Hypertension is a health condition characterized by obstinatelyhigh blood pressure in arterial vessels(Mucci et al., 2016). Even though at the onset hypertension is an asymptomatic condition, with time it chronically evolves into a big risk factor forcerebrovascular and renal diseases, which in turn represent significant causes ofmorbidity as well as mortality in most of the industrialized nations(Mucci et al., 2016).Hypertension is a very complex disease that has affected a quarter of the global population (Mucci et al., 2016).The disease originates from a complex of genes as well as several environmental risk factors that include age, smoking, obesity, depression, lack of exercise among other factors. Depression and anxiety remains the commonly diagnosed mental disorders that affect millions of people every year. The two are characterized by neurovegetative, cognitive and psychomotor symptoms. In addition, stress resulting from work is other main risk factors of hypertension as well as cardiovascular diseases(Mucci et al., 2016). The objective of the study was investigating the effect of anxiety as well as work related stress in the development of hypertension among young healthcare professionals and the related outcomes of early CVDs(Mucci et al., 2016).In this research, an Italian scale versionis used for assessing whether the respondents have in the recent days experienced particular symptoms or behaviors. The items are rated on a 4-point scale, which measures perception of psychosomatic distress.
The control variables for the experiment were gender and age. They were selected because they have been identified as probable confounders of the relationship between different stress-related factors that is anxiety and Blood Pressure (Mucci et al., 2016). The hypothesis was supportedby systematic data collection. The data was collected from young professional nurses. The experiment adds to credibility to the science of psychology because it helps to understand how work pressures and stress particularly in the young professional nurses may lead to hypertension. In addition, the experiment will help in defining ways through which health facilities can ensure reduced hypertension levels among the young professionals.
Mini Research Proposal
Psychological experiments are in most cases very tricky because they involve ensuring that the participants are in simulated environment that represent the actual environment. The simulated environment is made in such a way that it has the features of a real environment. For example, in case of a prison the research must develop an environment that fully resembles a prison and where the “prisoners” have to undergo the same trauma and stress that the people in real prisons have to undergo.
In the Zimbardo experiment, the experience is so real to a point that the participants are going through untold trauma. For this reason, there is need for changing the design, procedure, and the materials used in the original study. To begin with, the experiment would begin by enlightening the participants about their rights while carrying out theresearch. The participants have rights during the participation and should be involved about the entire conditions and the experience in the research. In this case, the “prisoners” need to be informed about the simulated conditions of theprison. They need to understand that they will have to face actual trauma and stress like in the real prisons. For this reason, the procedure would start with informing the participants in order to reduce the rate of withdraw after the onset of the experiment. In addition, this would ensure that the participants are psychologically prepared to undergo the experiment. Since the experiment is meant to check how being prisoners in realistic prisons may affect peoples’ behavior, the prison is almost real and therefore the need to ensure that the participants are well informed to adjust themselves. On the other hand, there is need to reduce the time required to carry out the research. Two weeks is a very long time for carrying an experiment especially when the participants are going through stress and different types of trauma.
Deception is the key ethical considerations in the research. Deception is a condition whereby the participants are either misled or incorrectly informed concerning the objectives of the research. The different forms of deception include deliberate misleading that involves use of confederates and use of deceptive instructions. Another form of deceptionis the deception resulting from omission, which entails failure to disclose complete information about the research, or developing ambiguity. In this case, the researcher should avoid any form of deceiving the participants about the entire nature of the study unless there no single alternative. For example, in this case Zimbardo is very harsh to the participants. In addition, the conditions inside the “prison” are harsh for the participants and this is why Zimbardo is not able to see the study to completion. However, participants may be deceived a little, if it is must. However, any form of deception should not cause distress or trauma to the participants. Nevertheless, the researchers need to determine in advance whether the participants will be distressed when the deception is finally disclosed, through consulting of different culturally pertinent groups. According to Musmade et al (2016),, if the participants are likely to suffer from deception with the disclosure of the true nature of the research, then the research is unacceptable. The true nature of study need to be revealed early before the research mainly during debriefing. Manson & O’Neill (2007)holds that deception in any form of study is unjustifiable because it violates the rights of the individual to choose participation and it leads to psychology distrust in the society.
Instructionsto give to participants
In the prison experiment, I would inform the participants the comprehensive nature of the study including the conditions in the prison. In addition, I would inform the participants the need to be psychologically prepared before the start of the experiment. This information will help to reduce any shock or stress that may befall them after realizing the actual conditions in the “prison”. In addition, I will instruct them that they have the right to withdraw from the participation when they feel that continued participation in the experiment may affect they affect their health.
Proposed research methods
Observation and interview are the best research methods for this research. Observation would involve noting the change in the behavior of the “prisoners”. The researcher is required to be close vicinity to the participants with a notebook to document the changes in behavior. However, the research should ensure that the participants are not aware of been observed as thy can change behavior (Taylor, Bogdan &DeVault, 2015).On the other hand, the researcher would interview the participants to check how the prison experience changed their behavior. Data would be collected by recording the proceedings of the interview and documenting theobservedbehavior of the participants.
Manson, N. C., & O’Neill, O. (2007).Rethinking informed consent in bioethics.Cambridge University Press.
Mucci, N., Giorgi, G., De Pasquale Ceratti, S., Fiz-Pérez, J., Mucci, F. and Arcangeli, G. (2016).Anxiety, Stress-Related Factors, and Blood Pressure in Young Adults.
Musmade, P., Nijhawan, L., Udupa, N., Bairy, K., Bhat, K., Janodia, M. and Muddukrishna, B. (2016).Informed consent: Issues and challenges.
Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., &DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource.John Wiley & Sons.