Latin is one of the oldest languages that currently, is spoken by only a few. The language has its origin in Rome and only people who have affiliations to the region speak it. Nevertheless, it is a branch of languages that are classified as Indo-European.
There are major difference between Latin and English. This is regardless if the former is written or spoken. Nevertheless, this is experienced on the aspect of case marking and the order of words. The case marking is an aspect of morpheme that establishes the function of a word, sentence or phrase.
As per the definition, a case is a morph syntactic relation to phrases that have nouns. As such, the purpose of the case is to identify the purpose of the noun phrase in the grammar. Nevertheless, the noun phrase can either be grammatically related to the other aspects of the sentence as either a noun or a subject.
The main difference between Latin and English with case marking mainly originates from the flexibility of the sentences. The sentence arrangement in Latin is very versatile. As such, the arrangement of a Latin sentence does not necessarily have to begin with a noun, which is to be followed by a verb.
To begin with, there is the accusative case in Latin. In this aspect, the nouns which are accusative in nature usually precedes verbs as well as objects. This is usually a case that usually meets the needs of various prepositions. Some of these examples include the subject and nominative aspect such as nurus est (wall is) and subject/nominative. An example of the latter is
construunt murum build wall
In another instance, a case may be represented as nominative. Nevertheless, it is an aspect that is used in marking a subject or noun on one of the copula sides. Such an example is
brutus construit Brutus builds
murus Est …is a wall…
The aspect of English sentences of rigidity in which the verb follows the subject does not permit the use of cases and case marking
There is a difference in the order of words in the two languages: English and Latin. This is mainly concerned with the type of words that are placed at either the beginning, the middle or at the end. Considering that Latin is an inflected language, the arrangement of words is not as important as its ending. This arrangement determines the role that each word will play in the sentence. In essence, the Latin language is very flexible. In comparison, the English language arrangement is that of the subject-verb-object. There is no flexibility in this arrangement.
As with the language, Latin can be written in a subject-verb-object arrangement. However, the most common is the arrangement that follows subject-object-verb. Other arrangements of the word arrangement of the Latin sentence are object-verb-subject, object-verb, verb-subject-object, and verb—object-subject.
As such, the (subject-verb –object) arrangement of the Latin as well as English sentences will be as follows:
- Senator aspexit structorem -The senator looked at the carpenter: Emphasis is on the carpenter
On the other hand, the subject-object arrangement of a sentence will be as follows:
- Crater senatoris Senator’s bowl: Emphasis is on the bowl
Thirdly, to write the sentence in the order of object-subject-verb, a sentence will be as follows:
- Structor senatorem aspexit carpenter looked at the senator-Emphasis on the senator
Fourthly, to write the sentence in the order of verb-object-subject, it will be as follows:
- aspexit structor Senatorem- looking at the carpenter was the senator- in this case, the carpenter is the object while the senator is the subject. Nevertheless, emphasis is on the senator
As with the order of object-verb-subject, the sentence will be as follows;
- Senator aspexit structorem -The senator looked at the carpenter: in this case, the carpenter is the subject and emphasis is on him/her. As such, the senator is the object
In the above words arrangement, the emphasis is the senator and the carpenter. This is according to Latin arrangements whereby the first and last sentences are the most important. Nevertheless, this depends on the word to be emphasized and is very important in translation, as opposed to writing.