Law enforcement is any system by which individuals of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by, deterring, discovering rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the regulation and norms governing that society thus promoting public safety and maintaining public order (Gooch & Williams, 2007). The police force is the most common agency whose work involves peacekeeping and order maintenance. Citizen in a country believes that crime fighting is the central part of police role and expects police to respond to all problems called upon at any given time. It is important to note that Police exercises a considerable amount of discretion in non-crime incidences and typically handle situations informally with no official action as compared to criminal occurrences therefore it is important to know why this is so.
Reasons why the public calls the police in situations not involving a crime
Peacekeeping and order maintenance is an important part of policing. In fact, many experts believe it is as important as crime fighting. Citizens call the cops in non-crime situations for several reasons. One reason is that people want to maintain a social boundary and, therefore, call the police to remove someone who does not belong to their area. Another reason is to handle a family problem or dispute with a neighbor. People also call the police to relieve unpleasant situations police like to take care of noise and arguments. Gaines (2014) explains that sometimes people want the police to divert attention away from their behavior and focus attention to another. Occasionally, people request police to help them in emergency situations such as missing children or suicide attempts. Typically, officers respond by handling these cases is the most common form of order maintenance and peacekeeping (Gaines, 2014).
Behaviors considered as non-crime but result in the police called
There are very many incidences not regarded as crime occurrences that occur to police officers frequently. First, any incident that results in the damage to a building or thing as a result of fire outbreak may lead to the public calling the police. Fire outbreak incidence is regarded non-criminal provided it not arson related incidence. Secondly, people call the security officers when they find lost property. Lost items located or found should reach the security for safe keeping and be collected by their owner. Sometimes medical cases are also termed to be non-criminal. it occurs when a person who is either sick or injured and where security and medical assistance urgently needed, then you will find the public calling upon the police officers.
Occasion, when a student goes missing, can also be considered as a non-criminal. It occurs when student(s) are reported missing for an extended period (usually more than 24 hours), and this may make the public notify the security. This incidence is non-criminal when it does not involve a kidnapping case. Another occasion termed as non-criminal is when property damage occurs. Any damage caused to property or things of an unintentional or non-malicious nature may force the public to contact the security agencies.
Police exercise considerable discretion in cases involving domestic victims and can consider it as a non-criminal where an argument between related parties require no intervention and no injury occurs. Domestic disturbances are private matters, and the officer believes victim will not pursue the case if they were to persecute. Domestic disturbances happen if one of the victims causes severe injuries to his/her partner. Domestic situations are less dangerous but often frustrating.
Problems associated with people with mental illness poses a significant challenge for modern policing and are non-criminal. Security officers mostly encounter people with mental illness. Approximately five percent of U.S. residents have a severe mental illness, and ten to fifteen percent of people jailed have an extreme mental illness. The New York City Police Department responds to about 150,000 “emotionally disturbed persons” calls per year. It is reasonable to put in mind that the outset of mental illness is not, in and of itself, a police problem. Obviously, it is a social service and medical problem. However, some issues caused by or associated with people with mental illness often do become police problems. These include disorder, suicides, crimes and a variety of calls for service. Moreover, the traditional police response to people with mental illness has often been ineffective, and sometimes tragic.
Street Walkers and Call Girls
A prostitute is as someone who performs sexual services for remuneration. On the other hand, a call girl is a prostitute who works for a service that you can call, and they will arrange for you to meet up with her. It is in contrast to a hanging out in public and soliciting people. Call girls are a higher class of prostitute, and typically more expensive. The basic idea is those call girls are obtained through appointments rather than by chance encounter. Call girls don’t hang out on street corners. A call girl is a sex worker who (unlike a prostitute) is not visible to the public in general; nor does she usually work in an institution like a brothel, although she can get employed by an escort agency (Goode, 1978).
Prostitution is a vice crime, and it often referred to as victimless crimes because the crimes do not create traditional victims. Police initiate their investigations into these crimes because many people do not see these activities as illegitimate and public attitude about enforcement waffles. Streetwalkers, at the low end of the scale of prostitution, are a maintenance order problem to the police mainly concerning containment. Prostitution often is accompanied by additional crime such as robbery or drugs. Arrests then serve to control or deter streetwalking. Call girls, in particular, represent the upper end of the scale of prostitution with wealth customers and arrangements made by phone; this type of prostitution is almost invisible. One of the dangers of police arrest situations here is the danger of officers must be careful not to initiate payment for sex. Concerns about equal protection arise in a case where only an arrest of a prostitute happens, but their customer goes courts free and yet, both have committed criminal offenses.
Street walking poses a larger potential for adding to crime problems as compared to call girls. For the most part, police have two objectives when dealing with street walking. First the police enforce prostitution laws to control it. The police may never be able to eliminate street walking but through law enforcement, they can attempt to confine it to specific areas making it less visible and intrusive to the public. Second the police are responsible for investigating and preventing crime associated with prostitution.
Indeed, Streetwalker is vulnerable to physical abuse by customers and arrest by police as compared to call girls. It is because call girls can set convenient meeting places for their clients and their communication is by telephone. It is only known to them and in the case of any suspicion of danger occurring and the call girl can inform a colleague to watch over her since they move to a place they well know. Call girls activities are not visible to police and the general public at large.
Gaines, L. K. (2014). CJ3
Gooch, G., & Williams, M. (2007). A dictionary of law enforcement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goode, E. (1978). Deviant behavior: An interactionist approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.