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Research question: what are the connections between the principle of vulnerability and developing countries?
Outline
Title: Human Vulnerability and Developing Countries.
Contention: are genetically modified organisms safe for human consumption?
Thesis: The use of genetically modified organisms and foods among the developing nations has greatly aided in combating hunger. However, the foodstuffs grant has created a loophole for testing foods as well as supplying other untested foods which highly leaves the victims vulnerable to foods unfit for human consumption, a practice that raises arguments on ethical principles that constitute the human shield.

  1. Introduction
  2. Brings the reader to the knowledge of the connection between the principle of vulnerability with the social, economic, and political dynamics in developing nations. In principle, developing nations are often victims of various ethical controversies as shown by various studies. Taking GMOs for instance, it is unethical to feed an individual with products that they are not aware of their chemical properties. It is also unethical to replace native drought-resistant crops with GMO crops without understanding the social and economic backgrounds of the individual. It is unethical to replace natural crops, with GMO crops, which have the ability to produce their own insecticides, without understanding the social and cultural aspects of an individual’s community.
  3. Are the principles of vulnerability compromised when it comes to developing nation? Is it better to die of hunger of untested food?

Arguments

  • In a step to satisfy the food demand in the developing nations, which typically have hunger struggles, there is a possibility to expose the population to untested and harmful GMO products. As a result, this exposure leaves the people in danger of terminal diseases such as cancer and other related illnesses, which are caused by the use of chemicals. Ordinarily, GMOs are designed to produce their own chemicals, such as insecticides. However, due to the long period needed to test the impact of these chemicals on human health; most are not adequately tested to verify their safety. As a result, consumers of these grains are exposed to various health side effects when they consume GMOs.
  • The issue of respect for the human vulnerability to hunger and starvation is a serious and valid concern, especially in developing countries.[1] While GMOs have the overall effect of increasing food supply, the assumption that they are the best option in drought prone developing countries increases these vulnerabilities. The replacement of natural drought resistant crops in these areas with GMOs exposes the inhabitants of these areas to these vulnerabilities.
  • The failure to evaluate the economic dynamics in developing countries also exposes individuals to these vulnerabilities. For instance, the failure to examine the impact of planting non-edible cash crops such as tobacco on these countries available arable land before considering the use of GMOs undermines the need to have an overall outlook of all factors before determining the need to use GMOs. While starvation is mostly caused by a lack of arable land, it is interesting that most arable land in developing countries has non-edible cash crops while the locals starve.
  • The failure to understand the social and cultural impacts of GMOs to developing countries. In most of these countries, insects such as locusts, ants, and cockroaches comprise a substantial portion of the locals’ meals. Unfortunately, most GMOs have the ability to kill these insects using their induced chemicals.
  • The emergence of “super-weed” and insecticide resistant insects and bacteria due to over-exposure to inbuilt insecticides in GMOs.
  • People living in developing countries are vulnerable to compromised global bioethics.[2] Specifically, the research will target to explore the ethical dilemma posed by the use of genetically modified foods and organisms on the people living in the developing nations based on ethical principles and respect for human vulnerability.[3]
  1. Thesis: The use of genetically modified organisms and foods among the developing nations has greatly aided in combating hunger. However, the foodstuffs grant has created a loophole for testing GMO on their long-term economic, social, and cultural impacts on developing countries. In effect, these leaves consumers of GMO vulnerable to foods unfit for human consumption, a practice that raises arguments on ethical principles that constituting the human shield. In addition, GMOs have the overall effect of affecting crop farming practices, natural diets, and replacement of indigenous drought resistant crops with GMOs, which increases vulnerabilities.
  2. Ethical principle concerning fundamental respect for human vulnerability.[4]
  3. Definition of ethical principle.
  4. The role of respect for a human vulnerability in enhancing the ethical principle.
  • The extent of human vulnerability in developing countries.[5]
  1. Effects of the use of GMOs on the people living in developing countries.
  2. Other effects of bioethical issues in developing countries
  3. Protecting the people living in developing countries
  4. Measures to protect the victims from untested foods, which potentially cause serious harm.
  5. Protective measures that ensure that the people living in developing countries are not affected by global bioethical issues.[6]
  6. Future implementation plans to ensure the long-term sustainability of the testing as well as the protective measures.
  7. Bioethical issues in developed countries.[7]
  8. Different global views of bioethical issues linked to developed countries.
  9. How developed countries are coping with global bioethical issues?
  10. Conclusion

In summary, write the various bioethical issues posed by the use of GMOs among the population in the developing countries as well as the social, cultural, and economic dynamics that GMOs cause in these countries, which increase vulnerabilities.

  • Endnotes and bibliography for cited articles.

 
 
Bibliography
Bredahl, Lone. “Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified food–results of a cross-national survey.” Journal of consumer policy 24, no. 1 (2001): 23-61.
Have A.M.J.T., Henk, and M.S. Jean (eds.): The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Background, Principles, and Application. UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 2009.
Henk ten Have. Global bioethics: An introduction. Routledge: London, 2016.
Henk ten Have. Vulnerability: Challenging bioethics. Routledge: London, 2016.
 
[1]. Henk ten Have: Vulnerability: Challenging bioethics. (Routledge: London, 2016), 108
 
[2]. Bredahl, Lone. “Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified food–results of a cross-national survey.” (Journal of consumer policy, 2001), 26.
 
[3]. Have A.M.J.T., Henk, and M.S. Jean (eds.): The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Background, Principles, and Application. (UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 2009), 330.
 
[4]. Henk. Vulnerability, 109.
 
[5]. Henk ten Have: Global bioethics: An introduction. (Routledge: London, 2016), 66-7.
 
[6]. Have. The UNESCO Universal Declaration, 335.
 
[7]. Henk. Global bioethic. (Routledge: London, 2016), 67.