Question 1

  1. a) (I) There are various characteristics of the non-standard form of the English language that can be demonstrated y in the recording. The first instance is demonstrated between Garvin and Smith when Smith asks, ‘she’s dumped you’. This is not standard and a more standard form would be to ask ‘has she dumped you? ’The conversation furthermore goes to indicate that the choice of words is not that common to many English speaking regions. In this, the use of the word mate is an indication that the speakers are from London (John, 1995). The people who use the word mate are mainly located in England. Basically, the term is used to acknowledge a friend (Ann, 2007).

The setting between Pam, mick, and Garvin furthermore indicates that the speakers are London based. The first use of a non-standard English is when pam states, ‘there are no shoes to be worn in this house.’  In another instance, pam uses the word love to address Micky.The use of such a word without literally meaning it basically indicates that the speakers are London based

  1. ii) The conversation between Ness and Stacey demonstrates the use of non-standard English basically having the characteristics of the English used in south Wales. In the first instance, Ness askes Stacey, ‘what’s occurring’? Basically, this should be’ what is going on or ‘what is happening’. Therefore, the use of a continuous verb after the word ‘what’ basically signifies a non-standardized version (Phythian, 1993). The second instance occurs when Stacey replies to Ness ‘I need your advice, I do’. By repeating the words ‘I do’, Stacey blatantly indicates that she is from New South Wales. Basically, the sentence would not have the repetition if it standardized. When Stacey finally asks for advice from Ness, she goes on to say, ‘go for it’. The sentence is basically not standardized and a more suitable and standardized way would have been if Ness would have said ‘how can I help?’ Go for it does not fit in the context and as such, an indication of a non-standardized English. Furthermore, the use of the term ‘lush’ to refer to ‘smoothly’ indicates that the speaker is from New South Wales. In other instances and other localities, the use of the word good would have been more appropriate

b). /i: daɪd. faɪrɪn skwɒd/ taribal wei to go stace and I wuldnt laik to see that happen to you/smaglas wi wa/if it warent fo mai relationship with John Prescott id still be in that jeil rait naw/so yah in answa to yua qeston id sei no/dawnt tel him/
The transcription does not contain any form of non-standardized English. However, the accent in the audio describes the speakers to be natives of the United Kingdom. Furthermore, the two speakers have the same basis with which the intonation and the letters are based.

  1. C) Various people have unique ways of expressing themselves in speaking. It is therefore very important for someone to be able to understand his speaking characteristics. As on my part, I base my speaking and writing on both the standard and the non-standard English.To begin with, my grammatical orientation of the English language is non-standardized and as such, the non-standard term nae may be used in a sentence such as ‘he has nae biro’. However, this does not remove the original purpose of the sentence as the word is commonly used in various parts of the globe such as on Scotland. Scotts and the other standard speaking English can very well understand each other (Peter, 2000).

The other aspect of speaking basically is concerned with dialect and accent. In this regard, the accent has been defined as the way of pronouncing words while dialect is the disparity brought about by individuals when speaking (, Linda, 1995). The term dialect basically focuses on the grammar and vocabulary of any English speaker.Furthermore, dialect, as opposed to accent, has a geographical limitation in which individuals located in a certain geographical region are well accustomed to this subset (Alison, 1999). However, my main concern is the accent whereby some syllables are different or are completely left out in some of the words. An example is the pronunciation of the word strut where a /A/ is replaced by /u/.However, this is not the only limitation because a phenome in my speaking may have various and different phonetic realizations. An example is where /a/is replaced by /ae/.In essence, there is a limit to the understanding between myself and few people.
As per my opinion towards my English speaking, my use of non-standardized English on various occasions is not very impressive. As a matter of fact, this limits the level of interaction with other English speaking people. What I may deem understandable to some people may not be so. In essence, I would really love and would wish to change my English language speaking and writing.Furthermore, having the necessary English capability but having a limitation on the people who you interact with is not so impressive.Therefore, if there is something in would really love to change is the phenolic realization and the grammatical orientation.
(Total words A and C =758)
 
Question 2
A). Grice’s maxims, four in number, are a used to gauge a conversation (David d. , 2007). These are the maxim of quality, the maxim of manner, the maxim of relation and the maxim of quantity (‘censor’, 1982). All this may be explained from the episode.
The first instance occurs between Ness and Stacey where Ness fails to deliver provide quality information. Basically, this is the maxim of quality which focuses on the truth (Department for Education and Employment, 1998). Ness describes that she had an affair with the deputy leader so that she could be released from jail. This might be true but the quality is questionable.
The maxim of quantity is violated when we focus on Ness and the customer. The maxim focuses on giving a substantial amount of information in regards to a given topic. However, Nessa does not provide any more detail about the money given being on a fraudulent move.
Finally, the maxim of relation is disregarded when we observe Garvy and Smithy speaking. The maxim focuses on remaining relevant to a certain topic but smithy disregards Garvy’s order of events Therefore, he does not remain relevant in the conversation by basically focusing on his individual needs.
B). there are a number of observational differences and similarities between everyday life and the recording. However, all this is limited to the conversations and not the bodily actions observed. To begin with, Nessa does not allow Stacey to interrupt her when in conversation with the client. However, she addresses Stacey on a short note while still speaking to the client. This type of conversational variation is common in everyday life. It mostly occurs when an individual tries to indulge in a conversation between two people by addressing one of the conversing parties
The second conversational similarity occurs between smithy and Garvv.When gravy tries to explain his engagement, Smithy seems to guess the details whereby they end up mirroring each other’s conversation and eventually end up silent. Furthermore, smithy, after learning about the engagement, ends up taunting gravy about the beer having so many happy memories.
On a downside, the conversation between gravy and Smithy does not reflect the everyday conversation between individuals. The conversation fails to specify why Smithy is not happy for Garvy. In this, smithy is not happy with the engagement and walks out on him. It is this that fails to replicate the everyday scenario.
C). lexical relations basically define the relation between words (Crystal, 1995). One word may be used in different contexts. In the recording, lexical relations has been indicated in a number of instances but we will basically focus on the conversation between Smithy and Lucy through the phone, To start with Bella mozzarella is a pie which has been described to be the best by many people (Abercrombie, 1967). In this, Smithy refers to Lucy as his la Bella mozzarella which means that he puts her in the same class as a very delicious pie.

  1. D) Many people may view the recording as a work of art but few may beg to differ. The main reason why not everyone would appreciate the recording is because of the speaking and basically the direction of the play. The recording is centered on the United Kingdom accent and dialect and as such, limits its popularity. The choice of words does not appeal to everyone and some may argue that the use of the word love in some of the conversations is really uncalled for. Furthermore, the accent of the recording may limit the understanding because of the inability of everyone to understand (Alan, 2001).
  2. e) Linguistic humor is achieved in some parts of the recording, basically to reduce boredom. One form of linguistic humor may be observed between Ness and Stacey when Ness tries to explain the death of her husband Clive. It is expected that the truth was the cause of his death but as it turns out, it was the firing squad. Furthermore, later on in the recording, Smithy and gravy engage in a humorous way of interjecting each other.

(Total words=675)
 
References
, Linda, M. (1995). ‘Talking Proper’. The rise of accent as a social symbol.
Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh:: Edinburgh University Press.
Alan, C. (2001). Gimson’s Pronunciation of English.
Alison, S. (1999). Theories about language in the National Literacy Strategy.
Ann, W. (2007). Non-standard English in education. In D. Britain.
‘Censor’. (1982). Don’t. A manual of mistakes and improprieties more or less prevalent n conduct and speech.
Crystal, D. (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.
David, d. (2007). . Singapore English.
Department of Education and Employment. (1998). . The National Literacy Strategy.
John, A. (1995). The Oxford School A–Z of English. Oxford:: Oxford University Press.
Peter, T. (2000). Sociolinguistics. An introduction to language and society.
Phythian, B. A. (1993). A concise dictionary of correct English.