Marijuana, also known as Cannabis sativa, is a psychoactive drug used mainly for recreational purposes. Also, the drug is sometimes applied in the healthcare sector to relieve chronic pain among patients. Legalization of marijuana is a controversial subject that draws sharp criticism and equally strong support. The debate revolves around the tradeoffs emanating from either legalization or criminalization of the drug. Proponents of its legalization cite the benefits that patients derive from the drug while opponents are concerned with possible abuse. Marijuana legalization is a controversial subject that requires proper research and immense consultation among the concerned stakeholders.
The most important aspect of marijuana that fuels the clamor for its legalization in the medical sector is its ability to alleviate chronic pain. Newton and David detail that patients suffering from various terminal illnesses such as cancer normally experience incessant pain (104). However, marijuana provides a remedy for such suffering by acting as a pain reliever. As a result, the patients’ quality of life is greatly improved. Its proponents argue that there is no good enough reason for exposing patients to unnecessary pain when an effective solution is readily available. Also, medical marijuana enthusiasts argue that it is immoral and unethical to compromise on the quality of medical care due to differing political beliefs and social perceptions. Finally, there is a perception that since doctors, in their Hippocratic Oath, swore to serve all humanity regardless of political or religious beliefs, they should be ready to use any drug provided it helps the patients. These three opinions make the case for legalization of medical marijuana.
Advocates for marijuana legalization note that such a policy would result in social and economic benefits for a country. In particular, they opine that the criminalization of marijuana makes a country loses a lot of revenue in the form of untaxed trade on this drug. These proponents claim that revenue realized from the taxes would go towards supporting other essential services in the community such as healthcare, law enforcement, and education. In addition, they believe that criminalization of marijuana does not deter the sale and use of the drug because its consumption will continue regardless of whether it is legalized or not (Berlatsky and Noah 54). Finally, it is believed that legalization would create jobs, decongest prisons by reducing the number of petty offenders, and generally improve security. These social and economic benefits also fuel the agitation for the legalization of marijuana.
On the other hand, some sections of the society fear that its legalization will lead to wanton abuse of the drug. The opponents of the legalization debate claim that frequent medical marijuana use will lead to addiction and the concerned patients might be unable to discontinue using the drug once they are healed. Also, opponents fear that medical workers will abuse the drug while on duty, which would jeopardize patients’ health (Newton and David 104). Finally, some stakeholders believe that unregulated sale and use of marijuana will escalate the levels of insecurity due to the violent tendencies exhibited by its users.
In conclusion, legalization of marijuana is a pertinent and divisive issue. Proponents of its legalization argue that the use of the drug in the medical field will benefit patients. Moreover, taxation of the marijuana trade will generate revenue for the country. On the contrary, opponents of the legalization policy claim that liberalization of the drug creates avenues for possible abuse and hence it should be restricted. Due to the reasonable opinions presented by both the proponents and opponents of legalization of marijuana, further research should be carried out to establish the actual net social cost or benefit of legalizing the drug.
Berlatsky, Noah. Marijuana. Greenhaven Press, 2012.
Erring, Noël. The Legalization of Marijuana. Greenhaven Press, 2016.
Newton, David E. Marijuana: A Reference Handbook. Abc-Clio, 2013. Internet resource.
Thank you for completing this paper in time and carrying out a detailed research on the task. I can see that you are improving the quality of your work. However, there are still some you must still correct to become a better writer.
Organization of Ideas
Always understand the main topic in the paper. In addition, organize your ideas in a systematic manner. Each idea should be in its own paragraph. Moreover, the issues discussed in each paragraph should aim at addressing the main topic.
Paragraphs represent the basic unit of composition: one idea, one paragraph. However, to present a clear, unified train of thought to your readers, you must make sure each paragraph follows the one before it and leads to the one after it through clear, logical transitions. Keep in mind that adequate transitions cannot simply be added to the essay without planning. Without a good reason for the sequence of your paragraphs, no transition will help you. Transitions can be made with particular words and phrases created for that purpose–conjunctive adverbs and transitional phrases–or they can be implied through a conceptual link.
Proofreading Paragraph Transitions
At some point in your editing process, look at the end of each paragraph and see how it connects to the first sentence of the paragraph following it. If the connection seems missing or strained, improve the transition by clarifying your logic or rearranging the paragraphs. Often, the best solution is cutting out a paragraph altogether and replacing it with the right one.
Prepositions are keywords that indicate the start of a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase begins with the first preposition in the sentence and ends with the object or noun of the phrase. For example, “She sat on the red carpet while reading.” The italicized portion is a prepositional phrase. Generally, prepositional phrases act as adverbs or adjectives in that they modify either verbs, adverbs, or adjectives. This section will demonstrate how to use prepositions for time, place, and objects in American English.
One point in time
“On,” “at”, and “in” are used to describe a moment in time.
On is used with days:
I will see you on Monday.
The week begins on Sunday.
At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:
My plane leaves at noon.
The movie starts at 6 p.m.
In is used with other parts of the day, with months, with years, and with seasons:
He likes to read in the afternoon.
The days are long in August.
The book was published in 1999.
The flowers will bloom in spring.
To express extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by, from—to, from-until, during,(with)in
She has been gone since yesterday. (She left yesterday and has not returned.)
I’m going to Paris for two weeks. (I will spend two weeks there.)
The movie showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending in October.)
The decorations were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending in fall.)
I watch TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
We must finish the project within a year. (No longer than a year.)
To express notions of place, English uses the following prepositions:
In: to talk about an object being contained.
Inside: to refer more specifically to where the object is contained.
On: to talk about the surface.
At: to talk about a general vicinity.
There is a wasp in the house. (The wasp is contained in the house.)
Go look inside the refrigerator. (Inside is used as a specific place, the inside of the refrigerator.)
I left your keys on the table. (The keys are on the surface of the table).
She was waiting at the corner. (The corner is a general location she was waiting at.)
Higher than a point
To express notions of an object being higher than a point, English uses the following prepositions: over, above.
Over: to talk about an object that has moved higher and wider than another object.
Above: to talk about an object that has moved higher than another object.
He threw the ball over the roof. (The ball is somewhere past the height and width of the roof.)
Hang that picture above the couch. (The picture should be higher in relation to the couch.)
Lower than a point
To express notions of an object being lower than a point, English uses the following prepositions: under, underneath, beneath, below.
Under: to describe an object that is below a general point
Underneath: to describe something that is below a more specific point
Beneath: to describe an object that is directly below another object
Below: to describe an object that is lower or less than another object or point
The rabbit burrowed under the ground. (The rabbit is somewhere underground.)
The child hid underneath the blanket. (The child hid in a more specific place, a blanket.)
We relaxed in the shade beneath the branches. (The shade lies specifically right below the branches.)
The valley is below sea-level. (The valley is somewhere lower than sea-level)
Close to a point
To describe an object as being close to a point, English uses the following prepositions: near, by, next to, between, among, opposite.
She lives near the school. (She lives in close proximity to the school.)
There is an ice cream shop by the store. (The ice cream shop is very close to the store.)
An oak tree grows next to my house. (An oak tree grows beside the house, likely in the yard.)
The house is between Elm Street and Maple Street. (Elm and Maple Street sandwich the house).
I found my pen lying among the books. (The pen could be anywhere around the area that the books occupy.)
The bathroom is opposite that room. (Similar to “next to,” opposite means that the bathroom faces the room, rather than adjoins.)
To introduce objects of verbs
An object of a verb adds specificity to the verb. In terms of prepositional objects, the object is introduced by a preposition. For example, in the sentence, “They fought about the old chair,” which object did they fight over? The chair. When introducing objects of verbs, there are some prepositions that directly follow specific verbs. Below are some examples:
“At” is used with the following verbs: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare
She glanced at her reflection.
(exception with mirror: She glanced in the mirror.)
You didn’t laugh at his joke.
I’m looking at the computer monitor.
We rejoiced at his safe rescue.
That pretty girl smiled at you.
Stop staring at me.
“Of” is used with the following verbs: approve, consist, smell
I don’t approve of his speech.
My contribution to the article consists of many pages.
He came home smelling of alcohol.
“Of” (or “about”) is used with the following verbs: dream, think
I dream of finishing college in four years.
Can you think of a number between one and ten?
I am thinking about this problem.
“For” is used with the following verbs: call, hope, look, wait, watch, wish
Did someone call for a taxi?
He hopes for a raise in salary next year.
I’m looking for my keys.
Only two tenses are conveyed through the verb alone: present (“sing”) and past (“sang”). Most English tenses, as many as thirty of them, are marked by other words called auxiliaries. Understanding the six basic tenses allows writers to re-create much of the reality of time in their writing.
Simple Present: They walk.
Present Perfect: They have walked.
Simple Past: They walked.
Past Perfect: They had walked.
Future: They will walk.
Future Perfect: They will have walked.
Usually, the perfect tenses are the hardest to remember. Here’s a useful tip: all of the perfect tenses are formed by adding an auxiliary or auxiliaries to the past participle, the third principal part.
1st principal part (simple present): ring, walk
2nd principal part (simple past): rang, walked
3rd principal part (past participle): rung, walked
In the above examples, will or will have are the auxiliaries. The following are the most common auxiliaries: be, being, been, can, do, may, must, might, could, should, ought, shall, will, would, has, have, had.
The present perfect consists of a past participle (the third principal part) with “has” or “have.” It designates action which began in the past but which continues into the present or the effect of which still continues.
- Simple Past: “Betty taught for ten years.” This means that Betty taught in the past; she is no longer teaching.
- Present Perfect: “Betty has taught for ten years.” This means that Betty taught for ten years, and she still teaches today.
- Simple Past: “John did his homework so he can go to the movies.” In this example, John has already completed his homework.
- Present Perfect: “If John has done his homework, he can go to the movies.” In this case, John has not yet completed his homework, but he will most likely do so soon.
Present Perfect Infinitives
Infinitives also have perfect tense forms. These occur when the infinitive is combined with the word “have.” Sometimes, problems arise when infinitives are used with verbs of the future, such as “hope,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” or “want.”
I wanted to go to the movies.
Janet meant to see the doctor.
In both of these cases, the action happened in the past. Thus, these would both be simple past verb forms.
Present perfect infinitives, such as the examples below, set up a sequence of events. Usually the action that is represented by the present perfect tense was completed before the action of the main verb.
- I am happy to have participated in this campaign! The current state of happiness is in the present: “I am happy.” Yet, this happiness comes from having participated in this campaign that most likely happened in the near past. Therefore, the person is saying that he or she is currently happy due to an event that happened in the near past.
- John had hoped to have won the trophy. The past perfect verbal phrase, “had hoped,” indicates that John hoped in the past, and no longer does. “To have won the trophy” indicates a moment in the near past when the trophy was still able to be won. Thus, John, at the time of possibly winning the trophy, had hoped to do so, but never did.
Thus the action of the main verb points back in time; the action of the perfect infinitive has been completed.
The past perfect tense designates action in the past just as simple past does, but the past perfect’s action has been completed before another action.
- Simple Past: “John raised vegetables.” Here, John raised vegetables at an indeterminate time in the past.
- Past Perfect: “John sold the vegetables that he had raised.” In this sentence, John raised the vegetables before he sold them.
- Simple Past: “Renee washed the car when George arrived.” In this sentence, Renee waited to wash the car until after George arrived.
- Past Perfect: “Renee had washed the car when George arrived.” Here, Renee had already finished washing the car by the time George arrived.
In sentences expressing condition and result, the past perfect tense is used in the part that states the condition.
- If I had done my exercises, I would have passed the test.
- I think Sven would have been elected if he hadn’t sounded so pompous.
Further, in both cases, the word if starts the conditional part of the sentence. Usually, results are marked by an implied then. For example:
If I had done my exercises, then I would have passed the test.
If Sven hadn’t sounded so pompous, then he would have been elected.
Again, the word then is not required, but it is implied.
The future present tense is used for an action that will be completed at a specific time in the future.
- Simple Future: “On Saturday, I will finish my housework.” In this sentence, the person will finish his or her housework sometime on Saturday.
- Future Perfect: “By noon on Saturday, I will have finished my housework.” By noon on Saturday, this person will have the homework already done even though right now it is in the future.
- Simple Future: “You will work fifty hours.” In this example, you will work fifty hours in the future. The implication here is that you will not work more than fifty hours.
- Future Perfect: “You will have worked fifty hours by the end of this pay period.” By the end of this pay period, you would have already worked fifty hours. However, as of right now, this situation is in the future. The implication here is that you could work more hours.
- Judy saved thirty dollars. (past—the saving is completed)
- Judy will save thirty dollars. (future—the saving has not happened yet)
- Judy has saved thirty dollars. (present perfect—the saving has happened recently)
- Judy had saved thirty dollars by the end of last month. (past perfect—the saving occurred in the recent past)
- Judy will have saved thirty dollars by the end of this month. (future perfect—the saving will occur in the near future, by the end of this month)
I believe that you will study all the issues that I have highlighted. Your part of the bid is 85%. Your grade for this paper is 66, which corresponds to College B level.