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Question 1: Finding demographic information on your neighborhood
Table 1: Demographic Information in In Your Community (zip code 11229)

Demographic Subject Estimate (Actual Number) Percent of Total Population
Total Population 85, 776 85, 776
Sex- Male 41, 084 47.9%
Sex- Female 44 ,692 52.1%
Age- Under 5 years 5, 522 6.4%
Age- 5 to 9 years 5, 097 5.9%
Age- 10 to 14 years 5, 050 5.9%
Age- 15 to 19 years 4, 248 5.0%
Age- 20 to 24 years 5, 551 6.5%
Age- 25 to 34 years 11, 331 13.2%
Age- 35 to 44 years 10, 322 12%
Age- 45 to 54 years 11, 525 13.4%
Age- 55 to 59 years 6, 166 7.2%
Age- 60 to 64 years 6, 087 7.1%
Age- 65 years and over
(Combine everyone from 65 years and older categories)
14, 877 17.3%
Race- White 56, 521 65.9%
Race- Black or African American 4, 860 5.7%
Race- American Indian and Alaska Native 168 0.2%
Race- Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9, 666 11.3%
Race- Two or More Races 1, 578 1.8%
Race- Asian 19, 088 22.3%

 
Question 2: Finding health information on your neighborhood
Table 2: Health in Your Community (zip code 11229)

Demographic/Health Info Your Neighborhood (%) New York City (%)
Life Expectancy 83.7 81.2 Years
Housing- Maintenance Defects in Housing 50 44
Air Pollution 6.8 7.5
Retail- Tobacco Retailers per 10,000 Population N/A N/A
Retail- Supermarket Square Footage Per 100 Population N/A N/A
Education- College Graduates 47 43
Education- High School Graduate or Some College 38 38
Education- Less than High School 15 19
Economic Stress- Poverty 19 20
Economic Stress- Unemployment 8 9
Economic Stress- Rent Burden 53 51
Children and Adolescent- Preterm Birth 6.6 8.7
Children and Adolescent- Teen Births 12.4 19.3
Children and Adolescent- Elementary School Absenteeism 16 20
Incarceration N/A N/A
Violence 22 59
Self-Reported Health- % of People Who Reported Their Own Health as “Excellent,” “Very Good,” or “Good” 70 78
Current Smokers 17 14
1 or more 12 ounce sugary drink per day 21 23
At least one serving of fruits or vegetable per day 93 87
Any physical activity in the last 30 days 67 73
Obesity 26 24
Diabetes 9 11
Alcohol-Related Hospitalizations N/A N/A
Drug-related Hospitalizations N/A N/A
Health-Care: No Health Insurance 10 12
Health-Care: Went Without Needed Medical Care 9 10
Health-Care: Late or No Prenatal Care 6.4 6.7
New HIV Diagnoses 4 24
Hospitalizations Due to Stroke N/A N/A
Mental Health N/A N/A
Child Asthma Hospitalizations (Per 10,000 children aged 5-14) 42 223
Adult Hospitalizations for Asthma (Per 100,000 adults) N/A N/A
Adult Hospitalizations for Diabetes (Per 100,000adults) N/A N/A
Infant Mortality rate (Per 1,000 Live Births) 2.9 4.4
Premature Mortality Rate (Per 100,000)Population) N/A 198.4
3 leading Causes of Death in Your Neighborhood (Answer with Words) 1.      Cancer
2.      Heart disease
3.      Drug-related
1.      Cancer
2.      Heart disease
3.      Drug-related

 
Question 3: Analyzing demographic information from your neighborhood

  1. The data from the American Community Survey shows that the total number of females is higher than that of males in this neighborhood of NYC represented by zip code 11229. More specifically, in terms of gender, the area has 44, 692 females who represent 52.1% of the total population as of the year 2017. On the other hand, there are 41, 084 males in the locality who account for 47.9% of the entire community (ACS 1). In terms of ethnicity, the Whites are the majority as they represent 65.9% of the entire population followed by Asian (22.3%s) then Hispanic or Latino (11.3%). African Americans (5.7%) and American Indians, as well as Alaska Natives (0.2%) and people of mixed races (1.8%), are the minority ethnic groups in the community. In terms of education, the level of school absenteeism is considerably lower compared to that of entire NYC. A large number of adults (47%) have acquired college education while only 15 % have not finished high school. Additionally, a significant section (82%) of students tend to graduate on time compared to that of NYC (75%) (NYC Health 6). As for economic stress, 8% of people in the area have no jobs, 19% live in poverty, and 53% face difficulties in paying their rent.
  2. The largest age group in this community is the elderly people whose age 65 years and above. They account for 17.3% of the entire population in the neighborhood. The second largest is individuals aged 45 to 54 years and they represent 13.4% of all the people in the community. The third largest category is adults aged 25 to 34 years (13.2%) (ACS 1). Children between 25 to 34 years the least common age group in the area. They comprise 5.9% of the total populace.

Question 4: Evaluating the health of your neighborhoods

  1. Younger people’s health including infants, younger and older children, and teenagers in the neighborhood is good. For instance, the infant mortality rate is 2.9%, only 6.6 percent of pre-term births occur 12.4% of teen births were recorded in 2017. These rates are low and they reflect a good overall health status, however, aspects such as children who were hospitalized for asthma in Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn was considerably high as it was recorded at 42% for children aged 5-24 years (NYC Health 12). Nevertheless, younger people are in a better position in terms of health compared to the well-being of the entire population of NYC. In most areas indicating a low health status, children and adolescents in Sheepshead Bay had a better status than the wider NYC. For instance, the total kids 5-14 years hospitalized for asthma in 2017 in NYC amounted to 223 and only 42 were from Sheepshead Bay. There are not so many areas of concern where my neighborhood is performing poor than NYC as a whole. One of the main problems is related to HPV vaccinations. Only 28% of teens aged 13-17 years receive the HPV all the recommended doses in Sheepshead Bay (NYC Health 15). Given that this concern is linked with teenagers, it is highly likely due to pride which most teenagers have or being influenced by others who do not want to be vaccinated.
  2. The overall health of older people including the young and older adults in Sheepshead Bay NYC neighborhood is also good. For instance, 70% of adults indicated that they were healthy and the majority of them practice healthy living including eating healthy and exercising (NYC Health 13). Cases of binge alcohol consumption and smoking are also relatively small in the area and this one of the contributors to good health among g the adults. Also, only a few of them, 10% lack health insurance covers which means that at least more than three-quarters of adults in Sheepshead Bay can access healthcare services when they become sick. What is more, the number of new HIV cases in the area is suppressed. Compared to NYC at large, adults in this neighborhood are healthier. However, there are some aspects where this locale is doing badly than NYC. For instance, the rate of diabetes is high in Sheepshead Bay than NYC citywide. It has been reported that a large number of adult New Yorkers have been diagnosed with diabetes. Individuals with diabetes are at a higher risk of getting obesity (Johnson, et al. 3309). From personal observation, the majority of the Asians and African Americans in the neighborhood who I have met are either overweight or obese. As such, it could be that the largest percentage of obese adults in the areas are from these two ethnicities. Another issue is that my neighborhood reports low vaccination rates for both HPV and flu compared to NYC. This could be the various stereotypes against vaccines and it could also be that many older adults are incapable of accessing the vaccines. Moreover, cancer-related premature deaths in sheepshead bay are significantly high than NYC. This is because many of those cancers are related to failure to receive HPV vaccinations.

Question 5: Supporting the health of your neighborhood

  1. The main concern for children and teenagers health in Sheepshead Bay is low vaccination for HPV and flu. This can be problematic if it is not managed. It can lead to an increase in the number of people who develop cancers at a young age and eventually, this might increase the rate of preterm deaths in the area. One of the changes that can be made to promote the health of this group is through community outreach programs. Health outreach programs have been proven as one of the most effective techniques that healthcare workers reach individuals in all settings possible. On the other hand, structures such as learning institutions can introduce health awareness sessions and this can help alleviate peer pressure and bad attitudes when it comes to health.
  2. One of the main concerns related to adults’ health in the neighborhood is obesity. TCNY targets to alleviate the problem in NYC to less than 23% by 2020 (NYC Health 16). Since obesity is a problem, a change that can support their well-being is by introducing more health and fitness programs and centers. Even though it is clear that many people are already eating healthy, it is crucial to continue emphasizing this if at all that goal is to be achieved. Improved fitness and proper dieting will not only eliminate lifestyle diseases completely but it will also alleviate the number of deaths that occur as a result of heart diseases which is the second leading cause of death in Sheepshead Bay. More adult education on vaccination can also help to erase the negative attitudes towards vaccinations and this can, in turn, help in reducing the premature death rate attributed to cancer. As for the current structures such as job placement, they can change by increasing the employees’ health benefits as this will enable them to receive quality care when they are sick.

 
 
Works Cited
ACS. “ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates.” United States Census Bureau, (2017): 1. Accessed https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
Johnson, Richard J., et al. “Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.” Diabetes 62.10 (2013): 3307-3315.
NYC Health. “Community Health Profiles 2018: Sheepshead Bay.” 1-19. Accessed https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/data/data-publications.profiles.page#rscs