Artificial intelligence is an art that encompasses computer programming with an aim of producing intelligent behavior while human intelligence is the study of human brain and its functions. The aim of studying human intelligence is to understand how the brain functions, simulations that employ its functionality in producing the outputs through mathematical models and computer simulations. Most psychologists argue that both intelligences have similar characteristics for functionality and work integrative which is vivid through using artificial intelligence to understand roles and mechanisms of the brain. Moreover, both the intelligences play an important role in understanding high cognitive tasks like reasoning, solving problems, and decision-making process (Efthimiou, Kouroupetroglou, & Fotinia, 2012). Even though some philosophers have acknowledged that machines have the capacity of doing what the humans can do, some of them disagree with such claims citing that these high sophisticated behaviors like love, discovery, emotions, and moral decisions could only be carried by the humans.
Through the years, the scientists have been pursuing the study of intelligent behavior, however through the artificial methodologies. From psychological point of view, intelligence is the ability to learn and understand the methods of solving problems and making effective decisions. To study human intelligence, scientists utilize artificial intelligence to understand most of the human process. Alan Turning (1950) explored several papers on the artificial intelligence through predicting that by 2000, it would be possible to program the computers to have conversation with the human interrogator. Although such theory remains universal (Schmorrow, Estabrooke, & Grootjen, 2009). According to Turning, the program was to deceive the interrogator that it was human. Both the humans and machines can solve some of the complex mathematical calculations. However, it is possible to design the machines to solve the problems faster than the humans. Although several pieces of evidence suggest that human brain can store an equivalent of approximately 1018 bits and process such information at a speed of 1015 bits per second. Hence, both the intelligence can together and yield the desired results, as it evident that both accept the inputs and generate the right output. It is needed that any artificial intelligent assist humans in making decisions, searching for information, controlling complex objects, and understanding the meaning of words.
Artificial intelligence is a cognitive process especially the reasoning aspect. Before engaging in any decision-making process, people have to reason which makes it very important to consider exploring the link between both. Since the early 1960s, several studies have been conducted on the development of artificial intelligence and has become an important tool in supporting some of the decisions made by humans. Similarly, there are specific brain processes involved in decision making. Therefore, integrative both the intelligences might help generate valid and fast decisions. To support claims, several researches indicate that more sophisticated and user-friendly types of computer-aided decision technologies are under development including the decision support system and external information retrieval systems which could work alongside the human brain (DʼMello & Franklin, 2009). Artificial intelligence is used commonly in solving problems meaning that the machines can go beyond the human brain capacity. Such practices include solving mathematical problems considered to be of high complexity. They are programmed to do exactly what the humans want them to do. Currently, artificial intelligence is available and used in solving actual problems which initially were dealt by the human brain processes with some researchers suggesting that it might reach a point that the models outperform the best investors. The evidence already shows that they already utilized in forecasting the economy and analyzing some of the credit risks. Such escalation in the rate of utilization requires attention. An example of specific type artificial intelligence is the neural network that copies many features of the human brain which most scientists suggest that the model can draw some of the conclusions regarding incomplete data and learn from the previous mistakes. Therefore, it imitates the performance output by the brain processes.
The artificial intelligence is rapidly developing due to the numerous variety of the applications including the symbolic reasoning, flexibility, and explanation of the capacities. Therefore, integrating both the human brain and artificial intelligence might help produce efficient results that make everyday life effortless and simple. The objective of building the artificial intelligence agents was to assist in providing the efficiency and work in parallel to the brain processes as it contains features like the cognitive abilities which play an important role in the decision-making process besides helping in solving some complex and difficult human situations. In addition, the cognitive capacities of perception, planning, reasoning, learning might assist turn the technical systems into normal systems (Mackworth & Poole, 2010). Thus, they might function in parallel to the manner in which the brain work. Through the years, the scientists focused on the vast development of the models and currently, much emphasis are placed into the systems to contain some amount of the represented knowledge. As a result, the artificial intelligence assists with the learning process and prevents the repetition of the previous mistakes since it makes the adjustments that ensure yielding of effective results. In addition, it is the aim of the developers to continue improving the artificial intelligence even further like ensuring the justification of the made decisions, be aware of some of the capabilities that they contain, and be in a position to reflect on the behaviors. These are similar roles played by the brain mechanisms; thus, both the intelligences aim to create parallel models.
Even though these developments occurred over a span of many years, it could be argued that artificial intelligence is still not in a position to compete with the advance functionality portrayed by the human brain. In spite of the speed and capacity of the memory, the artificial intelligence still struggles to contend. With regard to the human brain, it has about 20 billion neurons with each connected to the synapses which the artificial intelligence cannot mimic. Nonetheless, through the years, there have been continuous progress and advancement in the development of the artificial intelligence, for example, the face recognition programme that detects photos. The human brain recognizes faces automatically but rely on the memory just like the artificial intelligence uses the memory store a collection of information. Security agencies use this function of the artificial intelligence. The previous advancement includes recognition of the voices which both human and artificial intelligence mechanisms share. All these features have not been used by the security agencies but also to function the devices and to make the intelligence easy and convenient during its utilization. This has been performed using different applications involving programming in a similar manner that human intelligence programme to carry out its specified functions. Moreover, artificial intelligence applications might utilize several techniques; the most important building block referred to as the neural network which works in a similar manner as the brain.
The factors that were initially difficult to reason have become easy to understand through the advancement in the technology. Considering the complex mechanisms of the human brains, it has been difficult to observe the activities of the human brain. However, there have been new advancement in the recent years like Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) which greatly assist in capturing the activities of the brain. Such development is important to the artificial intelligence as it offers an insight into the activities of the brain which is important in assisting to advance and imitate the brain processes. Moreover, the developments have been able to shift the balance between building the systems used in the artificial intelligence and studying the natural intelligence. However, the psychologists and physicians should expect numerous studies on both the artificial and human intelligence in the future. Currently, the evidences gathered suggest there is a possibility of the two intelligences working together in demonstrating the various cognitive states in human beings. In this case, the scientists used artificial intelligence in learning algorithms with an aim of distinguishing the observed cognitive states through the FMRI. With further analysis of such aspect, there is a close relationship between the artificial and human intelligence as they are both impacted when hit physically. In some cases, human behaviors are considered artificial, as both the intelligences function through language and communication. Communication is important for both the artificial and human intelligence to function effectively. Through communications, the intelligences are bale to send important information, which assists in maintaining the systems, and allows them to work effectively. Therefore, they play an important role in all the aspects.
Artificial and human intelligence share several characteristics relating to their functionalities. Psychologists might argue that the important feature that only the humans produce are the emotions. Emotion is the feeling and behavior of the people that has direct effect on their performance. Therefore, the emotions could act as the obstacles to producing the desired or the intelligent outcomes. Since artificial intelligence lacks emotions, such influences might not occur in their cases which make them not to have the influence on the expected outcomes. Nevertheless, it is important, that to imitate the human behavior and work alongside the humans the artificial intelligence needs to have the emotions, it is crucial that it does not only think and reason but also be in a position to show the emotions (Boukis, Pnevmatikakis, & Polymenakos, 2007). The overall evidence proposes that both the artificial and human intelligence are closely related and ensuring that they work together might help produce the efficient outcomes. Several theories such as cognition, perception, and problem solving need an effective implementation if they are to be explanatory in their nature instead of being descriptive. However, most developments always ignore such requirements which place significant constraints on the types of theories that the concept needs to entertain. These constraints include abstract that derives from the fact that computation is important in realizing the intelligent behavior. However, some of the constraints are more specific due to the type of architecture involved in the computational medium. Irrespective, the theory of the mind, whether it is philosophical, psychological, or neuropsychological needs viability of the computational tract. Various observations and theories used in the human intelligence are the guiding principles when designing the artificial intelligence to assist in refining the cognitive theories.
References
Boukis, C., Pnevmatikakis, A., & Polymenakos, L. (2007). Artificial intelligence and innovations 2007. New York: Springer.
DʼMello, S., & Franklin, S. (2009). Computational modeling/cognitive robotics compliments functional modeling/experimental psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 2579. Elsevier.
Efthimiou, E., Kouroupetroglou, G., & Fotinia, S. (2012). Gesture and sign language in human- computer interaction and embodied communication. Berlin: Springer.
Mackworth, A., & Poole, D. (2010). Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Schmorrow, D., Estabrooke, I., & Grootjen, M. (2009). Foundations of augmented cognition. Berlin: Springer.