendations of manufacturers of products (e.g. windows) or systems (e.g. steel framing) must be followed unless the owner and the builder agree otherwise.
Bushfire protection
If required, provide protection to AS 3959 (Construction of buildings in bushfire prone areas).
AS 3959-1991 (Construction of buildings in bushfire prone areas) was designed for incorporation in BCA96, but many local councils have their own requirements which must be complied with. SAA HB 36-1993 (Building in bushfire-prone areas), published by Standards Australia is an invaluable aid to understanding bushfire protection and is designed to be read in conjunction with the standard.

1.2       CONTRACTS AND FINANCE

General conditions

  • ABIC Lump Sum Contract

Enter the selected General Conditions of Contract.
Payment and adjustment of contract sum
At commencement of the building work, submit a schedule of anticipated progress claims which will be made throughout the contract.
Progress claims break-down: With each progress claim, submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each section or trade heading designated in the specification.
Delete where schedule of progress payments is included in General conditions of contract.
Schedules for provisional sums, prime cost items and items to be supplied by owner are included in many General conditions of Contract. Where these schedules are not included in the contract they may be included in the General requirements or appended to the contract. Most contracts provide for an adjustment to the contract sum where the amount expended on provisional sums and prime cost items exceeds the amount allowed.

1.3       AUTHORITIES AND ESTABLISHMENT

Prior applications and approvals

  • Nil

List the applications made, fees paid and approvals received.
Existing services
Attend to existing services as follows:

  • If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If such a service crosses the line of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent support for the existing service.
  • If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.

Temporary services and works
Provide temporary toilet accommodation. Connect to the sewer main if required by the Local Authority.
Use of existing services

  • Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract. >

List any conditions of use applying to use of existing services as temporary services. Delete if builder to provide temporary services.
Signs
Provide a signboard displaying the owner/s name, the lot number and the builder’s name, address and licence number.
List the occupied premises and period of occupation. Delete if not applicable.

1.4       EXECUTION AND COMPLETION

Survey marks
Preserve and maintain the owners survey marks in their true positions.
Rectification: If the proprietor’s survey marks are disturbed or obliterated, immediately give notice and rectify the disturbance or obliteration.
Hours of work

  • In accordance with Council approval

Use to give directions on restricted hours of work.
Order of work

  • At the Contractors discretion

Use to give directions on a particular order of work, sequencing or staging.
Submission of a construction program may be warranted in more complex projects. List the requirements for the program and method and timing of updates.
Removal of temporary work, services and plant
Remove temporary work services and construction plant within 10 working days after practical completion.
Rectification: Clean and repair damage caused by the installation or use of temporary work and services and restore existing facilities used during construction to original condition.
Final cleaning
Remove rubbish and surplus material from the site and clean the work throughout.
Warranties
Name the owner as warrantee and give the owner copies of manufacturers’ warranties.
Instruction manuals
Give the owner manufacturers’ instruction manuals.
Operation
Ensure moving parts operate safely and smoothly.
Termite barriers
Provide a durable notice permanently fixed and located in or near the meter box as required by Part 3.1.3 BCA 96 Volume 2.
Surveyor’s certificate
Give the owner a certificate which confirms that the work, including boundary fences, has been correctly located.
Services layout
Give the owner a plan which shows the location of underground services.
Authorities’ approvals
Give the owner evidence of approval of the local council and statutory authorities whose requirements apply to the work.
The Building Code of Australia (BCA96), including state and territory variations, is enforced by local councils and, along with the requirements of statutory authorities (e.g. electricity and water supply), controls domestic construction in Australia. NATSPEC DOMESTIC has been aligned with BCA96 (Amendment 4, January 1999 excluding state and territory variations) but any local requirements must take precedence.
Keys
Give the owner two keys for each set of locks keyed alike and two keys for each lock keyed to differ.

1.5       TERMITE PROTECTION

General
Standard: To AS 3660.1 (Protection of buildings from subterranean termites – Prevention, detection and treatment of infestation – New buildings).

  • Method: >Termimesh

AS 3660.1-1995 (Protection of buildings from subterranean termites – New buildings) is referenced in BCA96. The Northern Territory appendix of the BCA requires additional protection in areas where Mastotermes Darwiniensis are prevalent.
Chemical soil barriers – reticulation systems: Submit evidence that the system has been type tested to AS 3660.1 (Protection of buildings from subterranean termites – Prevention, detection and treatment of infestation – New buildings) Appendix D.

1.6       TIMBER GENERALLY

Unseasoned timber
If unseasoned timber is provided, or variations in moisture content are likely, make allowance for shrinkage, swelling and differential movement.
Durability
General: Provide timbers with natural durability appropriate to the conditions of use, or preservative-treated timbers of equivalent durability.
Natural durability classification: To AS 1604 (Timber – Preservative-treated – Sawn and round) Table F2.
Minimum requirements:

  • Class 1: Timbers in contact with the ground.
  • Class 2: Timbers above ground, not in continuous contact with moisture, well ventilated, protected from moisture but exposed to the weather.
  • Class 3: Timbers above ground, not in continuous contact with moisture, well ventilated, protected with a finish, and well maintained.
  • Class 4: Timbers fully protected from moisture, indoors, above ground, and well ventilated.

Preservative treatment
Standard: To AS 1604 (Timber – Preservative treated – Sawn and round).
Hazard classification: To AS 1604 (Timber – Preservative treated – Sawn and round) Table D1.
CCA (copper chrome arsenic) preservative: Type1.  Landscaping materials
 

2           SITE PREPARATION

2.1       GENERAL

Extent of work
Includes; excavation for SW, Sewer drains, footings; site benching for slabs; driveway, paths and landscaping;
Standard
Groundworks for slabs and footings: To AS 2870 (Residential slabs and footings – Construction).
Interpretation
Rock: Monolithic material with volume greater than 0.5 m3 which cannot be removed until broken up by mechanical means such as rippers or percussion tools.
Bad ground: Ground unsuitable for the work, including fill liable to subsidence, ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and ground which is, or becomes, soft, wet or unstable.
Line of influence: A line extending downward and outward from the bottom edge of a footing, slab or pavement and defining the extent of foundation material having influence on the stability or support of the footings, slab or pavement.
Subgrade: The trimmed or prepared portion of the formation on which the pavement or slab is constructed.
Immediate notice
If rock or bad ground is encountered, advise the owner immediately.
Explosives
Do not use explosives.

2.2       Not Used

2.3       TREES TO BE RETAINED

Existing trees, plants and shrubs

  • Trees, plants and shrubs to be retained:
    > marked with red hessian band
  • Trees, plants and shrubs to be removed:
    > marked white paint

Local councils often have detailed requirements for protection of trees and control of erosion which builders must comply with.
Marking
Mark trees which are required to be retained using suitable non-injurious, easily visible and removable means of identification. Remove the identification on completion.
Protection
Protect from damage trees which are required to be retained. Do not remove topsoil from the area within the dripline of the trees and keep this area free of construction material and debris.
Excavation
If excavating near trees required to be retained, use hand methods to locate, expose and cleanly remove the roots on the line of excavation.

2.4       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Erosion control
Avoid erosion, contamination, and sedimentation of the site, surrounding areas, and drainage systems.
Dewatering
Keep the site free of water and prevent water flow over new work.

2.5       SITE CLEARING

Extent
Limit clearing to areas to be occupied by construction, paving or landscaping.
Clearing operations
Remove everything on or above the site surface, including rubbish, scrap, grass, vegetable matter and organic debris, scrub, trees, timber, stumps, boulders and rubble. Remove grass to a depth just sufficient to include the root zone.
Grubbing
Grub out or grind stumps and roots over 75 mm diameter to a minimum depth of 500 mm below subgrade under construction, and 300 mm below the finished surface in unpaved areas.
Removal of topsoil
General: Remove the topsoil layer of the natural ground which contains substantial organic matter over the areas to be occupied by construction and paving.
Maximum depth: 100 mm.
Topsoil stockpiles
Stockpile site topsoil required for re-use. Protect stockpiles from contamination by other excavated material, weeds and building debris.
Surplus material
Take possession of surplus material and remove it from the site.

2.6       EXCAVATION

Extent
Excavate to give the levels and profiles required for construction, site services, paving, and landscaping. Allow for compaction or settlement.
Foundations
After excavation, confirm that the bearing capacity is adequate.
Under-floor access
Provide a minimum clearance to underside of timber bearers of 400 mm.
A minimum clearance of 400 mm under suspended timber floors is recommended by AS 3660.1-1995 (Protection of buildings from subterranean termites – New buildings), so that adequate access can be provided for inspection for termite attack. If this is not required, a minimum of 150 mm for protection against damp is acceptable in most situations.
Bearing surfaces
Provide even plane bearing surfaces for load-bearing elements including footings. Step for level changes. Make the steps to the appropriate courses if supporting masonry.
Reinstatement
If excavation exceeds the required depth, or deteriorates, reinstate with fill to the correct depth, level and bearing value.
Existing footings
If excavation is required below the line of influence of an existing footing, use methods which maintain the support of the footing and ensure that the structure and finishes supported by the footing are not damaged.
Grading
Grade the ground surface externally and under suspended floors to drain ground or surface water away from buildings without ponding.

2.7       SURFACE PREPARATION

General
Before placing fill, ground slabs or load-bearing elements, remove loose material, debris and organic matter and compact the ground to achieve the required density.
Placing fill
Place fill in layers and compact each layer to achieve the required density.
Moisture content
If necessary to achieve the required density or moisture content, adjust the moisture content of the fill before compaction.
Requirements for load-bearing fill, if any, should be specified by an engineer. AS 3798-1996 (Guidelines on earthworks for commercial and residential developments) gives general advice on earthworks.

2.8       PILING    NOT USED

Bored piers
After excavating bored piers, remove loose material and water from the base and confirm the bearing capacity. Do not allow loose material to fall down the hole before or during concreting; provide a liner if necessary.
Timber piled footing system
Provide a proprietary system designed to AS 2870-1996 (Residential slabs and footings – Construction).
Screw-in foundations
Provide a proprietary system designed to AS 2159-1995 (Piling – Design and installation).
Requirements for piling, if any, should be specified by an engineer.

2.9       SERVICE TRENCHES

Excavation
Generally, make trenches straight between manholes, inspection points and junctions, with vertical sides and uniform grades.
Trench widths
Keep trench widths to the minimum consistent with the laying and bedding of the relevant service and construction of manholes and pits.
Backfilling
General: Backfill service trenches as soon as possible after laying the service. Place backfill in layers. Compact each layer to a density sufficient to minimise settlement.
Backfill material: Excavated spoil or well graded inorganic material with maximum particle size of 75 mm.

  • Next to services: Do not place any particles greater in size than 25 mm within 150 mm of services.
  • Under paved areas: Coarse sand, controlled low strength material or fine crushed rock.
  • In reactive clay sites classified M, H or E to AS 2870 (Residential slabs and footings – Construction): Impervious material.

Inadequate backfilling can lead to differential settlement and damage to paving and landscaping. In reactive clay soils, it is important that service trenches do not act as a conduit to carry moisture into the ground next to the foundations, so impervious material should be used for backfill.
 
 

3           CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

3.1       GENERAL

Extent of work;
Includes;  footings, slab, paths,
 
Cross reference
Refer to the General requirements section for termite protection.
Standards
Concrete structures generally: To AS 3600 (Concrete structures).
Ground slabs and footings: To AS 2870 (Residential slabs and footings – Construction).
Because ground conditions vary so much around Australia, concrete structures are usually designed by a professional engineer but this is not always necessary.
AS 2870-1996 (Residential slabs and footings – Construction) provides a system for classifying soil and provides a range of typical design solutions for ground slabs and footings which can be used without resorting to engineering design.
However, in the absence of a chemical soil barrier protection against termites, design to ensure cracking of slabs does not occur may be essential. Such design should be by an engineer.
SAA HB28-1997 (The design of residential slabs and footings) is also a useful design guide.
The requirements of this section may need to be varied by the Engineer to suit site conditions.

3.2       GROUND SLAB VAPOUR BARRIER

Material
General: Provide a proprietary vapour barrier which consists of high impact resistant polyethylene film minimum 0.2 mm thick which has been pigmented and branded by the manufacturer.

  • Type: > ‘Fortecon’ orange grade

Base preparation
Blind the surface with sufficient sand to cover any hard projections. Wet the sand just before placing the vapour barrier.

3.3       REINFORCEMENT

Minimum lap
Splice as follows:

  • Mesh generally: 225 mm.
  • Trench mesh: 500 mm.
  • Bars: Greater of either 500 mm or 25 x bar diameter.
  • Strip footing intersections and corners: For full width of intersecting reinforcement.

Minimum cover
Unprotected by membrane on ground or external surfaces: 40 mm.
Protected by membrane on ground: 30 mm.
Internal surfaces: 20 mm.
Aggressive soil or salty environment: 65 mm.

3.4       CONCRETE

Ready mixed supply
Standard: To AS 1379 (Specification and supply of concrete).
Maximum slump: 100 mm.
Concrete placing
Depth: If concrete is deeper than 350 mm, place it in layers so that each succeeding layer is blended into the preceding one by the compaction process.
Slabs and pavements: Place concrete uniformly over the width of the slab so that the face is generally vertical and normal to the direction of placing.
Compaction
Vibrate concrete to remove entrapped air, but avoid over-vibration that may cause segregation.
Curing
Protection: Protect concrete from premature drying and from excessive hot, cold and/or windy conditions.
Method: Cure concrete by

  • using a proprietary curing compound; or
  • keeping it covered and moist for the following periods:
  • In-ground footings: 2 days.
  • Exposed footings, beams and slabs: 7 days.

Formwork removal
Remove timber formwork.
Stripping times (not used)
Leave formwork for suspended structures in place after pouring concrete for the following periods:

  • Vertical surfaces: 2 days.
  • Bottom surfaces: 7 days with shoring and backprops left in position for 21 days.

3.5       JOINTS

Construction joints
Joint preparation: Roughen and clean the hardened concrete joint surface, remove loose or soft material, free water and foreign matter. Dampen the surface before placing the concrete.
Slip joints
If concrete slabs are supported on masonry, provide proprietary pre-lubricated slip joints.

3.6       CONCRETE BEARER SUPPORTS

General
Provide proprietary precast stumps to support bearers at 1800 mm maximum centres.
Concrete stumps
General: Set stumps 25 to 50 mm into concrete pad footings.
Marking: Maker’s name on one face.
Bracing: Brace stumps which project above the ground by more than 12 times the width of their smallest face.
Concrete stump construction table
Provide sizes and reinforcement as follows:

Length (mm) Size (mm) Reinforcement
Up to 1400 100 x 100 x 110 diameter One 5 mm hard drawn wire
1401 – 1800 100 x 100 or 110 diameter Two 5 mm hard drawn wires
1801 – 3000 125 x 125 or 140 diameter Two 5 mm hard drawn wires

 

4           TIMBER AND STEEL CONSTRUCTION

4.1       GENERAL

Extent of work
Includes;  framed walls, ceiling and roof trusses
Cross references
Refer to the following sections:

  • General requirements, for termite protection and timber durability.
  • Concrete construction, for concrete bearer supports.
  • Brick and block construction, for clearance for timber frame shrinkage and masonry bearer supports.
  • Block and tile finishes, for waterproofing of wet areas.
  • Painting, for priming of steel and timber before fixing, and repair of zinc-coated steel after cutting and welding.

Standards
Timber framing and flooring: To AS 1684 (National Timber Framing Code) or AS 1720.1 (Timber structures – Design methods).
Structural steelwork: To AS 1250 (The use of steel in structures) or AS 4100-1998 (Steel structures).
Cold-formed steel framing: Provide a proprietary system designed to AS 3623 (Domestic metal framing).
Preparation of metal surfaces: To AS 1627 Various (Metal finishing – Preparation and pre-treatment of surfaces).
Detailed requirements for timber framing in areas with design gust wind speeds up to 41 m/s are set out in AS 1684-1992 (National Timber Framing Code) but other codes designed for local conditions may be acceptable or mandatory.
Design of timber trusses must be to AS 1720.1-1997 (Timber structures – Design methods).
Design of timber framing to AS 1720.1-1997, and of structural steelwork and cold-formed steel framing, will normally be by an engineer. Wind loads are covered in AS 4055-1992 (Wind loads for housing).
Member sizes should be scheduled on the drawings.

4.2       MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Cold-formed steel framing
Cold-form sections from zinc-coated steel or aluminium/zinc alloy coated steel to AS 1397 (Steel sheet and strip – Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated)/Z200 or AZ175.
Self-drilling screws
Standard: To AS 3566 (Screws – Self-drilling – For the building and construction industries) corrosion resistance class 2.
Flashings and damp-proof courses
Standard: To AS/NZS 2904 (Damp-proof courses and flashings).
Timber fasteners
Metal washers: Provide washers to the heads and nuts of all bolts and coach screws.
Steel straps: Zinc-coated steel to AS 1397 (Steel sheet and strip – Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated)/Z275, minimum size 25 x 1 mm or 30 x 0.8 mm.
Galvanizing
Galvanize mild steel components (including fasteners) to AS 1214 (Hot-dip galvanized coatings on threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series)) or AS 1650 (Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles), as appropriate, if

  • exposed to weather;
  • embedded in masonry; or
  • in contact with chemically treated timber.

Timber roof trusses

  • Type: > ‘W type’ Gangnail trusses

4.3       CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

Welding
Standard: To AS/NZS 1554. (Structural steel welding – Welding of steel structures).
Grommets
Provide grommets to isolate piping and wiring from cold-formed steel framing.
Swarf
Remove swarf and other debris from cold-formed steel framing immediately after it is deposited.
CCA (copper chrome arsenic)-treated timber
Greasing: Before placing bolts in contact with CCA-treated timber, coat the shank of the bolt in grease or a bituminous coating.
Steel framing: Do not fix CCA-treated timber in contact with cold-formed steel framing.
Priming steel
Before fixing, prime steel which is not galvanized or zinc-coated.

4.4       FLOORS

General
Standard: To AS 1684 (National Timber Framing Code).
Strip flooring
Weather: Do not fix strip flooring until the work is weathertight.

  • Type: >  T&G 95×22 Aust blackbutt

Particleboard flooring
Standards: To AS/NZS 1859.1 (Reconstituted wood-based panels
– Particleboard) and install to AS 1860 (Installation of particleboard flooring).
Junctions: Sand junctions lightly to a smooth, level surface.
Fibre cement flooring
Compressed sheets: To AS 2908.2 (Cellulose-cement products – Flat sheets), type A, category 4.
Minimum thickness:

  • Joist spacing up to 450 mm: 15 mm.
  • Joist spacing 450 – 600 mm: 18 mm.

Plywood flooring
Standard: To AS/NZS 2269 (Plywood – Structural), bond type A, tongue and grooved.
Minimum thickness (F8):

  • Joist spacing up to 450 mm: 14 mm.
  • Joist spacing 450 – 600 mm: 19.5 mm.

Minimum thickness (F11):

  • Joist spacing up to 450 mm: 13 mm.
  • Joist spacing 450 – 600 mm: 18.5 mm.

4.5       WALL FRAMING

Timber wall framing
Provide gauged timbers for studs, noggings and plates in double-faced walls.
Additional support
General: Provide additional support in the form of noggings, trimmers and studs for fixing lining, cladding, hardware, accessories, fixtures and fittings as necessary.
Maximum spacing of noggings: 1350 mm centres.
Vermin barriers for suspended floors
Masonry veneer barrier: Secure 10 mm galvanized wire mesh to the underside of the bottom plate of external stud walls, extending across the cavity for building into brickwork.
Damp-proof courses
Clad-frame walls: Provide damp-proof courses under the bottom plate of external clad-frame walls built off slabs or masonry dwarf walls.
Flashings
Provide flashings to external openings sufficient to prevent the entry of moisture.

4.6       ROOF AND CEILING FRAMING

Wall plates
Fixing: Fix timber wall plates to masonry, with either straps or bolts.
Steel zinc-coated straps: In cavities. Build bottom end 75 mm into brickwork, 1200 mm below plate. Bend top end over plate and fix with galvanized fastenings.

  • Coating class: Z275.
  • Size: 25 x 1 mm or 30 x 0.8 mm.

Bolts: 10 mm diameter hot dip galvanized steel, embedded at least 150 mm into the wall structure of solid masonry external walling or the top bond beam of load-bearing hollow block external walling.
Nailing strips
Where timber joists, rafters or purlins bear on steel members, provide 50 mm thick nailing strips bolted to the flange of the steel member at 450 mm maximum centres.
Strutted framing
General: Construct traditional timber pitched roof framing consisting of rafters and ceiling joists supported at intermediated points by a system of underpurlins strutted off walls or strutting beams and braced by collar ties, and ceiling hanging beams.
Beam framing
General: Construct framing for flat or pitched roofs where the ceiling follows the roof line, consisting of rafters or purlins acting as beams to support both ceiling and roof covering.
Blocking: Where the depth of rafters or purlins is at least 4 x width, provide solid blocking between them at the support points and at 1.8 mm maximum intervals between supports.
Ridge straps: Butt ends of rafters together at ridge, and strap each pair together with 900 mm long steel strap passing over the ridge, triple-nailed to each rafter.
Supports for water containers
Where a water container or heater is located in the roof space, provide a support platform to AS/NZS 3500.4.2 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Hot water supply systems – Acceptable solutions) clause 4.5.
Additional support
Provide a frame member behind every joint in fibre cement sheeting or lining.
Anti-ponding boards
Standard: To AS/NZS 4200.2 (Pliable building materials and underlays – Installation requirements).

4.7       ROOF TRUSSES

Fabrication
Assembly: Factory-assemble trusses.
Camber: 10 mm upward in bottom chord.
Connections: Connector plates pressed to contact with the truss members. No knots in plate area.
Joints: No gaps greater than 2 mm.
Overhangs: Free from spring or splits.
Installation
General: To AS 4440 (Installation of nail plated timber trusses).
Support: Support trusses on bottom chord at two points only, unless designed for additional support.
Vertical movement: Over internal walls provide at least 10 mm vertical clearance and use bracing methods which allow for vertical movements.

4.8       TIMBER ROOF TRIM

Priming timber
Prime exposed timber all round before fixing and re-prime cut edges if trimmed in-situ.
Fascia, valley gutter and barge boards
Minimum thickness:

  • Fixed at up to 600 mm centres: 19 mm.
  • Fixed at 600 – 900 mm centres: 32 mm.

 
 

5           BRICK AND BLOCK CONSTRUCTION

5.1       GENERAL

Extent of work
Inclusions; veneer brick walls, garden walls, brick paving
Cross references
Refer to the following sections:

  • General requirements, for termite protection.
  • Timber and steel construction, for structural steelwork.

Standard
Masonry generally: To AS 3700 (Masonry structures).
Masonry units: To AS/NZS 4455 (Masonry units and segmental pavers).

5.2       MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Steel components
Galvanizing: Galvanize mild steel components (including fasteners) to AS 1214-1983 (Hot-dip galvanized coatings on threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series)), or AS 1650 (Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles), as appropriate.
Masonry units

  • Type: >dry pressed
  • Manufacturer: >Boral
  • Size: >230x110x65
  • Colour: >charcoal
  • Feature colour: >orange

Clay bricks durability
Below damp-proof course: Use exposure category to AS/NZS 4456.10 (Masonry units and segmental pavers – Method of test – Method 10: Determining resistance to salt attack) Appendix A (Salt attack resistance categories).
Problems are being experienced with salt attack on brickwork below damp-proof course level on sites which had once been heavily fertilised. Exposure category bricks are normally readily available.
Flashings and damp-proof courses
Standard: To AS/NZS 2904 (Damp-proof courses and flashings).
Mortar materials
Sand: Fine aggregate with a low clay content and free from efflorescing salts, selected for grading and colour for facework.
Additives: Do not provide additives unless required.

  • Mortar colour: >white

Mortar mix table
Provide mortar mixes as follows:

Mortar proportions
(cement:lime:sand)
Location
1:0:5 + water thickener Concrete or calcium silicate masonry
1:0:4 + water thickener Grouted and reinforced masonry
1:0 – 0.25:3 Underpinning, high strength masonry
1:1:6 Other masonry

 
Additives in the form of proprietary air-entraining agents should not be used as a substitute for lime because bond strength and durability can suffer, particularly when excessive quantities are used.

5.3       CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

Joints and cutting
Set out masonry with joints of uniform width and the minimum cutting of masonry units. Perpends are to line with one another in full height of walls.
Joints
Externally: Tool to give a dense water-shedding finish.
Internally: Rake to give a key if wall is to be plastered.

  • Type: >

Mortar joints are normally tooled, weatherstruck or raked. Mortar joints which are not completely filled and tooled may not provide adequate weatherproofing. A flush joint which is cut with the trowel without compacting the mortar should not be used externally unless agreed between the builder and the owner.
Rod
76 mm high bricks: 7 courses to 600 mm.
90 mm high bricks: 6 courses to 600 mm.
190 mm high blocks: 3 courses to 600 mm.
Bond
Single leaf construction: Stretcher bond.
Perpends
Keep perpends in alternate courses vertically aligned and fill them completely with mortar.
Colour mixing
In facework, distribute the colour range of units evenly to prevent colour concentrations.
Sills and thresholds
Solidly bed masonry sills and thresholds and lay them so that the top surfaces drain away from the building.
Appearance
Leave facework clear of mortar smears, stains and discolouration. Do not clean using an acid solution and do not erode joints if using pressure spraying.
Chimneys and fireplaces
Follow the guidelines given in SAA HB33 (Domestic open fire places).
SAA HB33-1992 (Domestic open fireplaces) is a detailed guide to the construction of chimneys and fireplaces. Normally, these should be shown in detail on the drawings.

5.4       BEARER SUPPORTS

Bearer piers table
Provide engaged or free standing unreinforced masonry piers as follows to support bearers at 1800 mm maximum centres:

Type Minimum size (mm)
Engaged 230 x 110 bonded or tied to walls
Freestanding up to 1500 mm high 230 x 230
Freestanding 1500 mm to 2700 mm high 350 x 350

 
Access openings
In internal walls below suspended ground floors, leave door-width openings beneath doorways to give access to underfloor areas.
Air vents
General: Provide air vents to give adequate cross ventilation to the space under suspended ground floors. In cavity walls, provide an equal number of matching vents in the internal leaves located as near as practicable to the air vents in the external leaves.
Minimum provision: 8400 mm2 net ventilation area per linear metre of wall.
The area for ventilation of 8400 mm2 per linear metre of wall is based on the recommendations of AS 3660.1-1995 (Protection of buildings from subterranean termites – New buildings). If local experience is that less extensive provision is satisfactory then a lower figure may be substituted.

5.5       DAMP-PROOF COURSES

Location
Provide damp-proof courses in the following locations:

  • Walls adjoining infill floor slabs on membranes: In the course above the underside of the slab in internal walls and inner leaves of cavity walls. Project 40 mm and dress down over the membrane turned up against the wall.
  • Cavity walls built off slabs on ground: In the bottom course of the outer leaf, continuous horizontally across the cavity and up the inner face bedded in mortar, turned 30 mm into the inner leaf one course above; or, in masonry veneer construction, fastened to the inner frame 75 mm above floor level.
  • Internal walls built off slabs on ground: In the first course above floor level.
  • At timber floors: In the first course below the level of the underside of ground floor timbers in internal walls and inner leaves of cavity walls.

Installation
Lay in long lengths. Lap the full width of angles and intersections and 150 mm at joints. Step as necessary, but not more than two courses per step. Preserve continuity of damp-proofing at junctions of damp-proof courses and waterproof membranes. Install at least 150 mm above adjacent finished ground. Sandwich damp-proof courses between mortar.

5.6       CAVITY MASONRY WALLS

Minimum cavity width
Masonry walls: 50 mm ±10 mm.
Masonry veneer walls: 25 mm between the masonry leaf and the load-bearing frame and 40 mm between the masonry leaf and sheet bracing, if any.
Openings
Do not close the cavity at the jambs of external openings.
Cavity flashings
Location: Provide flashings in the following locations:

  • Floors: Full width of outer leaf immediately above slab, continuous across cavity and up the inner face bedded in mortar, turned 30 mm into the inner leaf two courses above.
  • Under sills: 30 mm into the outer leaf bed joint one course below the sill, extending up across the cavity and under the sill in the inner leaf or the frame. Extend at least 150 mm beyond the reveals on each side of the opening.
  • Over lintels to openings: Full width of outer leaf immediately above the lintel, continuous across cavity, 30 mm into the inner leaf two courses above or turned up against the frame and fastened to it. Extend at least 150 mm beyond the ends of the lintels.
  • At abutments with structural frames or supports: Vertical flashing in the cavity from 150 mm wide material, wedged and grouted into a groove in the frame opposite the cavity.
  • At roof abutments with cavity walls: Cavity flashing immediately above the roof and over-flash the roof apron flashing.

Installation: Sandwich flashings between mortar except where on lintels.
Pointing: Point up joints around flashings to fill voids.
Weepholes
General: At ground floors, provide weepholes in the form of open perpends to external leaves of cavity walls in the course above cavity flashings.
Maximum spacing: Every third perpend.
Traditionally, weepholes have been specified above and below windows and doors but these serve no useful purpose except where there are very large openings or extreme exposures.
Clearance for timber frame shrinkage
In seasoned timber frame brick veneer construction, leave the following clearances between window frames and brick sill and between roof frames and the brick veneer:

  • Single storey frames and ground floor windows (not for slab on ground): 10 mm.
  • Two storey frames and upper floor windows: 20 mm.
  • Additional clearance: Accommodate additional shrinkage of unseasoned floor timbers.

5.7       WALL TIES

Tie spacing table
Space ties to the following maximum intervals:

Masonry Generally Around openings and joints
76 mm high bricks    
– vertically 7 courses Alternate 3 and 4 courses
– horizontally 2½ bricks Alternate 1 and 1½ bricks
90 mm high bricks    
– vertically 6 courses 3 courses
– horizontally 2 bricks 1 brick
190 mm high blocks    
– vertically 3 courses Alternate 1 and 2 courses
– horizontally 1 block ½ block

 
Spacing of wall ties is often found on site to be inadequate – the values given here are a simplification of those in AS 3700-1998 (Masonry structures).
Masonry veneer walls
Top row of ties: Half the horizontal spacing and locate within 250 mm of top of wall.
First row of ties above a horizontal floor support where veneer is continuous past support:
Embedment
Embed at least 50 mm into mortar and ensure mortar cover is 15 mm minimum to the outside face of the mortar.
Wall tie application table
Provide wall ties as follows:

Category to AS 2699 Application
Light duty Masonry veneer
Medium duty Normal cavity brick construction and at abutments

 

5.8       AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE WALLS

General
Provide a proprietary system which

  • has a current Australian Building Products and Systems Certification Scheme certificate; or
  • has a current technical opinion issued by the Australian Building Systems Appraisal Council stating that the system is suitable for use in walls in buildings.

5.9       CONTROL OF MOVEMENT

Ageing of bricks and concrete
Minimum age of clay bricks: 7 days.
Minimum age of concrete supports to clay bricks: 28 days.
Control joints for clay brickwork
Maximum length of continuous wall: 6 m.
Minimum width of control joint: 10 mm.
Clay bricks grow after they have been fired and concrete slabs shrink after they have been poured. The provision for movement joints specified here is based on a minimum age of bricks and supporting concrete. If these ages cannot be complied with, additional control joints may be necessary.
Control joints for calcium silicate and concrete masonry
Maximum length of continuous wall: 8 m.
Minimum width of control joint: 10 mm.
Flexible ties and anchors
If ties or anchors extend across control joints, provide ties or anchors which maintain the stability of the masonry without impairing the effectiveness of the joint.
Joint material
Installation: Clean the joints thoroughly and insert an easily compressible backing material before sealing.
Sealant depth: Fill the joints with a gun-applied flexible sealant for a depth of at least two-thirds the joint width.

5.10     STEEL LINTELS

General
Provide a proprietary cold-formed flat-based type designed to AS/NZS 4600-1996 (Cold-formed steel structures).
Material
Mild steel galvanized to AS 1650-1989 (Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles), class Z600. Do not cut after galvanizing.
Installation
General: Install with the longest leg vertical. Keep lintels 5 mm clear of heads and frames. Pack mortar between the angle upstand and supported masonry units.
Propping: To prevent deflection or excessive rotation, temporarily prop proprietary cold-formed lintels until the masonry reaches its required strength.
Minimum propping period: 3 days.

5.11     BAGGING

Joints
Cut joints flush before bagging.
Dry bagging
Apply laying mortar to the surface using a hessian bag or similar to a consistent thickness. Flush up irregularities, but leave the minimum possible amount of mortar on the masonry surface.
 
 

6           INSULATION AND SARKING

6.1       GENERAL

Extent of work;
Generally; sarking under all roofing and to all framed walls, insulation to all ceilings and wall framing,
Interpretation
Sarking-type material: Flexible membrane material normally used for waterproofing, vapour retarding or thermal reflective insulation.
Some states and territories have minimum insulation requirements which must be complied with. The extent of insulation should be agreed between the builder and the owner.
AS 2627.1-1993 (Thermal insulation of dwellings – Thermal insulation of roof/ceilings and walls in dwellings) gives guidance on the thermal performance of dwellings.

6.2       MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Bulk insulation
Cellulosic fibre: To AS 2462-1981 (Cellulosic fibre thermal insulation).
Mineral wool batts and blankets: To AS 3742-1990 (Mineral wool thermal insulation – Batt and blanket).
Mineral wool in loose fill: To AS 2461-1981 (Mineral wool thermal insulation – Loose fill).
Polystyrene: To AS 1366.4-1989 (Rigid cellular plastics sheets for thermal insulation – Rigid cellular polystyrene – Extruded (RC/PS-E)).
Wool: To AWRAP/A202-1993 (Mandatory Woolmark Specifications for building insulation material).
Sarking material
Standard: To AS/NZS 4200.1-1994 (Pliable building materials and underlays – Materials).
Floor insulation: Provide perforated material.
Insulation types and ratings

  • Wall: >
  • Roof: >
  • Ceiling: >

6.3       INSTALLATION

Bulk insulation
Standard: To AS 3999-1992 (Thermal insulation of dwellings – Bulk insulation – Installation requirements).
Batts: Fit tightly between framing members. If support is not otherwise provided, secure nylon twine to the framing and stretch tight.
Loose fill: Provide boxing to retain loose fill on external edges, cavities and penetrations, and to prevent spilling.
Sarking material
Standard: To AS/NZS 4200.2-1994 (Pliable building materials and underlays – Installation requirements).
Wall sarking
General: Provide vapour-permeable sarking under cladding which does not provide a permanent weatherproof seal, including

  • boards fixed horizontally, vertically or diagonally;
  • boards or planks fixed in exposed locations where wind-driven rain can penetrate the joints; and
  • unpainted or unsealed cladding.

Installation: Apply to the outer face of external stud walls from the top plate down over the bottom plate and flashing. Run across the studs and lap at least 150 mm at joints.
Roof sarking
General: Provide sarking to

  • all tile roofs
  • tile roofs where the design wind velocity exceeds 33 m/s; and
  • tile roofs for a width of 2 m below a gutter discharging through a spreader from the point of discharge to the gutter below.

Anti-ponding boards: Provide 4.5 mm fibre-cement anti-ponding boards to eaves of tile roofs below 20o pitch.
Ridge ventilation: Finish sarking at least 50 mm clear of ridges.
The requirements for sarking are in part derived from AS 2050-1995 (Installation of roof tiles). However, the tile manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed if they require sarking at steeper pitches than 20o.
 
 

7           ROOFING

7.1       GENERAL

Extent of work;
Generally; as indicated on the plans to the house and garage
Cross reference
Refer to the Insulation and sarking section for roof sarking requirements.

7.2       MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Flashing material
Standard: To AS/NZS 2904-1995 (Damp-proof courses and flashings).
Tiled roofs: 20 kg/m2 lead.
Fasteners
Self-drilling screws: To AS 3566-1988 (Screws – Self-drilling – For the building and construction industries), corrosion resistance class 3.
Exposed fasteners: Provide fasteners which are prefinished with a coating to match the roofing material, or provide matching purpose-made plastic caps.
Roof lights

  • Type: >

7.3       TILING

Materials
Standard: To AS 2049-1992 (Roof tiles).

  • Tile type: >
  • Manufacturer: >
  • Tile colour: >

Installation
Standard: To AS 2050-1995 (Installation of roofing tiles).
Setting out: Set out the roof to give an even tile gauge in each course, with full tiles at verges.
Bedding and pointing: Bed and point accessories including ridges, hips and verges, in coloured mortar to match the accessories.
Pointed verge: Bed and point tiles on 100 x 5 mm fibre-cement pointing strip.

7.4       METAL ROOFING

Design and installation
Standard: To AS 1562.1-1992 (Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding – Metal).

  • Roof material: >corrugated
  • Manufacturer: >Bluescope Steel
  • Roof colour: >sand drift
  • Ridge capping colour: >sand drift

Visible accessories
Provide material with the same finish as roofing sheets.
Eaves
Treat ends of sheets as follows:

  • Generally: Close off ribs at tops and bottoms of sheets by mechanical means or with purpose-made fillers or end caps.
  • At gutters: Project sheets 50 mm into gutters.

Swarf
Remove swarf and other debris as soon as it is deposited.

7.5       ROOF PLUMBING

Selection and installation of metal rainwater goods
Standard: To AS/NZS 3500.3.2 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Stormwater drainage – Acceptable solutions).
PVC rainwater goods and accessories: To AS/NZS 2179.2 (Int)-1998 (Specifications for rainwater goods, accessories and fasteners – PVC rainwater goods and accessories).
Sealing: Seal fasteners and mechanically fastened joints with silicone sealant.
Flashings and cappings
General: Flash projections above or through the roof with two part flashings consisting of an apron flashing and an over-flashing, with at least 100 mm vertical overlap. Provide for independent movement between the roof and the projection.
Wall abutments: Where a roof abuts a wall, provide overflashings as follows:

  • Masonry: Stepped and built into the full width of the leaf.
  • Planked cladding: Stepped.
  • Other: Raking.

Gutters
Minimum slope of eaves gutters: 1:200.
Minimum width overall of valley gutters: 400 mm.

  • Guttering and downpipe prefinish colour:
    >sand drift

 

8           CLADDING

8.1       GENERAL

Extent of work;
Generally; panelling above or below the windows and doors, infill panels in brick walls,
Cross references
Refer to the following sections:

  • General requirements, for timber durability.
  • Insulation and sarking, for wall sarking requirements.

8.2       MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Flashing material
Standard: To AS/NZS 2904-1995 (Damp-proof courses and flashings).
Fasteners
Steel nails: Hot-dip galvanized to AS 1650-1989 (Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles).
Self-drilling screws: To AS 3566-1988 (Screws – Self-drilling – For the building and construction industries), corrosion resistance class 3.

8.3       HARDBOARD CLADDING

General
Standard: To AS/NZS 1859.4-1997 (Reconstituted wood-based panels – Hardboard).
Exterior cladding: Exterior hardboard.
Sheltered exterior cladding: Tempered hardboard.

  • Manufacturer: >
  • Prefinish colour: >

Plank cladding
General: Provide a proprietary system of hardboard planks 9.5 mm thick.
Joints and edges: UPVC extrusions.
External corners: Preformed metal joining pieces.
Internal corners: Scribe.

8.4       TIMBER BOARD CLADDING

Boards

  • Manufacturer: >Boral timber
  • Prefinish colour: >cypress pine profile 65

Preparation
For cladding with a natural or stained finish, finish the boards on both sides before installation by dipping or brushing with water-repellent preservative. Do not apply preservative if this is incompatible with a specified pigmented stain finish.
Installation
General: Whenever possible provide single lengths of boards when installed horizontally. Provide single lengths when installed vertically.
Fixing: Nail twice to each crossing except for sawn weatherboard and secret nailed profiles.
Nailheads: Treat visible nailheads as follows:

  • In stained or clear finishes: Drive flush.
  • In opaque finishes: Punch below the surface and fill flush with putty after the surface has been primed.

Joints
End grain joints: Install boards so that butt joints are in compression.
Internal and external corners: Butt against a timber bead at least as thick as the cladding board.

8.5       FIBRE CEMENT CLADDING

Standard
General: To AS 2908.2-1992 (Cellulose-cement products – Flat sheets), Type A, category 2.
Cladding

  • Manufacturer: >Hardies
  • Prefinish colour: >off white

Plank cladding
Type: Provide a proprietary system of single-faced fibre cement planks 7.5 mm thick.
Joints and edges: UPVC extrusions.
Corners: Preformed metal joining pieces.
Sheet cladding
Type: Provide single-faced fibre cement sheets 6 mm thick.
Joints, corners and edges: UPVC extrusions.
Eaves lining
Type: Provide a proprietary system of single-faced fibre cement sheets 4.5 mm thick nailed at minimum 200 mm centres to bearers at maximum 600 mm centres.
Minimum bearer size: For rafter overhang:

  • 300 – 600 mm: 50 x 38 mm.
  • 600 – 1500 mm: 75 x 38 mm.

Joints: UPVC extrusions.

8.6       METAL CLADDING

Cladding

  • Manufacturer: >
  • Prefinish colour: >

Design and installation
Standard: To AS 1562.1-1992 (Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding – Metal).
Visible accessories
Provide materials with the same finish as cladding sheets.

8.7       PLASTIC CLADDING

Standard
Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) sheet: To AS/NZS 4256.4-1995 (Plastic roof and wall cladding materials – Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) wall cladding boards).
Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GRP) sheet: To AS/NZS 4256.3-1994 (Plastic roof and wall cladding materials – Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GRP)).
Polycarbonate: To AS/NZS 4256.5-1996 (Plastic roof and wall cladding materials – Polycarbonate).
Cladding

  • Manufacturer: >
  • Prefinish colour: >

Installation
Standard: To AS/NZS 1562.3-1996 (Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding – Plastic)

8.8       AAC CLADDING

Cladding

  • Manufacturer: >

Panel cladding
Type: Provide a proprietary system of AAC panels.

  • Panel thickness: >

Joints: Thin bed adhesive.
Control joints: At all external and internal corners, adjacent to all openings and at maximum 6 m centres.
 
 

9           DOORS AND WINDOWS

9.1       GENERAL

Extent of work;
Generally internal doors, external doors and windows as shown on the plans and scheduled, underfloor door, garage door,
Cross references
Refer to the following sections

  • Lining, for architraves.
  • Painting, for priming of frames and doors before installation.

9.2       MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Flashings
Standard: To AS/NZS 2904-1995 (Damp-proof courses and flashings).
Metal finishes
Zinc plating: To AS 1789-1984 (Electroplated coatings – Zinc on iron or steel), at least service condition number 2.
Anodising: To AS 1231-1985 (Aluminium and aluminium alloys – Anodized coatings for architectural applications), at least class AA10.
Thermoset powder coating: To AS 3715-1989 (Metal finishing – Thermoset powder coatings for architectural applications), or AS 4506-1998 (Metal finishing – Thermoset powder coatings) as appropriate.
Glass
Selection and installation: To AS 1288-1994 (Glass in buildings – Selection and installation).
Doorsets
Timber doors: To AS 2688-1984 (Timber doors).
Timber frames and jamb linings: To AS 2689-1984 (Timber doorsets).
Security screen doors: To AS/NZS 2803.1-1994 (Doors – Security Screen – Hinged) or AS/NZS 2803.2- (Doors – Security Screen – Sliding).
Windows
Materials and performance: To AS 2047.1-1996 (Windows in buildings – Specification for materials and performance).
In high wind areas, windows will require special consideration. Design will normally be carried out by an engineer.
Preglazing
If possible, preglaze doors and windows.
Windows and sliding external doors

  • Manufacturer: >Stegbar
  • Material: >cedar
  • Type: >awning and sliding
  • Prefinish type: >protective oil
  • Prefinish colour: >clear
  • Glass: >clear
  • Insect screen: >yes

Main entrance door

  • Manufacturer: >Humes
  • Type: >solid core
  • Glass: >spotone

Other external doors

  • Manufacturer: >Stegbar
  • Type: >sliding
  • Glass: >safety

Security screen doors

  • Manufacturer: >Crimsafe
  • Type: >stainless steel
  • Prefinish colour: >charcoal

9.3       CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

Standards
Doorset installation: To AS 1909-1984 (Installation of timber doorsets).
Window installation: To AS 2047.2-1996 (Windows in buildings – Construction, installation and maintenance).
Security screen doors installation: To AS/NZS 2804.1-1995 (Installation of security screen doors – Hinged) or AS/NZS 2804.2 –1996 (Installation of security screen doors – Sliding)
Flashings and weatherings
Install flashings, weather bars, drips, storm moulds, caulking and pointing so that water is prevented from penetrating the building between frames and the building structure.
Installation
Install doorsets and windows so they

  • are plumb, level, straight and true;
  • are adequately fixed or anchored to the building structure; and
  • will not carry building loads, including loads caused by structural deflection or shortening.

Fixing
Packing: Pack behind fixing points with durable full width packing.
Prepared masonry openings: If fixing of timber windows to prepared anchorages is by fastening from the frame face, conceal the fasteners by sinking the heads below the surface and filling the sinking flush with a material compatible with the surface finish.
Linings
Provide reveal and jamb linings as necessary.

9.4       TIMBER DOORS

Door thickness
Generally: 35 mm.
External doors and doors over 900 mm wide: 40 mm.
Door construction
External doors: Solid construction.
Internal doors: Flush panel cellular core.
Medium density fibreboard doors: Board designated by the manufacturer as having a moisture resistance which is suitable for the exposure of the door.
Timber internal doors

  • Manufacturer: >Hume
  • Type: >flush cellular core

Priming
Prime timber doors on top and bottom edges before installation.
Door stops
Install door stops to prevent door furniture striking the wall or other surface.
Hinge table
Provide 3 hinges for external doors and door leafs over 2040 mm in height or 820 mm in width and as follows:

Thickness
of door (maximum)
Weight of door
(maximum)
Number of hinges (per door leaf) Size of hinges (steel)
35 mm 35 kg 2 85 x 60 x 1.6 mm
40 mm 68 kg 3 100 x 75 x 1.6 mm

 

9.5       SLIDING INTERNAL DOORS

General
Suspend sliding doors from overhead tracks and wheel carriages appropriate to the size and mass of the doors.
Accessories
General: Provide overhead track supports and head and jamb linings appropriate to the arrangement of the door, and removable pelmets at the head to allow access to the wheel carriages for adjustment.
Wheel carriages: Fully adjustable precision ball race type providing smooth, quiet operation.

9.6       WARDROBES

Wardrobe doors and frames

  • Frame material: >aluminium
  • Frame prefinish type: >chrome
  • Frame prefinish colour: >natural
  • Door type: >mirror

Wardrobe door panels

  • Mirrors: >
  • Panel prefinish type: >
  • Panel prefinish colour: >

9.7       GARAGE DOORS

General
Standard: To AS/NZS 4505 – 1998 (Domestic garage doors)
Motorised operation
Provide a proprietary operator with a limit switch, manual safety stop and reversing mechanism, and overload cutout operated by a battery-powered radio remote controller and by a direct push-button or key switch. Locate operating switch 1.5 m above floor level.
Garage doors

  • Manufacturer: >Renlita doors
  • Type: >tilt-a-door
  • Prefinish type: >oil finished timber
  • Prefinish colour: >oak

9.8       LOCKSETS

External doors
Provide a push-button key and knob set and a double-cylinder dead bolt to each door.
Internal doors
Generally: Passage sets.
Bathrooms, showers and toilets: Privacy sets.
Sliding patio doors and windows: Provide key-lockable surface mounted bolts.
Door lockset mounting heights
To centreline of spindle: 1 m above finished floor.
Keying
Key doors (excluding garage doors) alike and key windows alike.
Lockset schedule

Door Lockset manufacturer Lockset type
     
     
     

 
Locksets have been specified to provide both convenience and a reasonable standard of security. Privacy sets are important because they allow emergency access in the case of accident or illness.
 
 

10        LINING

10.1     GENERAL

Extent of work;
Generally all walls, ceilings, eaves,
Cross reference
Refer to the Block and tile finishes section for waterproofing of wet areas.

10.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Plasterboard
Standard: To AS/NZS 2588-1998 (Gypsum plasterboard).

  • Sheet thickness: >10

Fibre cement
Standard: To AS 2908.2-1992 (Cellulose-cement products – Flat sheets), type B, category 2.

  • Sheet thickness: >22

Fibrous plaster products
Standard: To AS 2185-1978 (Fibrous plaster products).

  • Sheet thickness: >

10.3     SHEET LINING

Supports
Install timber battens or proprietary cold-formed galvanized steel furring channels

  • if framing member spacing exceeds the recommended spacing;
  • if direct fixing of the sheeting is not possible due to the arrangement or alignment of the framing or substrate; and
  • to support fixtures.

Installation
Plasterboard: To AS/NZS 2589.1-1997 (Gypsum linings in residential and light commercial construction – Application and finishing – Gypsum plasterboard).
Framed construction: Screw or nail or combine with adhesive.
Masonry construction: Adhesive-fix direct to masonry.
Wet areas: Do not use adhesive.
Joints
General: Provide recessed edge sheets and finish flush with perforated reinforcing tape.
External corner joints: Make over zinc-coated steel corner beads.
Wet areas: Provide the flashings, trim and sealants necessary to ensure wet areas are waterproofed.
Joints in tiled areas: Do not apply a topping coat after bedding perforated paper tape in bedding compound.
Control joints: Install purpose-made zinc-coated control joint beads in walls and ceilings at the following maximum centres and to coincide with structural movement joints:

  • Plasterboard: 6 m.
  • Fibre cement: 6 m.

10.4     TONGUE AND GROOVE LINING

Installation
Stained or clear finished boards: Select board to give a random pattern. At corners, return the same board to give a continuous grain pattern.
Fixing: Nail twice to each crossing except for secret nailed profiles.
Nailheads: Treat visible nailheads as follows:

  • In stained or clear finishes: Drive flush.
  • In opaque finishes: Punch below surface and fill flush with putty after the surface has been primed.

Joints
End grain joints: Install boards so that butt joints are in compression.

10.5     TRIM

General
Provide timber or medium density fibreboard trim, such as beads, skirtings, architraves, mouldings and stops, where necessary to make neat junctions between components and finishes.
Cornice

  • Types: >square 15×15 rebated

Skirtings

  • Types: >splayed 100×22

Architraves

  • Types: >splayed 100×22

 
 

11        TROWELLED COATINGS

11.1     GENERAL

Extent of work;
 
Cross references
Refer to the following sections:

  • Block and tile finishes, for waterproofing of wet areas.
  • Painting, for priming of embedded steel.

11.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Plaster materials
Cement: To AS 3972-1997 (Portland and blended cements), type GP.
Lime: To AS 1672.1-1997 (Limes and limestones – Limes for building).
Sand: Fine aggregate with a low clay content, selected for grading.
Gypsum plaster: To AS 2592-1983 (Gypsum plaster for building purposes).
Metal lath: Expanded metal to AS 1397 -1993 (Steel sheet and strip – Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated)/Z275.
Lime putty mixes
Make a coarse mix of lime putty and sand 16 hours before use and do not allow to dry out.
Gauged mixes
To improve workability, mixes required to contain only cement and sand may be gauged by the addition of lime up to 25% of the cement content (i.e. not as a substitute for the cement).
Autoclaved aerated concrete walls
Provide a proprietary render or premixed plaster recommended by the wall system manufacturer.

11.3     SUBSTRATE

Correction of substrate
Before plastering, make good defects in the substrate. Hack off excessive projections. Fill voids and hollows with a mix not stronger than the substrate nor weaker than the first coat.
Untrue substrate
If one-coat application is required, but the substrate is not sufficiently true to comply with the thickness limits for one coat, or has excessively uneven suction resulting from variations in the composition of the substrate, apply 2 coats.
Cleaning
Remove loose material and leave the surface clean and dust-free.
Embedded items
Sheath water pipes and other embedded items to permit thermal movement. If ungalvanized steel items are to be embedded in plaster, prime before fixing.
Chases
If chases or recesses are more than 50 mm wide, cover with metal lath extending at least 75 mm beyond each side of the recess.
Metal backgrounds
Fix metal lath to provide a key for plaster.
Concrete
Apply a proprietary bonding agent before plastering.

11.4     PLASTERING

Thickness limits
One-coat work: 12 – 15 mm.
Multi-coat work:

  • First coat: 9 – 15 mm.
  • Floating coat (if any): 9 – 15 mm.
  • Finishing coat (except setting coat): 6 – 9 mm.
  • Setting coat: 2 – 3 mm.

Cement rendering
Proportions by volume (cement:lime:sand) for clay and dense concrete brick:

  • Clay and dense concrete brick: 1:0.25:4.

Two or three-coat set plaster
Proportions by volume:

  • Undercoats: 1:1:6 cement:lime putty:sand.
  • Setting coat: 1:1 lime putty:gypsum plaster.

Tolerances
Finish plane surfaces within a tolerance of 6 mm in 3 m, determined using a 3 m straight edge placed anywhere in any direction. Finish corners, angles, edges and curved surfaces within equivalent tolerances.
Curing
Do not allow rapid or uneven drying out.
V-joints
Provide V-joints at the following locations:

  • Junctions between different substrate materials.
  • Abutments with other finishes.
  • Joints in the structure.

Edge trim
Provide purpose-made zinc-coated steel sections as corner beads and stop beads.

11.5     CEMENT BASED FLOOR TOPPINGS (GRANO)

Preparing hardened surfaces
If toppings are to be applied to hardened concrete surfaces, scabble the surface to expose the aggregate. Thoroughly dampen and leave free of standing water. Immediately before placing, scrub a coat of neat cement grout into the surface, or apply a suitable adhesive.
Placing
General: Spread the topping mix, compact and float.
Thickness: 20 ± 5 mm.
Monolithic placing: Spread the topping mix as soon as surface water has disappeared from the base.
Curing
Use a method which prevents cracking or crazing resulting from drying shrinkage without impairing the adhesion of subsequent finishes.
Granolithic topping
Mix proportions: 1:1:1.5 (cement : fine aggregate : 5 mm coarse aggregate).
Water:cement ratio: 0.5 maximum.
Slump: 50 mm maximum.
Margins to toppings
Integral margins: Form margins to cementitious toppings integrally in the topping material.
Coved skirtings: Form the cove in topping material, and finish the top to a neatly struck line. Mitre internal and external angles.
 
 

12        BLOCK AND TILE FINISHES

12.1     GENERAL

Extent of Work:
 
Standards
Follow the guidance given in AS 3958.1-1991 (Ceramic tiles – Guide to the installation of ceramic tiles) and AS 3958.2-1992 (Ceramic tiles – Guide to the selection of a ceramic tiling system).

12.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Exposed edges
If available, provide purpose-made border tiles with the exposed edge (whether round, square or cushion) glazed to match the tile face.
Accessories
If available, provide tile accessories such as round edge tiles, cove tiles, step treads and nosings to stairs, landings, and thresholds, skirtings, sills, copings and bath vents, which match the surrounding tiles, composition, colour and finish.
Adhesives
Standard: To AS 2358-1990 (Adhesives – For fixing ceramic tiles).
PVA (polyvinyl acetate)-based adhesives: Do not use in wet areas or externally.
Mortar materials
Cement: To AS 3972-1997 (Portland and blended cements), type GP.
Sand: Fine aggregate with a low clay content selected for grading.
Bedding mortar
Proportioning: Select proportions from the range 1:3 to 1:4 cement:sand to obtain satisfactory adhesion. Provide minimum water.
Grout
Cement-based proprietary grout: Mix with water. Fine sand may be added as a filler in wider joints.
Portland cement-based grout: Mix with fine sand. Provide minimum water consistent with workability.
Proportioning:

  • For joints up to 3 mm: 1:2 cement:sand.
  • For joints over 3 mm: 1:3 cement:sand.

Preparation
Prepare the substrates, including the following:

  • Remove deleterious and loose material and leave the surface dust-free and clean.
  • For mortar bedding, wet the substrate as necessary to achieve suitable suction. Alternatively, apply a proprietary bonding agent to the substrate to improve adhesion.

Block and tile schedule

Location Floor Wall/skirting Accessories Grout
Front entry        
Rear/side entry        
Kitchen/family        
Laundry        
Bathroom        
WC        
Ensuite        
Terrace        

12.3     WATERPROOFING WET AREAS

Standard
General: To AS 3740-1994 (Waterproofing of wet areas within residential buildings).
Membrane
Provide a proprietary liquid applied or sheet membrane system which

  • has a current Australian Building Products and Systems Certification Scheme certificate; or
  • has a current technical opinion issued by the Australian Building Systems Appraisal Council stating that the system is suitable for use as a waterproofing system for use in wet areas, shower recess bases and associated floors and wall/floor junctions which are to be tiled.

Installation
Floor wastes: Turn membrane down onto the floor waste puddle flanges, and adhere.
Hobs: Extend membrane over the hob and into the room at least 50 mm. For hobless showers extend 1800 mm into the room.
External tiling: Provide a waterproof membrane under external floor tiling, to balconies and over habitable rooms, which forms a drained tank suitable for continuous immersion. Do not run under bounding walls.
Curing: Allow membrane to cure fully before tiling.
The waterproofing of wet areas is covered in this section but needs to be considered in relation to other sections e.g. Timber and steel construction, Brick and block construction and Lining, which may deal with parts of the waterproofing system.

12.4     TILING

Cutting and laying
Cut tiles neatly to fit around fixtures and fittings, and at margins where necessary. Drill holes without damaging tile faces. Rub edges smooth without chipping. Return tiles into sills, reveals and openings. Butt up to returns, frames, fittings, and other finishes. Lipping of tiles is not acceptable.
Variations
Distribute variations in hue, colour, or pattern uniformly, by mixing tiles or tile batches before laying.
Protection
Keep traffic off floors until the bedding has set and attained its working strength.
Setting out
General: Set out tiles to give uniform joint widths within the following limits:

  • Internal ceramic tiling: 1.5 – 3 mm.
  • Mosaic tiling: As dictated by pattern.
  • Quarry tiles: 6 – 12 mm.
  • Vitrified floor tiles: 3 – 5 mm.

Joint alignment: Set out tiling with joints accurately aligned in both directions and wall tiling joints level and plumb.
Joint position: Set out tiles from the centre of the floor or wall to be tiled and, if possible, ensure cut tiles are a half tile or larger.
Fixtures: If possible, position tiles so that holes for fixtures and other penetrations occur at the intersection of horizontal and vertical joints or in the centre of tiles.
Falls and levels
General: Grade floor tiling to even and correct falls generally, and to floor wastes and elsewhere as required. Make level junctions with walls. If falls are not required, lay level.
Minimum fall generally: 1:100.
Minimum fall in shower areas: 1:60.
Change of finish: Maintain finished floor level across changes of floor finish including carpet.
Preparation of tiles
Adhesive bedding: Fix tiles dry.
Mortar bedding: Soak porous tiles in water for half an hour and then drain until the surface water has disappeared.
Floor finish dividers
Finish tiled floors at junctions with differing floor finishes with a corrosion-resistant metal dividing strip fixed to the substrate. If changes of floor finish occur at doorways, make the junction directly below the closed door.
Bath ventilation
Ventilate the space below fully enclosed baths with at least 2 ventilating tiles.
Sealed joints
Fill joints with silicone sealant and finish flush with the tile surface where tiling joins sanitary fixtures and at corners of walls in showers.
 
 

13        FLOOR COATINGS AND COVERINGS

13.1     GENERAL

Extent of work;
 
Cross reference
Refer to the Painting section for finishing of sanded timber floors and cork tiles.

13.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Hardboard underlay
Standard: To AS/NZS 1859.4-1997 (Reconstituted wood-based panels – Hardboard), standard hardboard Type RD, manufactured as flooring underlay.
Resilient underlay alternatives
Needled underfelt: Provide a felt composed of 60% animal fibre and 40% jute, reinforced with polypropylene scrim with a minimum mass of 50 g/m2, or hessian fabric with a minimum mass of 150 g/m2.
Synthetic foam underlay: Provide a high density synthetic latex flat cushion foam sandwiched between reinforced carrier fabric.
Rubber underlay: Provide a heavy-duty natural rubber, waffle pattern, with a backing of reinforcing fabric, either hessian, spun nylon, or polyester.
Hot-melt adhesive tape
Provide a glass fibre and cotton thermoplastic adhesive-coated tape 60 mm wide on a 90 mm wide metal foil base and backed with silicon-coated release paper.
Carpet
Minimum class: Domestic Medium Duty under the Australian Carpet Classification Scheme.

  • Manufacturer: >Hycraft
  • Colour: >as selected
  • Underlay: >Dunlop aircel

Resilient finish
Similar to vinyl.

  • Manufacturer: >
  • Colour: >
  • Underlay: >

13.3     SUBSTRATE

Substrate preparation
Prepare the substrate including the following:

  • Stripping and cleaning: Remove deleterious and loose material, including existing floor coverings and any surface treatment which could adversely affect adhesion.
  • Repairs: Make good to the surface finish as necessary. Fill depressions with a suitable filler, and remove high spots and projections. If necessary lay a steel-trowelled underlay to concrete substrate.
  • Fixtures and fittings: Remove door stops and other fixtures, and refix in position undamaged on completion of the installation.
  • Basic sanding: Produce an even plane sanded surface on strip flooring to be covered with carpet or resilient sheet or tile. Lightly sand the junctions of sheet flooring.
  • Fine sanding: If flooring is to be clear finished, stop with matching filler and produce a smooth sanded surface free from irregularities and suitable to receive the finish.

13.4     LAYING CARPET

Standard
General: To AS/NZS 2455.1-1995 (Textile floor coverings – Installation practice – General).
Setting out
General: Lay the carpet in continuous lengths without cross joins in the body of the area. Make unavoidable cross joins at doorways under the closed door.
Joints in underlay: Ensure joints in underlay do not coincide with carpet joints. Do not carry underlay over carpet grippers or edge strips.
Seaming methods
Woven carpet: Machine or hand sew.
Tufted carpet: Provide hot-melt adhesive tapes.
Fixing
Gripper strip: Provide preformed gripper strip and tackless edge strip. Space fixings at 150 mm maximum centres.
Permanent stick method: Immediately after laying, and again one hour later, roll the carpet from the centre diagonally towards each edge using a 65 kg multi-wheeled roller. Do not roll foam-backed carpet.
Edge strip
Provide a proprietary aluminium edge strip at exposed edges of the carpet. If edge strips occur at doorways, make the junction underneath the closed door.

13.5     LAYING RESILIENT FINISHES

Standard
General: To AS 1884-1985 (Floor coverings – Resilient sheet and tiles – Laying and maintenance practices).
Sheet set out
Set out sheets to give the minimum number of joints. Run sheet joints parallel with the long sides of floor areas.
Tile set out
Set out tiles from the centre of the area. Match edges and align patterns. Arrange the material so that variation in appearance is minimised.
Joints
Butt edges together to form tight neat joints showing no visible open seam and cold weld.
Junctions
Scribe neatly up to returns, edges, fixtures and fittings. Finish flush with adjoining surfaces.
Cleaning and protection
Keep traffic off floors until bonding has set or for 24 hours after laying, whichever period is the longer. Do not allow water in contact with the finish for 7 days.
 
 

14        PAINTING

14.1     GENERAL

Extent of work;
 
Standards
Follow the guidance given in AS 2311-1992 (The painting of buildings) and AS/NZS 2312-1994 (Guide to the protection of iron and steel against exterior atmospheric corrosion).

14.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Combinations
Do not combine paints from different manufacturers in a paint system.
Delivery
Deliver paints to the site in the manufacturers’ labelled containers. Ensure containers are marked with the APAS (Australian Paint Approvals Scheme) specification number.
Autoclaved aerated concrete walls
Do not apply oil-based paints.

14.3     PAINTING

Order of work
Complete clear timber finishes before commencing opaque paint finishes in the same area.
Protection
Remove door furniture, switch plates, light fittings and other fixtures before starting to paint, and refix in position on completion of painting.
Restoration
Clean off marks, paint spots and stains progressively. Touch up damaged decorative paintwork or misses with the paint batch used in the original application.
Substrate preparation
Provide a filler tinted to match the substrate if the finish is transparent.
Paint application
Apply the first coat immediately after substrate preparation and before contamination of the substrate can occur. Ensure each coat of paint or clear finish is uniform in colour, gloss, thickness and texture, and free of runs, sags, blisters, or other discontinuities.
Priming before fixing
Timber: Apply a first coat (two coats to end grain) to exposed roof trim, timber doors and window frames, tops and bottoms of doors, associated trims and glazing beads before fixing in position.
Steel: Apply a priming coat of zinc-rich organic binder to GPC C-29/16-1997 (Long life protective systems for steel – Organic zinc rich coatings).
Repair of galvanizing
If galvanized or zinc-coated surfaces have been cut or welded after galvanizing, prime the affected area with a zinc-rich organic binder to GPC C-29/16-1997 (Long life protective systems for steel – Organic zinc rich coatings).
Finishing timber and cork floors
After sanding, finish with 3 coats of clear floor sealer to GPC P-205-1996 (One pack clear moisture cured polyurethane finish for timber floors).
Paint system description
If a system is referred to only by its final coat (for example by the manufacturer’s brand name, the APAS specification code or the generic name) provide stains, primers, sealers and undercoats which are suitable for the substrate and are compatible with the finish coat and each other.
Paint final coat table
Provide paints as follows:

Final coat Use paint to APAS specification
Interior  
Full gloss solvent-borne GPC E-15/4-1995 (Full gloss enamel (buildings) – For interior use)
Flat latex GPC L-26/6-1995 (Latex paint, interior and exterior (buildings) – Washable flat finish for interior use)
Low gloss latex GPC L-26/5-1995 (Latex paint, interior and exterior (buildings) – Low gloss finish for interior use)
Semi-gloss latex GPC L-27-1995 (Semi gloss interior latex paint (Buildings))
Gloss latex GPC L-164-1995 (Interior Gloss Latex Paint (Buildings))
Exterior  
Full gloss solvent-borne GPC E-15/3-1995 (Full gloss enamel (buildings) – Exterior quality)
Flat latex GPC L-26/3-1995 (Latex paint, interior and exterior (buildings) – Flat or low gloss finish for exterior use)
Low gloss latex GPC L-26/3-1995 (Latex paint, interior and exterior (buildings) – Flat or low gloss finish for exterior use)
Gloss latex GPC L-28-1995 (Gloss exterior latex paint (buildings))
Stain, lightly pigmented GPC V-115/1-1997 (Ranch finish for exterior timber – Lightly pigmented solvent borne finish)
Latex stain, opaque GPC V-115/3-1997 (Ranch finish for exterior timber -Heavily pigmented latex finish – low gloss)
Semi-gloss latex GPC L-169-1995 (Semi Gloss Latex Paint, Exterior (Buildings))
Paving  
Semi gloss GPC P-200/1-1996 (One pack pigmented solvent borne paving paint – Semigloss)
Gloss GPC P-200/2-1996 (One pack pigmented solvent borne paving paint – Gloss)

 
The Australian Paint Approvals Scheme (APAS formerly the Government Paint Committee) sets requirements for manufacture and performance of paint used on both government and private projects. The use of an APAS specification is a convenient way of describing a paint of reasonable standard without restricting choice to a particular brand. Most leading brands have paints to APAS specifications but many premium grade paints may exceed the APAS requirements.
Exterior painting schedule

Item Manufacturer and
paint type
Colour
Fascia    
Guttering    
Downpipes    
Under eaves    
Cladding    
Shutters    
Handrails    
Balustrades    
Posts and beams    
Gable barge    
Gable panels    
Gable battens    
Finials    
Frieze horizontals    
Frieze verticals    
Masonry    

 
Windows and external doors painting schedule

Location Manufacturer and paint type Internal External Mouldings
Front door panel        
Front door frame        
Other door panels        
Other door frames        
Garage door panel        
Garage door frame        
Window frames        
Window sashes        

 
Interior painting schedule

Room/Item Manufacturer and paint type Walls Ceiling Cornice Doors Linings/trim
Front entry            
Rear/side entry            
Hall (ground floor)            
Lounge            
Dining            
Room dividers            
Kitchen            
Family            
Rumpus room            
WC            
Laundry            
Landing (first floor)            
Handrails            
Balustrades            
Bathroom            
Bedroom 1            
Ensuite            
Bedroom 2            
Bedroom 3            
Bedroom 4            
Bedroom 5            
Garage            
Store            

 
It is recommended that the Painting schedule is completed, with the manufacturer’s paint code references inserted. For a particular type of paint, a manufacturer may produce different quality grades. The quality of paint is generally reflected in its position on that suppliers price list. It is worth discussing the selection of paint with a supplier familiar with local conditions.
 
 

15        TIMBER FIXTURES

15.1     GENERAL

Extent of work;
 
Cross references
Refer to the following sections:

  • General requirements, for timber durability.
  • Doors and windows, for timber doors and reveal and jamb linings.

15.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Moisture content
Make milled products from timbers seasoned

  • to within 3% of the equilibrium moisture content appropriate to the timber and its intended conditions of use; and
  • with no more than 3% difference between any 2 pieces in any one group.

Finished sizes
Provide milled timbers with actual dimensions which are at least the required dimensions, except for dimensions qualified by a term such as “nominal” or “out of” to which industry standards for finished sizes apply.
Hardboard
Standard: To AS/NZS 1859.4-1997 (Reconstituted wood-based panels – Hardboard).
Particleboard
Standard: To AS/NZS 1859.1-1997 (Reconstituted wood-based panels – Particleboard).
Medium density fibreboard
Standard: To AS/NZS 1859.2-1997 (Reconstituted wood-based panels – Medium density fibreboard (MDF)).
Decorative overlaid wood panels
Standard: To AS/NZS 1859.3-1996 (Reconstituted wood-based panels – Decorative overlaid wood panels).
High-pressure decorative laminate sheets
Standard: To AS/NZS 2924.1-1987 (High-pressure decorative laminates).
High-pressure decorative laminate sheet application table
Provide classes as follows:

Class to AS/NZS 2924-1987 (Decorative thermosetting laminated sheet) Application
HGS or HGP Kitchen work-tops
VGS or VGP Kitchen front panels
VLS Other locations

 
Hardware

  • Handles: >ss 100 D handle
  • Locks: >nil

15.3     CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

General
Construction: Build components square and install plumb.
Joints: Provide materials in single lengths whenever possible. If joints are necessary, make them over supports.
Fasteners and adhesives
General: Provide fasteners, adhesives or both to transmit the loads imposed and ensure the rigidity of the assembly. Do not split, discolour or otherwise damage timber or sheets.
Visibility: Do not provide visible fixings except in the following locations:

  • Inside cupboards and drawer units.
  • Inside open units, in which case provide proprietary caps to conceal fixings.

Finishing
Junctions with structure: Scribe plinths, benchtops, splashbacks, ends of cupboards, kickboards and returns to follow the line of floors or walls.

15.4     TIMBER STAIRS AND BALUSTRADES

Closed strings
Trench for treads and risers.
Cut strings
Profile for treads and risers. Mitre riser ends.
Treads
Dress nosings to a pencil-round. Return nosings at cut strings. Groove for riser tongue in closed riser stair. Set riser 19 mm back from nosing.
Top tread
Flush with finished floor, otherwise to match stair treads. Provide similar tread section as nosing to floor edges around stair well.
Risers
Tongue to tread. Mitre to string in cut-string stairs.
Joints
Glue joints in internal work. In closed riser stairs, wedge treads and risers to strings. Plant 2 glue-blocks behind each tread to riser junction. Trim floors to carry ends of stairs and around stairwell.
Fascia
Of depth sufficient to overlap 19 mm below ceiling, and fixed to floor joists hard up under nosing.
Soffit lining
Fix to 38 x 38 mm nailing battens notched and nailed to the underside of treads and risers of closed rise stairs at the centre of flights and at each side.
Newels
Halve and bolt to strings.
Handrail
Stub tenon to newels.
Balusters
Stub tenon to handrail at top and to tread or floor at the bottom.

15.5     DOMESTIC KITCHEN ASSEMBLIES

Standard
General: To AS/NZS 4386.1-1996 (Domestic kitchen assemblies – Kitchen units).

15.6     CUPBOARD AND DRAWER UNITS

Plinths, carcasses, drawer fronts, shelves and doors
Material: Provide melamine overlaid high moisture-resistant medium density fibreboard.
Minimum thickness: 16 mm.
Finish: Provide decorative laminated sheet if necessary

  • to conceal fasteners; or
  • to provide selected colours.

Installation: Secure plinths and carcasses to floors, walls, or both at not more than 600 mm centres.
Drawer fronts: Rout for drawer bottoms.
Adjustable shelves: Support on proprietary pins in holes bored at 32 mm centres vertically.
Drawer and door hardware
Hinges: Provide concealed all-metal hinges with the following features:

  • Adjustable for height, side and depth location of door.
  • Self-closing action.
  • Hold-open function.
  • Nickel plated.

Slides: Provide metal runners and plastic rollers with the following features:

  • 30 kg loading capacity.
  • Closure retention.
  • White thermoset powder coating or nickel plated.

Modern cupboard construction is usually based on particleboard or medium density fibreboard. The use of moisture-resistant grades is essential in kitchens and bathrooms. In addition to the construction described here, other materials may be used and should be specified by reference to samples that are big enough to represent the range of properties that will be found in the finished work.

15.7     BENCHTOPS

Laminated benchtops
Material: Provide high moisture-resistant particleboard or medium density fibreboard.
Minimum thickness: 32 mm.
Finish: Decorative laminated sheet adhesive fixed.
Sealing underside: Laminate undersides of benchtops if

  • likely to be subject to excessive moisture from equipment such as dishwashers; or
  • the benchtop is not restrained against warping by cupboard carcass or support framing.

Installation: Fix to carcass at least twice per 600 mm length of benchtop.
Joint sealing: Fill joints with sealant matching the finish colour and clamp with proprietary mechanical connectors.
Edge sealing: Seal to walls and carcasses with a sealant which matches the finish colour.

15.8     CEILING AND UNDER FLOOR ACCESS

Ceiling
Trim an opening and provide a loose access panel of minimum size 600 x 400 mm.
Under floor
Provide a frame and a door, minimum size 720 mm wide x 600 mm high, complete with padbolt.

15.9     SCHEDULE

Joinery schedule

Location/Item Manufacturer Material Colour
       
       
       

 

16        PLUMBING AND DRAINAGE

16.1     GENERAL

Extent of work;
 
Cross references
Refer to the following sections:

  • Site preparation, for service trenches.
  • Roofing, for roof plumbing and rainwater tanks.
  • Block and tile finishes, for waterproofing of wet areas.
  • Painting, for priming steel or iron before installation and exposed piping required to be painted.

Standard
Plumbing and drainage products: To SAA MP52-1997 (Manual of authorization procedures for plumbing and drainage products).
Connections
Excavate to locate and expose the connection points and connect to the authorities’ mains. On completion, backfill and compact the excavation and reinstate surfaces and elements which have been disturbed such as roads, pavements, kerbs, footpaths and nature strips.

16.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Water supply pipes

  • Material: >copper

Kitchen sink

  • Tap holes: >one for mixer
  • Filtered water: one

Water heater

  • Type: >instantaneous gas
  • Manufacturer: >Rinnai or Rheem
  • Model/capacity: >125L/min

The water heater type and size should be selected carefully on the basis of running cost, performance and durability.
Finishes
Finish exposed piping, including fittings and supports as follows:

  • Internal locations such as toilet and kitchen areas: Bright chrome plate.
  • Externally: Paint.
  • Concealed but accessible spaces (including cupboards and non-habitable enclosed spaces): Leave unpainted except for required identification marking.

Valves
Finish valves to match connected piping.
Sanitaryware and tapware schedule

Location Manufacturer Type Colour
       
       
       

 

16.3     CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

General
Install piping in straight lines and to uniform grades. Arrange and support the piping so that it remains free from vibration and water hammer, while permitting thermal movement. Keep the number of joints to a minimum. Prevent direct contact between incompatible metals.
Concealment
If practicable, conceal piping and fittings requiring maintenance or servicing so that they are accessible within non-habitable enclosed spaces such as roof spaces, subfloor spaces and ducts. Keep pipelines in subfloor spaces at least 150 mm above ground and ensure access can be provided throughout for inspection. Provide at least 25 mm clearance between adjacent pipelines (measured from the piping insulation where applicable).
Building penetrations
If piping passes through building elements provide purpose-made metal or plastic sleeves formed from pipe sections. Prime steel or iron before installation.
Pipe supports
Materials: The same as the piping, or galvanized or non-ferrous metals, with bonded PVC or glass fibre woven tape sleeves where needed to separate dissimilar metals.
Cover plates
Where exposed piping emerges from wall, floor or ceiling finishes, provide cover plates of non-ferrous metal, finished to match the piping, or of stainless steel.

16.4     STORMWATER

Standard
General: To AS/NZS 3500.3.2-1998 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Stormwater drainage – Acceptable solutions).
Cleaning
During construction, use temporary covers to openings and keep the system free of debris. On completion, flush the system using water and leave it clean.
Pipelaying
Lay pipelines with the spigot ends in the direction of flow.
Downpipe connections
Turn up drain branch pipelines to finish 50 mm above finished ground or pavement level.
Subsoil drains
Connection: Connect subsoil drains to the stormwater drainage system.
Trench width: Minimum 450 mm.
Subsoil drains: Provide proprietary perforated plastic pipe.
Filter fabric: Provide a polymeric fabric formed from a plastic yarn containing stabilisers or inhibitors to make the filaments resistant to deterioration due to ultraviolet light.
Filter sock: Provide a polyester permeable sock capable of retaining particles of 0.25 mm size. Securely fit or join the sock at each joint.
Backfilling: Backfill with 20 mm nominal size washed screenings, to the following depths:

  • To the underside of the bases of overlying structures such as pavements, slabs and channels.
  • To within 75 mm of the finished surface of unpaved or landscaped areas.

Pits
Cover levels: Locate the top of covers or gratings, including frames as follows:

  • In paved areas: Flush with the paving surface.
  • In landscaped areas: 25 mm above finished surface.
  • Gratings taking surface water runoff: Set to receive the runoff without ponding.

16.5     WASTEWATER

Standard
General: To AS/NZS 3500.2.2-1996 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Sanitary plumbing and sanitary drainage – Acceptable solutions).
Cleaning
During construction, use temporary covers to openings and keep the system free of debris. On completion, flush the system using water and leave it clean.
Septic tanks
Precast concrete or glass fibre reinforced plastic septic tank: To AS/NZS 1546-1998 (On-site domestic wastewater treatment – Septic tanks).
Effluent disposal: To AS 1547-1994 (Disposal systems for effluent from domestic premises).
Vent pipes
Staying to roof: If fixings for stays penetrate the roof covering, seal the penetrations and make watertight.
Terminations: Provide bird-proof vent cowls made of the same material and colour as the vent pipe.

16.6     FRESH WATER

Standards
General: To AS/NZS 3500.1.2-1998 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Water supply – Acceptable solutions) and AS/NZS 3500.4.2-1997 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Hot water supply systems – Acceptable solutions).
Tap positions
Locate hot tap to the left of, or above, the cold water tap.
Accessories
Provide the accessories and fittings necessary for the proper functioning of the plumbing systems, including taps, valves, outlets, pressure and temperature control devices, strainers, gauges and pumps.
Space Heater installation
Location: Locate water heaters where they can be maintained or replaced without damaging adjacent structures, fixtures or finishes.
Oil-fired heaters: To AS 1691-1985 (Domestic oil-fired appliances – Installation).
Solid fuel heaters: To AS 2918-1990 (Domestic solid fuel burning appliances – Installation).
Temperature
Maximum temperature at ablution outlets: 50oC.
A maximum temperature of 50oC is recommended by health authorities to reduce the risk of scalds. This can be achieved by adjusting thermostats, regulating flow e.g. with thermostatic mixing valves, or by using special taps.
Isolating valves
Provide isolation valves to water heaters.
Cleaning
On completion, flush the pipelines using water and leave them clean.

16.7     RAINWATER TANKS

General
Type: Provide a proprietary reinforced concrete, plastic or coated steel tank with flat base and pitched roof for storage of rainwater
Installation: To AS/NZS 3500.1.2-1998 (National Plumbing and Drainage – Water supply – Acceptable solutions).
Coated steel tank: Fully support the tank above ground level.

  • Material: Hot-dipped zinc-coated steel or aluminium/zinc-coated steel.

Reinforced concrete or plastic tank: Trim and compact the ground and place a level bed of sand at least 50 mm thick to support the tank.

16.8     GAS

Standard
General: To AG 601-1998 (Gas Installation Code).
Buried pipes
Warning tape: During backfilling, lay plastic warning tape above and for the full length of buried gas pipes.

  • Type: Minimum 100 mm wide, with “GAS PIPE UNDER” marked continuously.

Commissioning
On completion of installation and testing, turn on isolating and control valves and purge and charge the installation.
 
 

17        ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS

17.1     GENERAL

Extent of work:
 
Cross reference
Refer to the Site preparation section for service trenches.
Standards
Domestic electrical installations: To AS/NZS 3018-1997 (Electrical installations – Domestic installations).
AS 3006-1982 (Adequate electrical installation in domestic premises) can be used for design purposes.
Mechanical ventilation: To AS 1668.2-1991 (The use of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings – Mechanical ventilation for acceptable indoor-air quality).
The BCA requires that where its requirements for natural ventilation are not satisfied, mechanical ventilation must be provided.
Definition
Meter box: contains the service authorities meters and control gear.
Switchboards: has safety switch and circuit breakers for house
Other work: low voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies, CCTV, audio etc.

17.2     COMPONENTS

Power
Circuit breakers: To AS 3947.2-1997 (Low voltage switchgear and control gear – Circuit-breakers).
Switchboards: To AS 3439.1-1993 (Low-voltage switchgear and control gear – Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies) or AS 3439.3-1995 (Low-voltage switchgear and control gear – Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use – Distribution, as appropriate).
Electrical accessories schedule

Item Location/code Type Details
Switches and plates      
Socket outlets and plates      

 
Luminaires
Standard: To AS 3137-1992 (Approval and test specification – Luminaires (lighting fittings)).
Lamps and luminaires schedule

Item Location/code Type Details
Lamps      
Luminaires      

 
Electrical appliances schedule

Item Location/code Type Details
Built-in ovens      
Cook tops/stove      
Range hoods      
Fans – ceiling      
Fans – exhaust      
Towel rails      
Bar heaters      
Water heaters      
Room heaters      
Door chime      
Dishwasher      
Microwave      
Waste disposal unit      

 
Telecommunications cables
Standard: To ACA TS 008-1997 (Requirements for Authorised Cabling Products).
Telecommunications accessories schedule

Item Location/code Type Details
Telephones      
Telephone outlets and plates      
Modem outlets and plates      

 
Television
Antennae: To AS 1417.1-1987 (Receiving antennas for radio and television in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 Ghz – Construction and installation) and AS 1417.2-1991 (Receiving antennas for radio and television in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 Ghz – Performance).

  • Antenna outlets and plates: >

Audio

  • Audio system: >
  • Audio outlets and plates: >

Miscellaneous

  • Central vacuum system: >
  • Intercom system: >
  • Security system: >

Smoke alarms
Standard: To AS 3786-1993 (Smoke alarms) hard wired into lighting circuit wiring.

  • Smoke alarm type: >2 off

Airconditioning units
Evaporative air coolers: To AS 2913-1987 (Evaporative air-conditioning equipment).
Package airconditioners: To AS 1861.2-1991 (Air-conditioning units – Methods of assessing and rating performance – Refrigerated package air-conditioners).
Room airconditioners: To AS/NZS 3823.1.1-1998 (Performance of household electrical appliances – Room airconditioners – Non-ducted airconditioners and heat pumps – Testing and rating for performance)
Air-conditioning equipment schedule

Item Location/code Type Details
Units      
Ductwork      

 
Generally, no specification is required for domestic air-conditioning, heating and ventilation if manufacturers’ instructions are followed (see General requirements).

17.3     INSTALLATION

Consumer mains
General: Provide a consumer mains and connect to the main service.

  • Supply type: >underground service
  • Phases: >two

Multiphase supply may be required for ducted air-conditioning.
Switchboards
General: Provide control switchgear, circuit breakers and earth leakage protection devices (RCDs) on a wall-mounted switchboard enclosed in a case with a hinged door. Make provision for the authority’s equipment and have it installed.
Electrical wiring
General: Conceal cables and conduits, including underground cable or conduit entering the building, in a manner that will allow wiring replacement without structural work or the removal of cladding or lining. Do not penetrate damp-proof courses.
Connection of fixed and stationary appliances: Provide connecting devices with socket outlet and flush blank plate.
Electrical accessories
General: Install flush-mounted accessories in wall boxes in masonry and in mounting brackets in stud walls.
Telecommunications cabling
Standards: To AUSTEL TS 009-1997 (Installation Requirements for Customer Cabling (Wiring Rules)) and AS/NZS 3086-1996 (Telecommunications installations – Integrated communications cabling systems for small office/home office premises).
Wiring: Conceal cables and conduits, including underground cable or conduit entering the building, in a manner that will allow wiring replacement without structural work or the removal of cladding or lining. Do not penetrate damp-proof courses.
Pre-wiring: Have pre-wiring of telephone, data, TV and telecommunications services carried out before installation of linings, paving and landscaping.
Early telephone and television pre-wiring will save possible damage to finished work, particularly paving and landscape. An antenna may not be required if the owner is a pay TV subscriber.
Connection of fixed and stationary appliances: Provide connecting devices with socket outlet and flush blank plate.
Smoke alarms
Standard: To AS 1670.6-1997 (Fire detection, warning, control and intercom systems – System design, installation, and commissioning – Smoke alarms).
Power: Connect to consumer mains power.
Smoke detectors are not compulsory in all states and territories.
Air-conditioning pipework insulation
Protection against ultra-violet light and mechanical damage: Sheath external insulated pipework.
Completion tests
General: Test the electrical installation, smoke alarms, and the air-conditioning system.
 
 

18        FENCES AND EXTERNAL WALLS

18.1     GENERAL

Cross reference
Refer to the General requirements section for timber durability.
Swimming pool fences are subject to statutory controls which vary from place to place. This section does not cover swimming pool fences, which must be designed to suit the lcoation and comply with local council requirements.

18.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Galvanizing
Galvanize mild steel components as follows:

  • Threaded fasteners: To AS 1214-1983 (Hot-dip galvanized coatings on threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series)).
  • Other components: To AS 1650-1989 (Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles).

Concrete
Standard: To AS 1379-1997 (Specification and supply of concrete) or proprietary packaged mix.
Steel panel fencing
Self-drilling screws: To AS 3566-1988 (Screws – Self-drilling – For the building and construction industries) corrosion resistant class 3.
Steel framing: Zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc alloy coated steel to AS 1397-1993 (Steel sheet and strip – Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated)/Z450 or AZ150.
Steel sheeting: Prepainted to AS/NZS 2728-1997 (Prefinished/prepainted sheet metal products for interior/exterior building applications – Performance requirements).

  • Height: >1800
  • Prefinish colour: >beige/cream

Steel posts
Galvanize to AS 1650-1989 (Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles).
Concrete posts
Reinforce and precast from concrete to AS 1379-1997 (Specification and supply of concrete).
Timber fencing size table
Provide timber members as follows:

Member Preservative treated softwood picket (mm) Preservative treated softwood paling/lap & cap (mm) Hardwood or cypress pine paling/lap & cap (mm)
Maximum height 1200 1800 1800
End/corner gate posts 90 x 90 100 x 100 125 x 125 or 100 x 100
Intermediate posts 90 x 90 140 x 45 or 100 x 75 125 x 50 or 100 x 75
Maximum post spacing 2400 2400/2700* 2700
Rails 70 x 40 75 x 50 or 100 x 38 75 x 50 or 100 x 38
Picket/paling size 70 x 19 75, 100 or 150 x 15* 100 or 150 x 13*
Capping 125 x 35 100 x 50
* three rail fences only      

Timber fencing

  • Height: >1800
  • Material: >treated pine
  • Type: >paling

18.3     CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

Clearing
Clear vegetation on the fence alignment. Grub out the stumps and roots of removed trees or shrubs and trim the grass to ground level, but do not remove the topsoil.
Excavation
Excavate footings so that they have vertical sides and a firm base.
Minimum footing size
Generally: 200 diameter x 600 mm deep.
In loose material: 250 diameter x 900 mm deep.
In rock: 250 diameter x 300 mm deep.
Line and level
Erect posts vertically to follow the contours of the natural ground.
Earth footings
Place 100 mm of gravel in the footing base under posts and backfill with earth around posts, compacting firmly by hand or machine in 150 mm deep layers.
Concrete footings
Place mass concrete around posts and finish with a weathered top falling from the post to ground level.
Steel panel fencing
Ensure bottom rails have drain holes and are at least 50 mm clear of the ground.
Timber fencing
General: Mortice posts, taper splice rails and nail twice in mortices. Set pickets and palings clear of the ground.
Picket fence: Nail twice to each rail.
Plain paling fence: Use 2 rails for fences up to 1.8 m high. Close butt palings and nail twice to each rail.
Lap and cap paling fence: Use 3 rails for fences up to 1.8 m high with the top rail located to receive the capping. Close butt larger palings and nail twice to each rail. Fix smaller palings over joints and nail twice to each rail. Nail capping to the top rail.
Preservative-treated softwood palings may need three rails for fences over 1.5 m to prevent excessive twisting. Three rails should be specified if there is concern about this possibility.

18.4     GATES

General
Construction: Construct gates as follows:

  • Ledges and braces: To match fence rails.
  • Pickets or palings: To match fencing.

Hardware: Provide the following:

  • Drop bolt and ferrule to each leaf of double gates.
  • Latch to one leaf of double gates.
  • Provision for locking by padlock.
  • Hinges to ensure smooth operation.

Hand access: Provide hand holes to give access from outside to reach locking provision.

  • Size: >120 dia
  • Type: >latch

18.5     BRICK FENCES

Standards
Follow the guidance given in Clay Brick and Paver Institute Technical Notes 21A, 21B and 21C.
Masonry units

  • Type: >
  • Manufacturer: >
  • Size: >
  • Colour: >
  • Feature colour: >
  • Mortar colour: >
  • Mortar joints: >

Construction generally
Provide a structurally sound brickwork fence composed of

  • footings;
  • brickwork panels; and
  • lateral support where necessary in the form of piers, posts or return walls.

 
 

19        LANDSCAPING

19.1     GENERAL

Cross reference
Refer to the General requirements section for timber durability.

19.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Concrete
Standard: To AS 1379-1997 (Specification and supply of concrete) or proprietary packaged mix.

19.3     PREPARATION

Weed eradication
Eradicate weeds using a non-residual glyphosate herbicide in any registered formulae, at the recommended maximum rate.
Surplus spoil
Remove surplus spoil from site. Do not burn vegetative material.

19.4     SUBSOIL

Ripping
General: If practicable, rip parallel to the final contours. Do not rip when the subsoil is wet or plastic. Do not rip within the dripline of trees and shrubs to be retained.
Ripping depths: Rip the subsoil to the following typical depths:

  • Compacted subsoil: 300 mm.
  • Heavily compacted clay subsoil: 450 mm.

Cultivation
Cultivate to a minimum depth of 100 mm. Do not disturb services or tree roots; if necessary, cultivate these areas by hand. During cultivation, thoroughly mix in materials required to be incorporated into the subsoil. Remove stones exceeding 25 mm, clods of earth exceeding 50 mm, and weeds, rubbish or other deleterious material brought to the surface during cultivation. Trim the surface to the required design levels after cultivation.
Additives
General: Apply additives after ripping or cultivation and incorporate into the upper 100 mm layer of the subsoil.
Gypsum: Incorporate at the rate of 0.25 kg/m2.

19.5     TOPSOIL

General
Provide topsoil which is free from unwanted matter and is suitable for reuse on site as topsoil.
Source
If it is available, provide site topsoil.
Placing topsoil
Spread the topsoil on the prepared subsoil and grade evenly, making the necessary allowances so that:

  • required finished levels and contours are achieved after light compaction; and
  • grassed areas may be finished flush with adjacent hard surfaces such as kerbs, paths and mowing strips.

Consolidation
Compact lightly and uniformly in 150 mm layers. Avoid differential subsidence and excess compaction and produce a finished topsoil surface which is:

  • finished to design levels;
  • smooth and free from stones or lumps of soil;
  • graded to drain freely, without ponding, to catchment points;
  • graded evenly into adjoining ground surfaces; and
  • ready for planting.

Topsoil depths
Spread topsoil to the following typical depths:

  • Planting areas: 225 mm.
  • Irrigated grassed areas generally: 150 mm.
  • Grass areas: 100 mm.

19.6     TURFING

Turf
Obtain turf from a specialist grower of cultivated turf. Provide turf of even thickness, free from weeds and other foreign matter.
Supply
Deliver the turf within 24 hours of cutting, and lay it within 36 hours of cutting. Prevent it from drying out between cutting and laying.
Fertilising
Mix fertiliser thoroughly into the topsoil before placing the turf.
Laying
Lay turf

  • in “stretcher” pattern with the joints staggered and close butted;
  • parallel with the long sides of level areas, and with contours on slopes; and
  • to finish flush, after tamping, with adjacent finished surfaces of ground, paving edging, or grass seeded areas.

Tamping
Lightly tamp to an even surface immediately after laying. Do not use a roller.
Watering
Water immediately after laying until the topsoil is moistened to its full depth.

19.7     PLANTING

Excavation
Excavate a plant hole for each plant large enough to accept the root ball plus 0.1 m3 of backfilling with topsoil.
Plants
General: Provide plants which

  • have large healthy root systems, with no evidence of root curl, restriction or damage;
  • are vigorous, well established, free from disease and pests, of good form consistent with the species or variety; and
  • are hardened off, not soft or forced, and suitable for planting in the natural climatic conditions prevailing at the site.

Trees: Provide trees which, unless required to be multi-stemmed, have a single leading shoot.
For specifying trees, refer to Ross Clark’s “Purchasing Landscape Trees – a guide to assessing tree quality”, Construction Information Systems Australia Pty Ltd 1996.
Labelling
Label at least one plant of each species or variety in a batch using a durable, readable tag.
Planting conditions
Do not plant in unsuitable weather conditions such as extreme heat, cold, wind or rain. In other than sandy soils, suspend excavation when the soil is wet, or during frost periods.
Watering
Thoroughly water plants before planting and immediately after planting.
Fertilising
In planting beds and individual plantings, place fertiliser pellets around plants at the time of planting.

19.8     MULCHING

Mulch
General: Provide mulch which is free of deleterious and extraneous matter such as stones, soil, weeds and sticks.
Application: Place mulch clear of plant stems, and rake to an even surface flush with the surrounding finished levels.
Depth: 75 mm.

19.9     STAKES AND TIES

Stakes
Material: Hardwood, straight, free from knots or twists, pointed at one end.
Installation: Drive stakes into the ground at least one third of their length, avoiding damage to the root system.
Stake sizes:

  • For plants 1 to 2.5 m high: Two 50 x 50 x 1800 mm stakes per plant.
  • For plants smaller than 1 m high: One 38 x 38 x 1200 mm stake per plant.

Ties
General: Provide ties fixed securely to the stakes, one tie at half the height of the main stem, others as necessary to stabilise the plant.
Webbing: Provide 50 mm hessian webbing stapled to the stake.
 
SCHEDULE OF PLANT MATERIAL;
Refer to landscape plan for design and schedule.
 

20        PAVING AND ROADS

20.1     GENERAL

Cross reference
Refer to the General requirements section for timber durability.
Footpath crossing
Provide a footpath and kerb crossing to local council requirements.

20.2     MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Mortar materials
Sand: Use a fine aggregate with a low clay content selected for grading.
Cement: To AS 3972-1997 (Portland and blended cements), type GP.
Mortar
Mix proportions: 1:3 cement:sand.

20.3     CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY

Grading
General: Grade paving to even falls to drain away from buildings to drainage outlets without ponding. Minimum fall for drainage: 1:100.

20.4     BASE COURSE

Preparation
Prepare the subgrade to suit the thickness of the base course and paving. If necessary, loosen the ground to a depth of 200 mm and adjust the moisture content before compaction. Compact the ground to a firm, even surface using at least 2 passes of a vibrating plate compactor or roller. Remove and replace soft areas.
Base course material
Provide crushed rock consisting of hard, dense, durable particles free from deleterious material, of nominal size 25 mm, uniformly graded, with not more than 10% passing a 0.075 mm sieve.
Placing
Spread and compact the base course to a firm, tight, close textured surface using at least 3 passes of a vibrating plate compactor or roller. Adjust the moisture content as needed to facilitate compaction.
Base course minimum thickness table
Comply with the following minimum thicknesses:

  Site classification to AS 2870
  Unit paving Bituminous paving
  A S&M A S&M
Foot and bicycle traffic 0 0 50 mm 100 mm
Light domestic traffic occasionally
up to 3 tonne gross
0 75 mm 100 mm 150 mm

 

20.5     BITUMINOUS PAVING

Hotmix paving
Standard: Place and compact asphaltic concrete paving over the prepared base course to AS 2734-1984 (Asphalt (hot-mixed) paving – Guide to good practice).
Mix designation: AC7.
Binder type: Class 170 bitumen.
Minimum thickness: 25 mm.
Tack coating: Cut back bitumen or bitumen emulsion.

20.6     UNIT PAVING

Masonry and segmental pavers
General: Provide paving units of clay, natural stone or concrete masonry, purpose-made for use as paving, or units made for bonded masonry construction but suitable for paving.
Standard: To AS/NZS 4455-1997 (Masonry units and segmental pavers).
Minimum thickness:

  • Foot and bicycle traffic: 40 mm.
  • Light domestic traffic occasionally up to 3 tonne gross: 50 mm.

Cutting units: Cut paving units to maintain sharp edges and accurate joints and margins.

  • Manufacturer: >Boral
  • Size:             >230x110x50
  • Colour: >drift sand

Laying unit paving
General: Over the base course, lay the units on bedding sand screeded to a uniform thickness not exceeding 50 mm, and to the required falls and levels. Do not disturb the screeded sand bedding before the units are laid. Provide a gap of 1-3 mm wide between adjoining units. After laying, tamp the units using a vibrating plate compactor.
Dry joints: Fill the joints flush with clean, fine sand or screened bedding sand passing a 1.2 mm sieve, vibrate into the joints and then make 2 further passes of the vibrating plate compactor.
Edge restraint
Provide edge restraint where needed to support the sand bedding and maintain the paving shape. Bed units in mortar at least 40 mm thick.

20.7     IN SITU CONCRETE PAVING

Concrete
Standard: To AS 1379-1997 (Specification and supply of concrete).

  • Colour: >intergral drift sand
  • Aggregate: >15

The requirements for in situ concrete may be varied if it is reinforced. AS 3727-1993 (Guide to residential pavements) can be used for design purposes.
Minimum thickness
Foot and bicycle traffic: 75 mm.
Light domestic traffic occasionally up to 3 tonne gross: 100 mm.
Preparation
Trim the ground to suit the required thickness of concrete and compact to a firm, even surface.
Control joints
Form tooled joints at maximum 2 m spacing.
Expansion joints
Cast-in 10 mm thick bitumen impregnated fibreboard joint filler at maximum 6 m spacing.
Abutment with building
Where concrete paving more than 1.5m wide abuts the wall of a building, provide a strip of 10 mm thick bitumen impregnated fibreboard between the paving and the wall.
Finishing methods
Broom finishing: Wood float and broom to an even textured slip-resistant surface with steel tooled margins. On gradients steeper than 10%, roughen the surface by scoring.
Exposed aggregate finish: Steel trowel to a smooth surface. After final set use clean water and brushes to remove the surface film of mortar until the aggregate is uniformly exposed without under cutting of the matrix.
Sponge finish: After floating, produce an even textured sand finish by wiping the surface using a damp sponge.
Stencil pattern: Use a proprietary system.

  • Finish type: >
  • Colour: >
  • Pattern: >

 
 

21        REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

AS 1214                                   Hot-dip galvanized coatings on threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series)
AS 1231                                   Aluminium and aluminium alloys – Anodized coatings for architectural applications
AS 1250                                   The use of steel in structures
AS 1288                                   Glass in buildings – Selection and installation
AS 1366                                   Rigid cellular plastics sheets for thermal insulation
AS 1366.4                                     Rigid cellular polystyrene – Extruded (RC/PS-E)
AS 1379                                   Specification and supply of concrete
AS 1397                                   Steel sheet and strip – Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
AS 1417                                   Receiving antennas for radio and television in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 Ghz
AS 1470                                   Health and safety at work
AS/NZS 1546                           On-site domestic wastewater treatment units
AS/NZS 1546.1                             Septic tanks
AS 1547                                   Disposal systems for effluent from domestic premises
AS/NZS 1554                           Structural steel welding
AS/NZS 1554.1                             Welding of steel structures
AS 1562                                   Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding
AS 1562.1                                     Metal
AS/NZS 1562.3                             Plastic
AS 1604                                   Timber – Preservative-treated – Sawn and round
AS 1627                                   Metal finishing – Preparation and pre-treatment of surfaces
AS 1650                                   Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles
AS 1668                                   The use of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings
AS 1668.2                                     Mechanical ventilation for acceptable indoor-air quality
AS 1670                                   Fire detection, warning, control and intercom systems – System design, installation, and commissioning
AS 1670.6                                     Smoke alarms
AS 1672                                   Limes and limestones
AS 1672.1                                     Limes for building
AS 1684                                   National Timber Framing Code
AS 1691                                   Domestic oil-fired appliances – Installation
AS 1720                                   Timber structures
AS 1720.1                                     Design methods
AS 1726                                    Geotechnical site investigation
AS 1789                                   Electroplated coatings – Zinc on iron or steel
AS/NZS 1859                           Reconstituted wood-based panels
AS/NZS 1859.1                             Particleboard
AS/NZS 1859.2                             Medium density fibreboard (MDF)
AS/NZS 1859.3                             Decorative overlaid wood panels
AS/NZS 1859.4                             Hardboard
AS 1860                                   Installation of particleboard flooring
AS 1861                                   Air-conditioning units – Methods of assessing and rating performance
AS 1861.2                                     Refrigerated package air-conditioners
AS 1884                                   Floor coverings – Resilient sheet and tiles – Laying and maintenance practices
AS 1909                                   Installation of timber doorsets
AS 2032                                   Code of practice for installation of UPVC pipe systems
AS 2047                                   Windows in buildings
AS 2047.1                                     Specification for materials and performance
AS 2047.2                                     Construction, installation and maintenance
AS 2048                                    Code of practice for installation and maintenance of aluminium windows
AS 2049                                    Roof tiles
AS 2050                                   Installation of roofing tiles
AS 2159                                   Piling – Design and installation
AS/NZS 2179                           Specification for rainwater goods, accessories and fasteners
AS/NZS 2179.1                             Metal shape or sheet rainwater goods and metal accessories and fasteners
AS/NZS 2179.2 (Int)                       1998 PVC rainwater goods and accessories
AS 2185                                   Fibrous plaster products
AS/NZS 2269                           Plywood – Structural
AS 2311                                   The painting of buildings
AS/NZS 2312                           Guide to the protection of iron and steel against exterior atmospheric corrosion
AS 2358                                   Adhesives – For fixing ceramic tiles
AS/NZS 2455                           Textile floor coverings – Installation practice
AS/NZS 2455.1                             General
AS 2461                                   Mineral wool thermal insulation – Loose fill
AS 2462                                   Cellulosic fibre thermal insulation
AS/NZS 2588                           Gypsum plasterboard
AS 2589                                   Gypsum linings in residential and light commercial construction – Application and finishing
AS/NZS 2589.1                             Gypsum plasterboard
AS 2592                                   Gypsum plaster for building purposes
AS 2601                                   The demolition of structures
AS 2688                                   Timber doors
AS 2689                                   Timber doorsets
AS 2699                                   Wall ties for masonry construction
AS/NZS 2728                           Prefinished/prepainted sheet metal products for interior/exterior building applications – Performance requirements
AS 2734                                   Asphalt (hot-mixed) paving – Guide to good practice
AS/NZS 2803                           Doors – Security Screen
AS/NZS 2803.1                             Hinged
AS/NZS 2803.2                             Sliding
AS/NZS 2804                           Installation of security screen doors
AS/NZS 2804.1                             Hinged
AS/NZS 2804.2                             Sliding
AS 2870                                   Residential slabs and footings – Construction
AS/NZS 2904                           Damp-proof courses and flashings
AS 2908                                   Cellulose-cement products
AS 2908.2                                     Flat sheets
AS 2913                                   Evaporative air-conditioning equipment
AS 2918                                   Domestic solid fuel burning appliances – Installation
AS/NZS 2924                           High pressure decorative laminates – Sheets made from thermosetting resins
AS/NZS 2924.1                             Classification and specifications
AS/NZS 3018                           Electrical installations – Domestic installations
AS/NZS 3086                           Telecommunications installations – Integrated communications cabling systems for small office/home office premises
AS 3137                                   Approval and test specification – Luminaires (lighting fittings)
AS 3439                                   Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear
AS 3439.1                                     Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies
AS 3439.3                                     Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use – Distribution
AS 3500                                   National Plumbing and Drainage
AS/NZS 3500.1.2                           Water supply – Acceptable solutions
AS/NZS 3500.2.2                           Sanitary plumbing and sanitary drainage – Acceptable solutions
AS/NZS 3500.3.2                           Stormwater drainage – Acceptable solutions
AS/NZS 3500.4.2                           Hot water supply systems – Acceptable solutions
AS 3566                                   Screws – Self-drilling – For the building and construction industries
AS 3600                                   Concrete structures
AS 3623                                   Domestic metal framing
AS 3660                                   Protection of buildings from subterranean termites – Prevention, detection and treatment of infestation
AS 3660.1                                     New buildings
AS 3700                                   Masonry structures
AS 3715                                   Metal finishing – Thermoset powder coatings for architectural applications
AS 3740                                   Waterproofing of wet areas within residential buildings
AS 3742                                   Mineral wool thermal insulation – Batt and blanket
AS 3786                                   Smoke alarms
AS 3947                                   Low voltage switchgear and controlgear
AS 3947.2                                     Circuit-breakers
AS 3958                                   Ceramic tiles
AS 3958.1                                     Guide to the installation of ceramic tiles
AS 3958.2                                     Guide to the selection of a ceramic tiling system
AS 3959                                   Construction of buildings in bushfire prone areas
AS 3972                                   Portland and blended cements
AS 3999                                   Thermal insulation of dwellings – Bulk insulation – Installation requirements
AS 4100                                   Steel structures
AS/NZS 4200                           Pliable building materials and underlays
AS/NZS 4200.1                             Materials
AS/NZS 4200.2                             Installation requirements
AS/NZS 4256                           Plastic roof and wall cladding materials
AS/NZS 4256.3                             Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GRP)
AS/NZS 4256.4                             Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) wall cladding boards
AS/NZS 4256.5                             Polycarbonate
AS/NZS 4386                           Domestic kitchen assemblies
AS/NZS 4386.1                             Kitchen units
AS 4440                                   Installation of nailplated timber trusses
AS/NZS 4455                           Masonry units and segmental pavers
AS/NZS 4456                           Masonry units and segmental pavers – Method of test
AS/NZS 4456.10                            Method 10: Determining resistance to salt attack
AS/NZS 4506                           Metal finishing – Thermoset powder coatings
AS/NZS 4600                           Cold-formed steel structures
SAA HB33                                Domestic open fire places
SAA MP52                               Manual of authorization procedures for plumbing and drainage products
AG 601                                    Gas Installation Code
AWRAP/A 202                          Mandatory Woolmark Specifications for building insulation material
ACA TS 008                             Requirements for Authorised Cabling Products
AUSTEL TS 009                        Installation Requirements for Customer Cabling (Wiring Rules)
CA 27                                      Code of recommended practice for internal plastering on solid backgrounds
GPC-E-15                                 Full gloss enamel (buildings)
GPC-E-15/3                                   Exterior quality
GPC-E-15/4                                   For interior use
GPC-L-26                                 Latex paint, interior and exterior (buildings)
GPC-L-26/3                                   Flat or low gloss finish for exterior use
GPC-L-26/5                                   Low gloss finish for interior use
GPC-L-26/6                                   Washable flat finish for interior use
GPC-L-27                                 Semi gloss interior latex paint (Buildings)
GPC-L-28                                 Gloss exterior latex paint (buildings)
GPC-C-29                                 Long life protective systems for steel
GPC-C-29/16                                 Organic zinc rich coatings
GPC-V-115                               Ranch finish for exterior timber
GPC-V-115/1                                 Lightly pigmented solvent bourne finish
GPC-V-115/3                                 Heavily pigmented latex finish – low gloss
GPC-L-164                               Interior Gloss Latex Paint (Buildings)
GPC-L-169                               Semi Gloss Latex Paint, Exterior (Buildings)
GPC-P-200                               One pack pigmented solvent borne paving paint
GPC-P-200/1                                 Semigloss
GPC-P-200/2                                 Gloss
GPC-P-205                               One pack clear moisture cured polyurethane finish for timber floors
CBPI TN 21A                            The Design of Freestanding Clay-Brick Walls
CBPI TN 21B                            Brick Beam Garden Fences
CBPI TN 21C                            Small Pier and Panel Brick Fences (In Traditional Size Bricks)