Abstract
Intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been widely conceptualized into understanding violence in marriage life as well as in other intimate relationships. Multiple studies have attributed IGT with witnessing violence throughout childhood and teenage hood. The aim of this research was to determine the link between IGT of violence and the abuse of adult intimate spouses. Furthermore, the study targeted to assess the hypothesis that exposure to cruelty in childhood is a causative factor of exhibiting violent behavior in the coming years. To determine this, the study included 65 participants who were in a college in NJ. The outcomes of the study exposed that indeed, being a witness to violence during early age can make one to agree with a similar character and practice it in their intimate interactions in later life. The study concluded that apart from being exposed to violence, a number of factors including gender, and socioeconomic status can also trigger violence in adult relationships.
Keywords: IGT, IPV, violence, victimization
 
 
Intergenerational Transmission of Violence
Introduction
The basis, counteractive action, and management of interparental violence (IPV) has been inspected for over three decades. In any case, a requirement for further observational investigation of IPV was perceived as dire 10 years prior and has all the more as of late created consideration as a noteworthy general medical issue. Intergenerational transmission of violence is a major basis of violence among intimate partners (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). Individuals who experience or witness abusive tendencies from their parents during childhood or during adolescence have higher chances of becoming abusers in later life. Besides, they are more likely to encounter abuse from their partners or significant others. In addition, other mitigating factors play a role in intimate partner violence such as education, income, and gender roles. By having a healthy teacher as a role model and by teaching a person how to deal with emotional dysfunction, schooling reduces the risk of future intimate partner violence (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). This is likely because of its broad degree, secluded nature, and its harming sway on the nuclear family and social framework. IPV is a rehashed example of mental, physical, or potentially sexual maltreatment against a private accomplice to pick up control or consistency over an injured individual through dread strategies and happens in both juvenile and grown-up connections (Ehrensaft et al., 2003). Reasons given by the two sexual orientations for utilizing hostility against an accomplice incorporate a failure to convey what needs be verbally, outrage and strain discharge, a craving to feel ground-breaking, to pick up control, to demonstrate love, and to get consideration.
Children and emerging adolescents that witness or experience violence (intergenerational transmission of violence) perceive that violence is proper for conflict management  and is okay in intimate partner violence (Ehrensaft et al., 2003). Furthermore, there may be additional variables, risk and mitigating factors that impact violence in adult relationships such as gender roles, education, marital status, and income. The purpose of this research was to explore how of intergenerational transmission of violence impacts adult intimate partner victimization. Besides, I examined the probability that witnessing violence amongst parents or being the target of physical abuse through childhood may later lead to intimate violent relationships.
Adolescents that witness and experience violence learn that violence is appropriate for conflict resolution and is therefore acceptable.
Violence is commonly connected with a progression of adverse ramifications for the weak people for a mind-blowing duration, predominantly among kids. Youngsters who undergo savagery can develop a wide range of mental issues, including melancholy, tension, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (Eriksson, & Mazerolle, 2015). What is more, violence and fierce conduct are appeared to thwart instructive and social-financial accomplishment, which are key zones of youth improvement. Besides, the early beginning of viciousness and exploitation forecasts later culpable and exploitation in their slater life depicted as constancy culpable or hover of brutality. A notable amount of kids suffer introduction to brutality in the family structure. In light of the current situation, guardians might be the culprits and the family is never again a place of refuge for the kids (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). A couple of examinations on family violence have revealed that seeing interparental viciousness, reformatory child raising, and various sorts of physical abuse may actuate later savage criminal direct. Adolescents who experience teenage hood in a harsh family condition will undoubtedly recognize savage practices as an acceptable technique to decide conflicts.
Thusly, such rough practices might be extended into the school and companion connections, bringing about a disturbed association with standard friend gatherings. To elevate a feeling of having a place, those youths may join brutal companion gatherings, learn savage standards, and submit demonstrations of viciousness (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). Relationship with rough friend bunches that support brutality may build the danger of young people turning into an injured individual or a culprit of viciousness. The way that the fierce culture in the family framework overflow to the companion setting has reverberated with social overflow hypothesis (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). As indicated by the hypothesis, real viciousness, and the sort of brutality that is socially or socially authorized in explicit fields (for example, fierce games, flogging, and media savagery) may overflow into unsanctioned circles, for example, associations with private companions.
The 10 largely significant survey discoveries and yet to come bearings in the IPV context to date, and limited inside this rundown was assisting the comprehension of the IGT of viciousness. Because of the hypothetical significance of the IGT of brutality, seeing interparental savagery in the group of birthplace has infested the examination writing to clarify the causes of IPV (Eriksson, & Mazerolle, 2015). The idea, IGT of brutality, discovered a lot of its hypothetical catalyst from early examinations analyzing animosity utilized by kids that shed brightness on savagery as a socially cultured conduct and represents the connection between a background marked by saw interparental viciousness and brutality sanctioned in consequent ages of youngsters (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). Through social learning procedures, for example, observational learning, brutality is utilized as a routine reaction to strife with private accomplices through channels of educated conduct. This social learning concept delineating a director for IPV practices contends influentially in the writing.
As youngsters go into youth, they grow increasingly complex connections in a family framework, however in various social frameworks. In pubescence, partners and companions request continuously critical employments in energetic lives, especially for those youngsters who live in an opposing family condition. The main rationale lies in the manner that children who grow up with awful social characteristics may embrace strong techniques to at first deal with issues at home (Eriksson, & Mazerolle, 2015). In this way, such commanding methodologies would be stretched out to other social systems, including peer associations through the flood instrument. Affected by viciousness, youngsters are bound to show issue practices. Moreover, they are unfit to learn compromise through correspondence and bargain (Eriksson, & Mazerolle, 2015). Such conveying aversive relational practices, social instability combined with vicious standards make the teenagers to be dismissed by their prosocial members, further bringing about brutal companion affiliation. Moreover, youngsters’ forceful conduct may concrete fellowships with other forceful companions, which thusly strengthens the learning of brutality and improvement of fierce conduct.
Social learning hypothesis guesses that guardians show their youngsters how to submit viciousness and may perhaps affront together with their posterity. Social learning can occur in a few different ways; through perception and impersonation of good examples just as through frames of mind (Xia et al., 2018). Bandura sets that guardians are significant good examples; in the event that they are vicious, kids will duplicate this savagery. In his Differential Association Theory, Sutherland theorizes that individuals learn conduct through cooperation with other individuals, for example, their folks (Xia et al., 2018). Youngsters create comparative frames of mind to their folks. Posterity will submit viciousness when they have adapted (more) inspirations to break instead of to pursue the law. One would anticipate that social learning should be more grounded for rough acts than for other criminal practices, for example, misrepresentation or robbery for two reasons.
To start with, vicious conduct is steady in that guardians indicted for a rough offense are probably going to demonstrate forceful conduct over their posterity’s life (Xia et al., 2018). Second, it is more outlandish that kids watch their folks submitting misrepresentation or a robbery. Savagery, interestingly, is substantially more noticeable and consequently progressively inclined to be watched and imitated (Xia et al., 2018). Subsequently, intergenerational transmission through social learning is required to be more grounded for viciousness than for different less steady and less obvious sorts of criminal conduct.
Gender roles and marital status being a factor
A component that may have added to irregularities inside IGT of brutality look into is sex. There is proof that the IGT of savagery may work distinctively for guys and females and is reliant on the sexual orientation of the culprit and casualty of viciousness (Rivera & Fincham, 2015). Sexual orientation ID theories of the IGT of viciousness have been suggested and exactly upheld and recommend that the probability of rough relational direct being transmitted crosswise overages is expanded when the culprit of abuse is of similar sex as the posterity (Rivera & Fincham, 2015). Most as of late, developing grown-ups bolstered a sexual orientation recognizable proof concept of the IGT of savagery. Their discoveries demonstrated that the probability for executing physical private accomplice savagery was most grounded when male and female rising grown-ups announced a background marked by an introduction to interparental brutality executed by a similar sex parent. In spite of these discoveries and past proof supporting a sexual orientation ID principle of the IGT of viciousness, this theory has not been reliably bolstered (Widom & Wilson, 2015). Accordingly, these discoveries are a long way from indisputable and additional research on the IGT of brutality that takes into account the job of sex is expected to all the more likely to comprehend its effect on the transmission procedure.
A significant hole remains the investigation of this procedure for females. Since ladies are considerably less prone to show savage conduct, most examinations have not had the capacity to explore transmission for moms and girls (Levendosky, 2013). It is conceivable that conduct is all the more firmly transmitted in same-sex connections, and along these lines, it is critical to think about transmission from the two guardians. Since ladies are still more frequently their kids’ guardians, they assume a fundamental job in their kids’ advancement and in this manner it is basic to investigate this job (Levendosky, 2013).
In addition, brutal ladies are less normal than savage men and this may prompt more disgrace in the public arena and conceivable authority predisposition. In accordance with this, one may expect intergenerational transmission of viciousness from moms to be more grounded than from dads (Woollett, & Thomson, 2016). Identified with this, young men and young ladies respond diversely to upsetting life occasions, for example, parental feelings. As a rule, young men display additionally externalizing issue conduct, for example, wrongdoing, while young ladies have all the more disguising issues, for example, uneasiness and sorrow (Woollett, & Thomson, 2016). Young ladies with fierce guardians probably won’t create savage conduct yet other disguising issues. It is thusly alluring to research this transmission procedure for females.
Also, measurement factors, for instance, ethnicity, sexual direction, money related status and age of a young can affect the manner in which they imagine viciousness and the way in which it impacts the IGT of fierceness. For example, lower monetary status is identified with mercilessness surrendered in spots outside of the nuclear family, for instance, local locations or schools (Cui et al., 2010). Further, investigate on race has revealed that ethnic minority guardians are bound to act fiercely toward their kid than Caucasian guardians; that is, ethnic minorities are largely averse to order certain forms of physical control as maltreatment (Cui et al., 2010). Thus, kids from minority gatherings and a low financial foundation are bound to trust that viciousness is advocated, particularly in connection to training the family. This is a conviction that can propagate intergenerational brutality (Cui et al., 2010). Furthermore, examine has shown that intergenerational transmission of viciousness can be interceded by apparent social help, yet this apparent social help is lower for low-salary families, in this way expanding a low-pay tyke’s probability of getting to be forceful with others.
Education and income are mitigating factors
Schooling reduces the risk of future maltreatment by family members and future partners. Also, higher levels of education lead to an increase in family income, a change in occupation, a reduction in unintended pregnancies which in return reduces child maltreatment (Erten & Keskin, 2017). Besides, stress and anxiety linked with a lack of education andor lower economic status cause negative relational effects. Being employed can also decrease the odds of victimization.
One of the by and large concurred methods prone to encourage high decreases of occurrences of abusive behavior at home among ladies is to engage them through training. This is on the grounds that instruction has been viewed as the most critical instrument for changing ladies’ oppressed position in the general public. It does not just build up the identity and sanity of people, yet qualifies them to satisfy certain monetary, political and social capacities and subsequently improves their financial status (Cui et al., 2010). Instructed people to execute and experience abusive behavior at home individually independent of their instructive dimensions.
As monetary pressure increments, so does the probability of conjugal friction and separation. As the budgetary strain fabricates, couples may finish up occupied with money related issues, provoking shock, disillusionment, flaw, and growing disputes – particularly over money (Davis & Mantler, 2004). As individuals become progressively disheartened, they draw back extra from their mate and offer less eager assistance. As the cycle advances, conjugal accomplices will, in general, take part in undermining conduct, for example, reprimanding and offending the other, further decreasing the fulfillment with the relationship (Davis & Mantler, 2004). These impacts will, in general, be most grounded for individuals with precarious connections preceding the experience of budgetary pressure. Some examination recommends that couples who have solid connections before the budgetary pressure are less inclined to encounter a separation thus.
Guardians, particularly fathers who are encountering budgetary pressure are less receptive to their youngsters’ needs, less supporting, less steady in their child-rearing, and progressively conflicting in the control of their kids. There is additionally an expanded potential for youngster misuse if monetary pressure is joined with child-rearing pressure and animosity between conjugal accomplices (Davis & Mantler, 2004). Such parental practices may build the kids’ danger of socioemotional issues, medical issues, poor scholastic execution, degenerate conduct, medication and liquor use, withdrawal from social connections, and diminished goals and desires (Davis & Mantler, 2004). Youngsters may wind up discouraged, embrace the negative viewpoint of the guardians who are experiencing monetary strain, and lose their feeling of individual authority. This can result in youths and youngsters setting lower wants for their very own livelihoods. Budgetary weight is also related to extended conflict among gatekeepers and youngsters, particularly over the purchase of pieces of clothing, amusements, and lifestyle options. It is basic to observe that an impressive part of these ramifications for children are variant (Davis & Mantler, 2004). Children appear to demonstrate these issues to the extent that their people are debilitated and become less strong in their tyke raising. This implies kids won’t be in danger for these negative results if guardians can look after positive, sustaining child rearing abilities notwithstanding budgetary pressure.
In spite of the fact that people who are physically mishandled by their folks in early youth have an expanded danger of submitting brutal acts, different variables may moderate this hazard. Training can be one such factor. By empowering strong relationship with better genuine models or by appearing singular how to oversee eager brokenness, coaching may diminish the peril of future maltreatment (Erten & Keskin, 2017). Training can in like manner by suggestion impact the probability of youth physical abuse by clearing out stressors from or bringing new ones into a parent’s step by step life. For instance, larger amounts of instructive fulfillment may prompt an expansion in family salary, an adjustment in occupation, an improvement in marriage quality or a decrease in unintended pregnancies, all of which could thus change the danger of tyke abuse (Erten & Keskin, 2017). The high likelihood that people with an early youth experience of physical abuse by their folks will execute physical maltreatment against their very own youngsters has for some time been perceived. Bandura suggested the theory of Social Learning to clarify such intergenerational spread of viciousness, predicting that kids who encounter violence including whipping or physical maltreatment learn from their folks that such practices are a good way of settling disputes.
Through impersonation of savage parental conduct and acknowledgment of guardians and more seasoned kin as good examples, these people create social standards in which they acknowledge that it might be important to utilize viciousness against kids for order, and they follow up on these standards by utilizing brutality as an apparatus for control and discipline. In the event that socialization inside the family is one condition in which people obtain social standards for suitable conduct, another circle of socialization is the school condition, where people might be presented to an alternate arrangement of mentalities through their instructors and companions. This introduction to various frames of mind and commitment with elective good examples may result in an adjustment in demeanors, including dispositions toward viciousness (Erten & Keskin, 2017). To the point that battering isn’t an approved type of conduct in learning centers, extra-long stretches of female education may result in a greater likelihood that women will dislike violent conduct toward kids, and such a modification in mentality may cause a shrinkage in the danger of child mistreatment.
Another potential channel through which maternal instruction may influence youngster physical abuse is that extra-long stretches of female tutoring may result in a decrease in richness by expanding the time spent in school and raising the open door expenses of having kids. Since guardians with more youngsters have generally less time to prevail upon every tyke, they have a more prominent inclination to utilize physical discipline as a brisk strategy for teaching kids. Having more kids may likewise expect guardians to work longer hours, abandoning them with less time to support youngsters and in this way making them utilize harsher control all the more as often as possible. On the off chance that extra-long stretches of female tutoring lead to a decrease in the number of youngsters that ladies have, at that point extra tutoring is probably going to improve moms’ child-rearing conduct by expanding the time accessible per child and lessening the pressure in view of the lesser weight of childcare. An expansion in maternal instructive improvement may likewise result in better work showcase results for moms, including a higher likelihood of getting a new line of work and having an individual pay (Erten & Keskin, 2017). In turn, moms’ expanded monetary strengthening and access to assets may enable them to react to youngsters’ needs in an increasingly successful manner, bringing about a lower affinity to fall back on viciousness for control.
Low-pay moms may confront more elevated amounts of worry because of the shortage of assets to which they can acquire get to, which thusly may prompt harsher child-rearing practices. On one hand, extra-long sessions of tutoring might result in advanced earnings in the work market, relaxing moms’ budgetary boundaries and lessening the money-related stress that they encounter. Then again, if ladies’ working conditions are cruel, being utilized may go about as an extra stressor and may hence incite progressively physical maltreatment against their kids.
An extra channel through which moms’ training may affect kid physical maltreatment is that an expansion in female instruction may result in a superior match with a ‘higher-quality’ accomplice. In the event that extra-long stretches of tutoring enable ladies to have a progressively instructed or less brutality inclined accomplice, this assortative coordinating may result in a decrease in youngster physical maltreatment by the mother to the degree that the male accomplice may restrict it. Moreover, whenever expanded female training enables ladies to pick the individual that they wed, it might likewise prompt a decrease in the conjugal clash, actuating moms to resort physical tyke abuse less every now and again. On a related note, an improvement in female instruction may likewise influence the likelihood of spousal brutality that a lady encounters (Erten & Keskin, 2017). In the event that extra-long stretches of educating financially involve ladies and betters their sealing position within the family unit, these mechanisms can prompt a cut in the chances of provoking spousal cruelty and thus lead to alleviated dimensions of stress and youngster abuse. Be that as it may, if such monetary strengthening makes motivations for male accomplices to separate rents from ladies, it might prompt an expansion in brutality or dangers of savagery as an instrument of control. This circumstance may thusly make a higher danger of executing abuse of kids whenever mishandled ladies redirect their annoyance toward their kids.
Aims
Whenever integrated, the observational research proposes that seeing interparental brutality in youth and early youthfulness is related with later encounters of IPV in high school years, rising adulthood, and adulthood. In addition, the writing has settled the IGT of savagery as somewhere around one procedure by which viciousness is found out amid youth and experienced in later personal connections. Every distinguished examination has utilized respondent review of seeing interparental brutality in youth and pre-adult years to research the intergenerational savagery interface. No investigation distinguished to date has inspected the impact of seeing between parental brutalities amid the rising adulthood formative stage. It is conceivable that guardians proceed or start to display fierce practices when their youngsters are of developing grown-up age. For instance, guardians may turn out to be additionally ready to uncover IPV to their kids when they are developing grown-ups. Additionally, it is conceivable that youngsters turned out to be increasingly intense at getting on progressively inconspicuous types of mental IPV when they’re more established (that is, unobtrusive put-downs that more youthful kids may miss). Also, given that both interparental psychological and physical harshness have been linked to IPV possibility in the developed teenagers in earlier explorations, there is the prospect of synergistic consequences. That is, watching the two types of brutality from guardians may improve the probability of a vicious rising grown-up relationship. Along these lines, we analyzed the solitary and joint impacts of parental savagery to assess the conceivable synergistic consequences for rising grown-up relationship viciousness. To start with, this article looks to distinguish the level of mental and physical IPV revealed in developing adulthood and the level of rising grown-ups that encounter interparental mental and bodily violence inside the previous year. Second, the examination expects to promote the comprehension of IPV in the rising grown-up stage and the job of parental demonstrating of viciousness. These hypotheses were created for this study:

  • Hypothesis 1: Respondents who witness intergenerational transmission of violence are more likely to impose intergenerational transmission of violence in their affairs.
  • Hypothesis 2: minorities are more likely to engage in the intergenerational transmission of violence.
  • Hypothesis 3: Which one is more a factor in the likelihood of imposing IPV violence on your partner? Having witnessed it as a child or being a part of the minority race.

Method
Participants and procedures
Questionnaires which contained Self-report queries were hand-regulated to 65 college students amid ordinary class periods at a college in New Jersey that met the consideration criteria of being somewhere in the range of 17 and 46 years old and included both male and female participants. Classes were arbitrarily chosen from an ace rundown, which bunched classes by division utilizing irregular number tables to pick up a delegate test of the undergrad understudy populace going to the college. All investigation conventions were institutional audit board (IRB) endorsed and interest was intentional and reactions were unknown. Member data sheets were given to understudies, which incorporated a clarification of the investigation just as the analyst’s contact data.
Measures
Transmission of violence from parent to child
This measure required the participants to provide information on whether they have ever encountered violence from their parents during their childhood. This data was to aide us later in determining whether the aggressiveness they are facing in their current intimate relationships had a basis on their early life experiences. This measure was determined by a set of questions in the questionnaire that sought to understand whether the respondents had witnessed physical and/or physical abuse from their parents, whether their parents had physically abused them previously, and whether their guardians had belittled them. Alongside those questions, the participants were to indicate whether they strongly agreed, simply agreed, strongly disagreed, or simply disagreed. These was to determine how severe the level of violence was for the subjects of this study.
The nature of the respondents’ intimate relationship with regard to violence
Respondents answered a set of questions in the survey which guided whether their relationships were violent. Additionally, this measure requires the subjects to indicate how their partners abuse them. In other words, it sought to know the different types of violence that the couples experienced including physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment. Furthermore, this measure required the participants to indicate their feelings after violence has occurred in their intimate associations. For instance, some of the questions that were based on this measure looked into: whether the respondents felt bad about themselves regularly after arguing with their partners, they hit, kicked, or pushed their lovers after having a quarrel, they feel worried about their partners’ actions or statements.
Demographic factors
Statistic factors were estimated and controlled for in our examinations including ethnicity, sexual orientation, marital status, and age (in years). The participants were to indicate whether they were Black, American Indian White or Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic. As for their relationship status, they were required to put a tick alongside single, married, widowed, separated, divorced, or cohabiting relationships.
 
Analysis
Factual investigations were led utilizing SAS 9.1 programming (SAS Institute Inc., 2006). All respondents with complete information were incorporated into the examinations (N = 223; 76% of unique example). A missing information examination found no critical contrasts among absent and included respondents on any factors incorporated into the relapse models. Elucidating insights were acquired to portray the idea of the statistic factors and model covariates. Connections among’s free and ward factors were analyzed to decide cross-sectional bivariate connections. Relapse investigations utilizing Proc GLM were directed, controlling for statistic covariates (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). Potential omissions were inspected by employing Cook’s D criteria (CD > 1) and just dualistic anomalies were differentiated. Nonetheless, these anomalies did not alter the coefficient estimates or right assumption skewness so the participants were held in the models to keep up the assessment estimate. The basic presumptions of direct relapse were tried utilizing log-changed information for yearly recurrence of viciousness measures.
Adequacy in linearity, homoscedasticity, and typicality was dictated by plotting residuals against anticipated qualities and by looking at the dispersion of residuals. Within the multivariate models, White race was employed as a kind of outlook gathering as it had the largest recurrence of respondents, and in the event that minority ethnic gatherings will, in general, have elevated rates of IPV mistreatment than Whites. The two factors seeing physical interparental savagery and seeing mental interparental brutality were increased together to make an association term to decide their joint impact on the needy variable. All connections factors estimated on the ceaseless dimension were focusing on their particular methods before incorporating them in the model (Black, Sussman & Unger, 2013). A post hoc control examination was led utilizing Gpower 3 to decide whether the investigation had adequate capacity to recognize a huge communication impact.
Yearly commonness and yearly recurrence scores were acquired from the respondent crude information as demonstrated by Straus. The yearly commonness score shows whether at least one demonstrations of viciousness were utilized amid the referent time frame. A score of 1 demonstrates that at least one demonstrations of savagery happened in the previous year and a score of 0 shows no demonstration of viciousness was knowledgeable about the respondent’s relationship in the previous year. The yearly recurrence score alludes to the complete demonstrations of brutality experienced in the respondent’s relationship in the previous 1 year. The yearly recurrence score was made by setting midpoints for every reaction class. The device’s centers were then added up and the amount given the predicted number of fierce deeds happening amid the preceding year. In the multivariate examinations, a log change was connected to yearly frequencies of savagery to improve decidedly skewed dispersions.
Results
The outcomes of the study exposed facts on how the various contributors experienced IPV. The survey found out that many of the respondents had experienced some form of violence during their childhood, and in their adult intimate affiliations with their partners. 55 respondents indicated that they were in stressful relationships or rather, in abusive associations with their partners and spouses. Out of the 55 participants who had encountered violence in their relationships, a large number of them had been physically hurt by being hut and pushed after an argument. Out of those who had been physically abused, only in few instances did the quarrel lead to kicking. Emotional abuse had the second largest number of individuals who had been hurt while sexual harassment was only suggested by three respondents. Out of the 65 participants, only five of them had not experienced violence during their childhood, adolescence, and even in their adulthood and they were all men. Many of those who had encountered violence during childhood witnessed physical mistreatment from their parents or they had been physically harmed by one of their parents. The survey also revealed that all a large percentage of the respondents who had been abused in their intimate relationships had a encountered violence when they were young. 60 of the subjects who had experienced violence in their early life were majorly women: 35 women had been exposed to violence and only 25 men indicated that they had encountered aggression throughout their lives. Furthermore, the results displayed that many of the subjects who had been mistreated were married and in cohabiting relationships. Besides, violence was high among the participants who belonged to racial minority ethnicities such as the African Americans and the Latinos.
Conclusion
Intergenerational transmission of violence is one of the main causes of intimate partner violence. If you experience or witness abusive tendencies from your parents, you are more likely to abuse or receive abuse from your partner/significant other. In addition, other mitigating factors play a role in intimate partner violence such as education, income, and gender roles. By having a healthy teacher as a role model and by teaching a person how to deal with emotional dysfunction, schooling reduces the risk of future intimate partner violence. In school, teachers and other peers tell you that violence is wrong, and communication is key to handling conflicts. Also, by completing high school and college, one has a chance to attain a higher income and a change in occupation. Having a higher income leads to having a less stressful life and in turn not arguing and fighting with your significant other. Stress, arguing and fighting leads a person who has experienced violence as an adult to take out their stress violently on their significant other.
References
Black, D. S., Sussman, S., & Unger, J. B. (2013). A further look at the intergenerational transmission of violence: Witnessing interparental violence in emerging adulthood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence25(6), 1022-1042.
Cui, M., Durtschi, J. A., Donnellan, M. B., Lorenz, F. O., & Conger, R. D. (2010). Intergenerational transmission of relationship aggression: a prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology24(6), 688.
Davis, C. G., & Mantler, J. (2004). The consequences of financial stress for individuals, families, and society. Centre for Research on Stress, Coping and Well-being. Carleton University, Ottawa.
Ehrensaft, M. K., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J. G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology71(4), 741.
Eriksson, L., & Mazerolle, P. (2015). A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration. Journal of interpersonal violence30(6), 945-964.
Erten, B., & Keskin, P. (2017). Breaking the Cycle? Education and the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence. Review of Economics and Statistics, 1-46.
Levendosky, A. A. (2013). Drawing conclusions: An intergenerational transmission of violence perspective. Psychodynamic psychiatry41(2), 351-360.
Rivera, P. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2015). A latent class approach to understanding the intergenerational transmission of violence in emerging adult relationships. In Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences(pp. 23-44). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Widom, C. S., & Wilson, H. W. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of violence. In Violence and mental health (pp. 27-45). Springer, Dordrecht.
Woollett, N., & Thomson, K. (2016). Understanding the intergenerational transmission of violence. SAMJ: South African Medical Journal106(11), 1068-1070.
Xia, Y., Li, S., & Liu, T. H. (2018). The interrelationship between family violence, adolescent violence, and adolescent violent victimization: An application and extension of the cultural spillover theory in China. International journal of environmental research and public health15(2), 371.
 
 
Appendices 1
Research Questionnaire
Intergenerational transmission of violence
Thank you for agreeing to take part in this important survey. The survey will measure if violence is passed from parent to child and if it has any impact on one’s future relationship with their spouse or significant other. This survey will take less than five minutes. I thank you and appreciate your time for taking this survey.
Please circle Strongly Agree, Agree, Strongly Disagree, Disagree in answering the questions below.

  1. I would describe my relationship as having a lot of tension

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. My significant other and I work out arguments with no difficulty

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. When my partner and I have arguments, it results in me feeling down or bad about myself often

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. Our arguments result in hitting, kicking, or pushing

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. I feel frightened by what my partner says or does

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. My spouse/significant other abuses me physically

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. My spouse/significant other abuses me emotionally

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. My spouse/significant other abuses me sexually

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. I have witnessed physical abuse between my parents

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. I have witnessed emotional abuse between my parents

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. My father/mother has physically hurt me in the past

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )

  1. My father/mother has belittled me

Strongly Agree (  )
Agree (  )
Strongly Disagree (  )
Disagree (  )
Please circle one or more boxes (Race) White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic
(Age) (less than 17) (18-20) (21-25) (26-30) (31-35) (36-40) (41-45) (46+)
(Gender) 1. Male, 2. Female, 3. Other
(Marital Status)- 1. Single, 2. Married, 3. Widowed, 4. Separated, 5. Divorced, 6. Cohabiting relationships