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Introduction
America is a rich country in history. It has gone through a number of changes since its attaining of independence. Some of the core changes in American is the change of voting rights, the developing of more parties and the development of American democracy. Before the enactment of the 19th amendment, women had no power to vote or participate in the American active politics. However, with the enactment of the 19th amendment, women were not only given the power to participate in the voting exercise, but also were given the power for engaging in active politics including going for elective seats. Consequently, some women have held significant political seats in America. Examples include Dianne Feinstein in the state of California, Barbara Boxer in the California state, MazieHirono in Hawaii and Joni Ernst in the state of Iowa. In addition, before going for the presidency position, which she lost, Hillary Clinton was the secretary of state in the American government. Other eventsinclude the Vietnam War. Even though American was reluctant in entering the war, she was compelled to enter into the war because she felt threatened by the spread of Communism in to the South Vietnam, and had sworn to defend democracy. The war left about 58,000 Americans dead. The American Civil war is another event that hit America. The war took place from 1861 to 1865[1]. During the war, seven southern states declared their recession from the United States. Consequently, the states merged to form the Confederate States of America. This remains the bloodiest war that has ever occurred in the history of America. This paper critically discusses the major events in the American history.
 
 
The period from Exploration to the Federalist Period (15th Century to 1819)
This is among the most important years in the American history. This period shaped the history of America and therefore it involves the main events in America. The main event during this time was the USA attaining independence. The Independence Day, also referred as July 4, is the federal holiday that commemorates the USA attaining of independence. The independence took place on the 1776 on July 4. The fourth July is the day when American attained its independence from the Great Britain. During this time, thirteen American colonies that war at war with the Great Britain regarded themselves as 13 newly independent sovereign nations, and no longer  under the rule of Britain[2]. Alternatively, the thirteen states formed a new country, the USA. During this time, John Adams was the key leader pushing for the independence that was passed on 2 July without opposing vote cast. During this time, a committee comprising of five people had written the official declaration when the congress voted on the independence. During the committee, John Adams convinced it to choose Thomas Jefferson for help in composing the original draft of the document that the congress could edit for producing the final version. The declaration was an official explanation explaining why the congress voted on July 2 for declaring independence from the United Kingdom[3]. The Independence Day in America is celebrated on July 4, since this is the day when Declaration of Independence was signed. This declaration vindicated the liberation of the USA by outlining the colonial grievances against King George III. This was accomplished by asserting several legal and natural rights that included the right of revolution.
Attaining of independence is among the most important events in the history of America since it made USA a sovereign state with the freedom and right to outlining its course without reliance on the colony. To begin with, after attaining the independence the American citizens had the right of electing their leaders without any external influence. The declaration for independence provided that it was right of the American to decide about their representatives[4]. The citizens of a sovereign state assumedemocracy, which provides that they have the right to be heard and contribute towards the course of their nation.
Secondly, with the attaining of independence American received the power and authority to make economic policies and laws leadings to its economic prosperity. Unlike the time before the independence when the colonizer made all the economic decisions and policies for America, attaining independence meant that America would make its independent economic policies. Consequently, America was able to attain economic muscles to the extent of attaining the current superpower status.
The period from Antebellum America to Reconstruction (1820-1877)
A number of events including the Democratic Convention of 1860, the 1860 to 1861Secession Crisis and the civil war marked this period[5]. However, the civil war is the most remarkable events that changed the course of many Americans and wrote history in Americans lives. The civil war was the bloodiest class in the history of America. The war was fought between 1861 and 1865[6]. During this war, USA faced secessionists from eleven States from the south, which grouped together to form the Confederate States of America. This union became victorious from the war. The war broke out 1861 April during a time when the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter, the U.S fortress[7]. As a result, the Confederacy expanded including nations, since it claimed two states and a number of Western territories. The war ended because of surrendering of the Confederate armies as well as the collapse of the Confederate government in 1865. The main issue resulting to the war was slavery, especially the expansion of slavery into western nations. The war took three years to end. It led to death of about 750,000 soldiers. In addition, the civil war led to significant destruction of property especially in the South. With the collapse of the Confederacy, slavery was abolished in the Entire USA. According to many historians, the civil remains the major event in the historical consciousness of America. Unlike the 1776-1783 revolution that led to the creation of the US, the civil war determined the kind country that the United States would become. With the end of the war, two fundamental questions were answered that would change the future of American and decide its course. To begin with, the war helped to decide whether US was to become a dissolvable federation of independent nations or a united nation having a sovereign central government. In addition, the war helped in decide whether the United States , conceived of a declaration that all men were made with equal rights to liberty, would continue existing as the greatest slave holding nations across the globe. The northern Victory maintained the nation as a sovereign nation and helped to end slavery that divided the United States from the beginning. However, the United States had to pay a great price as the war left more than 625,000 people dead. Moreover, the war was the most destructive conflict in the USA between the 1815-napoleon wars and the start of the WWI in 1914[8].
The end of the war helped the leaders realize the declaration that formed the nations, which provided for the equality of all people in America. With the realization, many civil right organizations started to push for the rights of all people including the blacks and women. This initiated enormous constitutional changes, which redefined American society’s nature and functioned as the departure point in the struggle for equal human and civil rights. Such constitutional changes led to enactment of the 19th amendment and the introduction of voting rights among the blacks and other minority groups.
The period from the Gilded Age to the New Era (1880s-1920s)
The Gilded Age experienced intense politics. For example, during the period between 1877 and 1897, the control of the House of Representatives changed dominance from the republican and the Democratic parties. In addition, the political wars between the factions led by Half-Breed and Stalwart in the republican presented the enactment of important legislations. What is more, this period is remembered because the two main political parties nominated various presidential candidates lacking strong opinions in order to avoid stirring of sensational tensions very soon after the American civil war.
However, the event that characterized this period is the rise of women rights movements. The attaining of the US independence opened a new chapter in the lives of many Americans as they become conversant with their rights. Women were not left behind and they started to struggle for their rights to be recognized and participate in the major events in America. The result was the introduction of many women rights movements across the United States. The first meeting devoted to talking about women rights in the US was convened Seneca Falls on July 19–20 in 1948[9]. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Quaker Lucretia were the champions of the women rights movement. However, the turning point came in the 1880s and early 1890s, during a time when USA experienced increased in volunteerism particularly among the middle class women, professional societies, and charity organizations. Committed to expand their spheres ofactivities the two main women conflicting groups AWSA and NWSA merged to form NAWSA. The new movement started to draw significant support from women activists in different diverse organizations including National Consumers League and Women’s Trade Union League. The increased women movements led to the enactment of the 19th amendment. Until the time of the enactment, most of the US states has disenfranchised women. This enactment was the end of the women suffrage movement In the U.S that fought at both the national and state levels   in order to achieve the vote. In addition, the vote efficiently overrode Minor v. Happersett, a court case in which the Supreme Court held that the 14thamendment hadnot given women voting right. The amendment gave women the right to vote[10]. This remains a fundamental event in the history of America as it empowered women and expanded their sphere of activities. The enactment of the amendment has led to rise of women in high political offices in America. For example, in 2016, Hillary Clinton rose to become the presidential nominee of for democrat. In addition, Jennifer Granholm Michigan, Janet Napolitano, Kathleen Blanco, and Kathleen Sebelius have previously been U.S governors. Without the suffrage movements and the subsequent enactment of the 19th century, women empowerment in the United States would still be a pipe dream.
The period from the Great Depression to the end of World War II (1929-1945)
The Great depression is the main event that characterized USA between 1929 and 1945. It was the longest lasting and deepest economic decline in the history Western developed world. In the U.S the great depression started early after crash of the stock market in 1929 October, which wiped many investors[11]. For the next couple of years, the consumer spending as well as the investment declined, leading to steep decline in the industrial output in addition to rising levels ofunemployment as collapsing firms laid off workers. By 1933, during a time when the great depression touched the lowest point, about 13 million Americans were unemployed. In addition, during the same time about half of the banks in the United States failed[12].  Even though the then president, Franklin D. Roosevelt assisted in lessening the effects of the depression during the 1930s, the economy did not stabilize until 1939, during a time when the WWII made the USA economy to rise[13].
Some of the effects of the great Depression include rise in the crime levels. With the increasing collapse of businesses in different parts of America, most people were sacked from their employment. Consequently, most of the unemployed people turned to petty theft activities in a bid to put food in their tables. In addition, suicide cases rose in USA. Many people could not withstand the high stress levels resulting from lack of basic commodities and the difficulty to cater for their bills. In addition, most of the people could not cater for their healthcare needs in the private hospitals and therefore they resulted to the public hospitals. Moreover, most of the Americans stopped prioritizing healthcare and this led to increasing deaths in America. Furthermore, substance consumption including intake of alcohol increased as many people sought escape outlets.
During this time, higher education was out of reach by most of the Americans. Most of the Americans sacrificed their education dreams to cater for basic needs including food and shelter, which were difficulty to have. In addition, university and college intakes among the women declined because the job absorption rate among the women reduced. Furthermore, public expenditure on education declined and this caused numerous schools to close because of lack of funds or open understaffed[14]. Another effect of the great depression was the sharp change in the demographic trends. Many people delayed to marry as most males waited until the time when they could be in a position of providing for families. Death rates increased while birthrates declined. During this time, most Americans embraced different methods of birth control in order to avoid unnecessary expenses resulting from unplanned births.
The period of post-WWII affluence and the Cold War (1946-1975)
The period between 1946 and 1975 is notable in the history of the United States[15]. Some of the notable events like the WWII and the cold war took place. In addition, the period involved the implementation of a number of policies to help curb the post war consequences. Among the most notable events during this time is the black movement, famously referred as the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
This also comprises of social movements in the US, which aimed at ending the racial discrimination and segregation against the black Americans and help secure legal recognition as well as federal protection of the citizenship rights outlined in the constitution in addition to the federal law. During this time, the leadership was from African Americans. Moreover, most of the financing and political support originated from labor unions, prominent white Democratic Party leaders including Lyndon B. Johnson, religious denominations, and white Republican Party leaders including Senator Everett Dirksen. The period between 1955 and 1968 was characterized by many nonviolent protests as well as civil disobedience that were produced by productive dialogues with activists as well as government authorities[16]. Even though at some point the struggle was characterized by bloody experiences, it led to the recognition of the rights of the African Americans[17]. For example, the African Americans got the right to vote. The result of the recognition of the African American rights is evident with the election of president Obama as the 44th president of America.
Conclusion
American is among the nations that have rich history. Many events have taken place in America that shaped its current status. Among the key events that shaped America, include the women suffrage movement, the civil war, the black movement and the civil war. The civil war changed the history of America and helped to define its course. The war helped in making the two fundamental questions that would define the future of the United States. To begin with, the war helped to define whether the United States would stay as a single indivisible state. The North’s win provided that the nation would remain intact. Moreover, the war helped to define the rights of the all Americans whether whites or the minority groups. The enactment of the 19thamendment is another event that changed the face of the U.S history. The amendment helped to empower women and giving them a large sphere of activities. For example, the amendment gave women the right to vote and participate in elective posts. The result of this amendment is the increasing participation of women in American elections. Consequently, many women continue to hold higher political offices in America. For example, Hillary Clinton was the 2016 presidential nominee challenging Donald Trump of republican. Before then, she was the secretary of state in the United States. The black movement is another fundamental event in the history of the United States. The African American civil movement was of great importance in the history of America because it led to increased participation of African Americans in the American politics. Several African Americans have held senior positions in the American government, including the outgoing president Obama.  Furthermore, the rights of many minorities in America have been recognized. Consequently, a number of individuals from the minority groups have found their ways in senior government positions.
 
 

References

Corbett, P. Scott, Volker Janssen, John M. Lund, Todd Pfannestiel, Paul Vickery, Sylvie Waskiewicz, Lisa Solomon, and Imperial Valley. US History. 2015.
 
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