Kerrie, W., Janet, S., Epi, C., Christopher, A., Nicholas, P., Elizabeth, R. (2016). Prevalence of multiple antipsychotic use and associated adverse effects in Australians with mental illness. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 14 (3), 104-112.
This research evaluated the use of multiple antipsychotic in the treatment of mental illness among Australians. Importantly, it showed the prevalence of the use of multiple antipsychotics and their effectiveness on the health and wellbeing Australians. The evidence of the research from direct trials showed that between 50 and 70% of people with serious mental illness could be successfully treated by using a single-agent treatment. In fact, 25% of these individuals could have improved health and the remaining 50% could be put at a manageable level. Further, the research showed that individuals who use multiple antipsychotics have a higher likelihood of having side effects and to receiving more than the recommended doses of antipsychotic medicine. This research used literature reviewed copies from MEDLINE, CINAHAL, InfomIT, PsycINFO, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute database among others. These research entailed a review of nineteen studies that reported on the prevalence of multiple antipsychotic drugs. It was found out that 5-61% of individuals use more than one antipsychotic treatment. Further, between a third and a half of the patients the individuals taking multiple antipsychotics were having an overdose. The analysis of the data showed that individuals taking multiple antipsychotics were likely to experience a side effect in comparison to those taking only a single medication. Therefore, although the use of antipsychotics was found to be effective for ICU patients, healthcare officers should avoid using multiple antipsychotics.
Ritin, F., Bronwyn, A., Richard, F., & Cecile, P. (2014). Effect of doll therapy in managing challenging behaviors in people with dementia: a systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 12 (8), 330-363.
The overall objective of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of using doll therapy in the treatment of dementia and challenging behaviors such as aggression and agitation. The treatment of people experiencing dementia by using doll therapy showed there is a reduction in agitation and aggressive behavior among these patients. However, there was little evidence to support its use. The research analyzed published and unpublished studies from electronic databases such as CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL). The Joanna Briggs Institute Meta‐Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used to assess the quality of the reviewers. Further, the standardized data extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI was used extracting data. Additionally, the extracted data was checked and analyzed by a second reviewer. Six studies were and analyzed in the final review. Three studies investigated the impact of doll therapy on aggressiveness and agitation. The results of the research showed no statistical significance in one research (p=0.07) in a reduction in aggressiveness. A study that investigated positive behavior showed a statistical significance in reduction of aggressiveness were (p<0.005) from a baseline (6.32+-4.13) to (14.21+-9.86) after three months. In conformity with these results, the two other studies also showed an increase in positive behavior. In conclusion, since this treatment method has no side effects, it was found to provide a safe technique of preventing dementia.
Joanna Briggs Institute. (2010). Effectiveness of non-pharmacological pain management in relieving pain for children and adolescents. Best Practice, 14 &7), 1-4.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the non-pharmacological treatment in pain management of children and adolescents having different levels of pain, from mild to chronic. The types of pain include cancer pain, chronic pain, juvenile chronic arthritis, burn pain, and sickle cell diseases. In the research, the researchers checked on the effectiveness of sensory, cognitive, and emotional factors in assessing the pain. More specifically, the sensory factors such as massage therapy were found to treat chronic pain by stimulating A-δ nerve fibers, which in turn inhibited pain transmission. Cognitive therapy, on the other hand, relieved the pain by distracting the child from it. It included techniques such as muscle relaxation, biofeedback, cognitive behavioral therapy, and guided imagery. Finally, emotional factors aimed at increasing a positive attitude on the child’s ability to overcome the pain. It included methods such as stress management techniques. The identified treatment methods were hypnosis training, medication use, massage therapy, acupuncture, cognitive behavioral therapy, and biofeedback. The research results showed that relaxation programs are effective in reducing headache pain intensity. Biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy were effective in reducing chronic pain. Mixed models of psychological treatment were found to be effective in reducing pain and related pain in ICU patients. In light of this, non-pharmacological treatment was effective in pain management in patients with different treatment levels.
Rivosecchi, M., Smithburger, L., Svec, S., Camplbell, S., & Kane-Gill, L. (2015). Nonpharmacological interventions to prevent delirium: An evidence-based systematic review. American Association of Critical Care Nurse, 35 (1), 39-50.
This article provides a review of the impact of nonpharmacological interventions in the treatment of delirium in ICU patients. It provides a review of researches that are in the database of MEDLINE and EMBASE. The paper makes an in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of haloperidol in the treatment of ICU delirium. Based on an evidence-based approach, the research makes a conclusion on the most appropriate intervention strategy in the treatment of this ailment. In addition, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of early mobilization in nonpharmacological approach discussing pain, delirium, and agitation as presented in the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Moreover, the paper discusses and reviews the importance of setting up a nonpharmacological protocol to prevent the occurrence of delirium. Specifically, the paper checks on the importance of medics understanding the risk factors and addressing these situations. Overly, this paper provides a detailed and well-thought review on nonpharmacological treatment in the prevention of delirium in ICU patients.
Rhonda, D., Maria, M., Venita, E. (2011). Comparison of educational interventions for mental health consumers receiving psychotropic medication. Joanna Briggs Institute Reports, 2(1), 1-44.
This paper gives a review of the various medical approaches used to treat patients who have psychotropic diseases. Specifically, the paper makes an in-depth review of the need for training in prevention medical overdose, misdiagnosis, under treatment, and negligence. Moreover, it checks on the effectiveness of using an evidence-based approach in the treatment of delirium using nonpharmacological methods. It also evaluates on the need of using a structured approach in the nonpharmacological treatment of patients. Basically, this approach will ensure that ICU nurses are able to identify the most appropriate method to use when treating a patient. Similarly, the use evidence-based approach in the treatment of patients will enable doctors to evaluate the effectiveness of various medications. Further, it also evaluates the education frequency, methods, and extent of the learning in influencing the provision of high-quality care.
Dabrow, W., Renee, G., & Susan, W. (2015). The use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to benzodiazepine‐based therapy to decrease the severity of delirium in alcohol withdrawal in adult intensive care unit patients: a systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 3 (1), 224-252.
This article evaluates the effectiveness of using dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to benzodiazepine‐based therapy to minimize the impacts of delirium caused by withdrawal symptoms in alcohol dependent individuals. Importantly, this paper evaluates on the use of an alternative medication and its effectiveness in treating critically ill patients. Given the need benzodiazepine-based therapy cannot be used on individuals who are in ICU due to medical reaction with treatment, dexmedetomidine is an effective alternative. In light of this, the paper shows the effectiveness of using alternative medicine or other non-pharmacological in treating ICU patients. In addition to this, the paper gives an important analysis on the need for using an evidence-based approach to making health care decisions such as when to use alternative medicines. Moreover, it also checks on the effectiveness of using a combination of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment methods.