Essay
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Maternal child health care is important because it involves offering health services to mother and child with the aim of reducing and preventing mortality and morbidity. Many governments, including the United States government, invest huge amounts of money in public health with the aim of improving maternal health care (Bhutta & Black, 2013). The main strategies employed in improving maternal child health care relate to education, research and program application, and improvement of healthy lifestyles. This paper reviews a selected scholarly article with the aim of identifying areas that should be improved in the provision of maternal child health care, how new models will raise cultural competent care, ethical implications of change, and how the article contributes to the improvement of the role and responsibility of nursing in managing the care of mothers in childbearing years.
Summary
The article, Maternity perception by pregnant women living with HIV, was written by Spindola et al. in the year 2015. The main focus of the authors is identifying the view of pregnant mothers living with HIV with regards to paternity. In particular, this articles enables the authors to understand the feelings and expectations experienced by these mothers.
The authors maintain that it is important for nurses to provide specific care to people living with HIV so as to improve their life expectancy. There are many social and scientific achievement made as a result of support activities performed by nurses in different levels of health care (Spindola et al., 2015). This makes it possible to realize the desire for mothers to have children in a risk-free and safe manner.
The authors conclude that motherhood is a positive experience to the pregnant women living with HIV. Thus, there is a need for the nurses and other health care professionals to be sensitive when offering care to these mothers, and their children. They should focus on mitigating and preventing and possible health problems, which would affect the mother and the child.
Specific Areas That Will Improve the Provision of Maternal Child Health Care
            The specific areas that have the ability to improve the provision of maternal child health care relate to prenatal care, the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the implementation of clinical management. These areas have greatly contributed, in different ways, to the improvement of provision of maternal child health care because they reduce the risk of vertical transmission.
Reducing the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV helps in promoting the health of the child and mother. Thus, there is a need for the pregnant mothers to take part in antiretroviral therapy. This therapy will help in reducing the progression of AIDs and preventing HIV-related diseases or even death. When the mother enjoys a good health, she can offer the required care to the child, which in turn helps in preventing child mortality. Additionally, there is a need for assistance and proper guidance to the health of mothers living with HIV, particularly when deciding to become pregnant (Spindola et al., 2015). This helps in eliminating the feelings of concern and fear relating to the development of a healthy child.
Prenatal care is important in realizing healthy pregnancy as well as a healthy child after birth. Prenatal care ensures that the pregnant mothers undergo various checkups to ensure that development of the baby progress as required. The health of the mother depends on prenatal care because the pregnant mothers are offered required care by nurses and other health care professionals. Prenatal care helps in detecting any potential health concern and ensures that a mother gets the required treatment on time (Spindola et al., 2015). Also, it helps in ensuring that the mother gets the right nutritional information. This ensures that the mother eats the food items that offer the right nutrient required for the child development of the child. Prenatal care also helps in tracking the development of the child so as to avoid complication during childbirth, which can affect the overall health of the baby.
Implementation of clinical management is important in improving the required care to the children. Through improved clinical management, most health institutions have effective clinical leadership, which ensure the provision of high-quality care to children. Additionally, implementation of clinical management helps in improving diagnosis and treatment of many childhood ailments. With proper clinical management, nurses and other healthcare providers can improve the quality of history taking (Bhutta & Black, 2013). It also helps in improving record keeping by examining different conditions facing children, which in turns help in improving the provision of maternal child health care, and reducing childhood morbidity and mortality.
How the New Model Will Foster Cultural Competent Care
            It is important for the nurses to be culturally competent to ensure that they offer culturally corresponding patient care. Nurses help in promoting culturally competent care by considering different cultural issues and beliefs when offering care to the patients (Kersey-Matusiak, 2012). The model of focusing on the awareness of HIV-positive pregnant women about matter of parenthood and realizing their feeling and expectations is important in promoting culturally competent care (Purnell, 2012). There are many cultural beliefs in many communities relating to the issue of HIV-positive women having children. Most people in different communities feel that HIV-positive women should not have bear children.
Thus, the process of putting HIV-positive pregnant women in antiretroviral therapy is helpful in ensuring that these cultural beliefs are addressed. The nurses and other health care providers assist mothers living with HIV to conceive, carry a pregnancy, and deliver a healthy baby. They also help in making sure that mother-to-child transmission of HIV is controlled and prevented. Importantly, it helps in promoting the culture that allows all women to bear children.
Additionally, offering prenatal care and implementing clinical management helps in fostering cultural competent care. Prenatal care ensures that all pregnant women get the required care to allow proper development of the child and promote the health of the unborn child (Nicolaides, 2011). This help in promoting the culture of raising healthy children, which is embraced in most communities. Clinical management ensures that children get high-quality diagnosis and treatment to diseases they are facing.
The Ethical Implications of Change
            The main ethical implication of the change relating to taking care of HIV-positive pregnant women relates to the fact that every patient has the right to choose whether to seek health care services or not (Spindola et al., 2015). Nurses have the responsibility to offer the required care to pregnant women. However, they cannot force all HIV-positive pregnant women to undergo antiretroviral therapy. The nurses should allow the women to make their decisions without any influence. Forcing pregnant women top seek health care services is in fact a violation of the ethical practices in nursing.
Contribution of the Article to the Advancement of the Nursing Role and Responsibility in Managing Care Of Women in Childbearing Years
This article focuses on ascertaining the perception of an HIV-positive pregnant woman on matters relating to motherhood. In particular, the article increases the understanding of their feeling and expectations about motherhood. It also focuses on ways in which nurses can help a pregnant woman living with HIV to deliver healthy children. Thus, the article contributes to the development of the nursing role and responsibility in providing care to the women in childbearing years.
 
References
Bhutta, Z. A., & Black, R. E. (2013). Global maternal, newborn, and child health—so near and yet so far. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(23), 2226-2235.
Kersey-Matusiak, G. (2012). Culturally competent care: Are we there yet?. Nursing2016, 42(2), 49-52.
Nicolaides, K. H. (2011). Turning the pyramid of prenatal care. Fetal diagnosis and therapy, 29(3), 183-196.
Purnell, L. D. (2012). Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach. FA Davis.
Spindola, T., Dantas, K. T. D. B., Cadavez, N. F. V., Fonte, V. R. F. D., & Oliveira, D. C. D. (2015). Maternity perception by pregnant women living with HIV. Investigación y Educación en Enfermería, 33(3), 440-448.