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Question One
How Does Goodman And Monaghan Define Denaturalization and its Application to This Class? (P 32-37 Goodman Winking As Social)
Denaturalization refers to the process through which anthropologists are able to deduce certain cultural behaviors that are not natural to human beings. In this case, anthropologists can identify whether cultures such as remaining quiet for long hours, speaking in a certain manner, or having a particular diet are issues that are not natural to human behavior. Denaturalization can be applied in various activities such as identifying various social business. For instance, it can be used to differentiate between a twitch and a wink. In turn, this knowledge can aid in identifying if there is a social business when individuals wink.
Question Two
Explain Social Business’s Relationship to Doing Ethnography. (P 32-37 Goodman Winking As Social)
Social business refers to how people exercise power in various interactions and how they create various identities and values for their own unique social discourse. In ethnography, an individual is charged with the task of creating a description that may enable him/ her to identify what it means when another person contracts his eyes. In this case, an individual is tasked with identifying whether the movement of the eyelids is a twitch, a wink, or a parody of a wink. Since a wink is a voluntary movement, it may be symbolic to members of a group. It may also convey various messages depending on the group’s social business. Further, although a wink is an involuntary movement, it may convey a message of fear or panic when it is observed on a politician. The ability to understand these messages is what brings about the relationship between social business and ethnography.
Question Three
How Does Miner Feel Towards the Nacirema? (P 9-11 Miner Body Ritual)
Miner feels that the Nacirema people are primitive and their culture is no longer useful or relevant. On his final remark, he says that the individuals from this community visit the “mouth-man,” who inserts sharp objects into their teeth in order to give them charms and powers that will prevent tooth decay, notwithstanding the continued damage to their teeth. This remark clearly shows that he views this community as backward, and whose culture is retrogressive. In fact, Miner’s remarks illustrate that it is irrational for individuals to engage in cultures and traditions that damage their health, a practice carried out be Nacirema people.
Question Four
How Does Agar Define “Culture” and the “Circle Around Language”? Give Examples (P12-26 Agar Culture can you Take Anywhere & Agar Culture Blends)
Culture refers to assumptions, which are based on observations of the recurrent patterns of rich points on some common situation or person. These assumptions have a shared meaning. Culture shows and explains to the world the meaning of problems in terms of contexts. Agar defines “circle around language” as the tendency of language experts to group language into distinct parts of speech. In his thinking, this method is wrong since language is broad and diverse and cannot be effectively grouped into distinct parts of speech. For instance, in order for a person to understand the meaning of the phrase “going for a date,” he/she must understand the context of a relationship.
Question Five
What are Bauman’s 5 Principles? (P 27-28)

  1. Communication is socially constituted, established in social relationships, and it is produced in the conduct of social life.
  2. The expressive forms of a culture, play, art, display, and performance display a good point on culture, society, and communication.
  3. Communication forms constitute social resources and “equipment of living,” which refer to simply a society’s way of speaking, dressing, dancing, playing music, and other social activities.
  4. Communication forms and practices are valued and accessible differentially. This conduct is especially between the hierarchies of preference that represent the systems of cultural values and hierarchies of power, authority, and status that have the ability to influence the social distribution of resources.
  5. Communication forms and practices are cross-culturally and historically variable.

 
Question Six
What are the 4 Categories of Performance According to Conquergood? (P41-43 Conquergood Policy,Poetics)
According to Conquergood, there are four categories of performance; poetics, play, process, and power. These categories of performance have the following meaning:

  • Poetics refer to fabricated, invented, imagined, and constructed nature of human realities. Therefore, cultures are made up by human beings and do not exist naturally.
  • Play refers to the improvisation, experimentation, innovation, agitation, irony, parody, reflection, clowning, carnival, and jest. Tricksters in plays have an important role of unsettling certainties by disclosing vulnerabilities of our institutions. Moreover, through appreciation of plays, ethnographers of performance can understand the reasons why cultures are always open and in a continuous state of productive tension.
  • Process refers to the manner in which culture is always changing through performance. The metaphors of motion and sound compete with the spatial and visual images as well as abstractions that dominate scientific writing.
  • Power refers to various ideologies such as domination, contestation, and struggle. It is a public performance, which is displayed by competing interests that intersect, various viewpoints are raised and voices are articulated.

 
Question Seven
Define Geertz’s “Thick Description” and Explain Why the Difference Between a Wink and Twitch is Important. (P 29-31 Geertz Thick Description)
Thick description refers to the fine-tuned ethnographic attention to cultural and social context that enables an individual to interpret the meaning of what they observe. A wink is a sign language that individuals use in making communication by closing the eye. On the contrary, a twitch is an involuntary closing of the eye. Due to the similarities in body movements, an individual may easily confuse between a twitch and a twitch, therefore, the ability to differentiate between a twitch and a wink may enable an individual to identify when a person is communicating by closing his/ her eyelid.
Question Eight
Give Examples of Bauman’s “Emergent Quality of Performance.” (P38-40 Bauman the Emergence)
According to Bauman, the emergent qualities of performance are found in the interplay between communication resources, individual competence, and the goals of the participant within the context of a particular situation. Further, the participants have goals that are intrinsic to the performance. An example of Bauman’s emergent quality performance includes acts of comedy in which the humor is directed on the actor himself or herself. This form of comedy may include popular television show such as Mr. Bean. They also include theater works such as puppeteers, clowning, and dancing.
Question Nine
What do the Tuareg Greetings Reveal About Communication?  (P 48)
The greetings by Tuareg reveal the importance of communication in maintaining harmony, passing crucial information, phatic function, and identification of a person. Tuareg men spend most of their time in the vast Sahara desert, where they are usually lonely. Therefore, when they meet a person in the desert, it is important for them to communicate since it enables them to have a human touch. Communication also enables the Tuareg to be able to get crucial information necessary for their survival in the desert. Once they meet with a stranger, these parties immediately exchange information about sensitive resources such as the source of water. Another important reason for communication is that it enables parties to identify the persons with whom they are speaking. In the desert, there exist so many inter-tribal wars; therefore, communication enables individuals to identify the other party in order to protect themselves from possible attacks.
Question Ten
Describe the Quakers’ Language Ideology and Give Examples (P 60-71)
Language ideology is a set of beliefs that a group holds about language. In this case, language ideology refers to the manner in which individuals react to various forms of communication. For example, it is normal for individuals to greet people who hold a senior political office with words such as “Your excellency” because of their office title. Among the Quakers’ they did not use to have respect for language ideology that appeared to differentiate individuals based on their social status or class. In addition, they also refrained from greeting, politeness formulas, honorifics, or respect to titles. As a result, if you met a Quaker, he/ she would go on straight ahead and introduce the main agenda of the meeting without starting the meeting with greetings.
Question Eleven
Define Language Ideology and Phatic Function (P 60-71)
Language ideology is a set of beliefs that a group holds about a language. In this case, language ideology refers to the manner in which a group adores and views greeting, politeness formulas, honorifics, and respect to titles in their social interactions. In some communities, high attribute that is given to these issues, while in others, little attention paid to them.
Phatic function refers to the establishment of a connection between people by using language. Phatic function is mainly demonstrated in language that acts as an “ice breaker.” These include words such as “hey, and wassup” where a person does not expect detailed responses from the other party when he/she uses them.
 
Question Twelve
When and why do the Apache Keep Silent? (P 73-82 To Give Up On Words Basso)
Communication with the Apache people is characterized with various instances of silence. There is normally silence when they meet strangers, during courtship, and in a reunion such as when children return home. There is also silence when they are cussed, which occurs when a person is angry and he/ she hurls insults to other people. They also remain silent when they are in the company of sad people. Finally, they remain silent when they are in the company of someone whom they sing.
Apache people mostly remain quiet in most situations where the role of the speaker becomes blurred. The Apache keep quiet in social situations where the status of the focal participant is ambiguous. They are also quiet where the fixed role expectations are not applicable, and there is a loss in the predictability in social interaction. Finally, they also remain quiet when there is uncertainty and unpredictability in social relations.
Question Thirteen
Who Performs in Cousin Joe? (P 93-107)
Joe is the performer in the article “Cousin Joe.” A performer is an individual who is at the center stage of a play, script, or any act and the story revolves around him because of certain things that he does. The article by Ottenheimer talks of Joe writing an autobiography about his life. In order to prepare these scripts, he works with Ottenheimer who records him as he talks about his life. Ottenheimer then uses these tapes to transcribe about Cousin Joe.
Question Fourteen
How Does Cousin Joe Use a Dialect? (P 93-107)
The use of a dialect is important in Joe’s performance in the theaters. Specifically, exaggerated dialect about himself or the audience enable him to create humor. In this manner, he is able to create a balance between reality and pretense.
Question Fifteen
Why Does Ottenheimer Change Her Transcriptions? (P 93-107)
Ottenheimer changed her transcription in order to ensure that she had created a sensitive link between Joe’s narrative aspect of the performance and his stage performance. Consequently, the narrative aspect of the performance was written in Standard English while areas where he used exaggerated dialects were written in nonstandard spelling and grammar. In addition, Joe’s had requested her to use Standard English in his authorial voice, which requires that it be in a standard format.
Question Sixteen
Define The Three Points of Lakoff’s Language Triangle. Why Does He Use The Image Of A Triangle? (P 135-139)
According to Lakoff, the most essential properties of language are form, meaning, and function. Since these functions have an equal relationship, they are represented using an equal-sided triangle, which is able to clearly show this distribution of weight. Further, just like a triangle, which has three sides, language must have these three properties. Form refers to entities outside themselves after making an agreement among the speakers. For instance, both speakers must agree on the definition and meaning of various items. Semantics link form and meaning depending on the language that is being used. Pragmatics view language as communication in terms of function. It discovers the principles that regulate speaker’s intentions and the manner that the listeners understand the speaker’s message. Finally, syntax connects words to other words.
Question Seventeen
How/ why are Indirectness and Directness Used? (P135-139)
Indirectness refers to politeness strategies that people use in relationship to language to avoid direct confrontation.  Some of the reasons for indirectness are to avoid confrontational speech act in favor of less confrontational forms. To avoid semantic content, by preferring to replace it with imperative content, or both. The type of indirectness include speech acts of submission, commissives, injunctions, as well as the use of questions, apologies, and congratulations.
Directness, on the other hand, is a form of communication that allows for direct confrontation. People use this method in order to get their point across in the most open manner as well as when they do not fear engaging in confrontations, and when they want to relay semantic content. It occurs through an open and direct speech that does not have submission, commissives, and injunctions.
Question Eighteen
Define “Symbol,” “Icon,” and “Index,” and Describe the Differences Among Them; Give Examples of Each. (P 141-150)
Symbols refer to words that have an arbitrary relationship with what they stand for. They include words such as car, chair, love, book, and phone.
Icons refer to words that resemble what they represent. They include words such as “moo” which refers to the sound of a cow, “quack” which refers to the sound of a duck and “zoom” which represents the sound of a car.
Indexes refer to words that point to particular places. These are words such as here and there.
Question Nineteen
How Do Stereotypes Occur According To Wilce? (P141-150)
According to Wilce, stereotypes are formed when individuals mistake indexes for icons, which leads to the emergence of prejudice. Wilice uses examples of various metaphors such as “America is the Great Satan,” which was said by Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran and “punishing Saddam” which was used by America’s military spokesperson during the Gulf war. In the above examples, the mixing of icons with indexes leads to stereotype. For instance, when bombs were thrown in Iraq, Saddam was not the main casualty; those who were injured were people who were in the places where the bombs fell.
Question Twenty
How Does Wilce Describe “Naturalization?”(P141-150)
According to Wilce, naturalization refers to the process through which culture is made to appear as a natural occurrence among human beings. In reality, culture is largely arbitrary and not natural.  In order to make culture appear natural, rhetoric, grammar, and language are used to naturalize power and status. In reality, this is false since communities are imagined, an issue that can be proved because of the connections that people share with individuals living in very far communities. These connections show that these communities are related and the differences between each community are acts of human creations.
Question Twenty-One
What Assertions Does Tannen Make About Conversational Signals and Devices?  Give the Lists she Offers for Each Category. (P157-167)
According to Tannen, the manner in which individuals communicate using various signals and devices, directly affects the way their audience understand the message or perceive these individuals. People use four main signals in their communication; pace, pause, loudness, and pitch. The main communication devices are expressive reactions, asking questions, complaining, and apologizing. Extremely long pauses may lead to many interjections in the communication. Too much expression may also make the speaker appear as extremely emotional.
 
Question Twenty-Two
According to Maltz and Borker, Why do Men and Women Miscommunicate?(P168-183 Maltz Borker)
Men and women miscommunicate because of the differences in the way that they talk and understand information. Women communication is characterized with a lot of questions, utterances that demand responses, positive and minimal responses, which do not interrupt the speaker, acknowledgment of the speaker, and silent protest when they are interrupted. On the contrary, men communication has a lot of interruptions, men are also more likely to challenge or dispute the speaker, directly declare facts. In addition, men use a lot of mechanics when introducing topics, and ignore previous comments.
Question Twenty-Three
Describe Report and Rapport Talk, and Explain why Tannen Associates Each With One Gender Over the Other (P186-198).
Report talk refers to a form of communication that is done to the public with an aim of preserving independence and maintain social status. Men mainly use this form of communication since they view communication as a means of seeking and getting attention. Rapport talking, on the other hand, refers to a form of communication that aims at establishing negotiations and building relationships. Women normally use this form of communication since it enables them to display similarities in their experiences and to present themselves as equals.
Question Twenty-Four
Does Murray Believe Class and Regional Origin Affect People’s Use of Swearing? Yes or No, Why? (P 233-241)
Murray does not believe that class and region affect the manner that people swear or cause them to swear. In his study, he found out that both male and female interviewees use curse and obscene language despite their different social class or origin. According to him, people curse in order to convey power and intensity, to draw attention on whatever they are talking about, and to redefine a person’s image as a member of a given group.
Question Twenty-Five
According to Murray, Why do People in General Swear, and Then Why do College Students in Particular Swear? (P 233-241)
According to Murray, people swear to redefine themselves as members of a particular group, to draw attention, to provoke listeners, to convey power, and to discredit whoever or whatever they are talking about. Among college students in particular, in addition to the aforementioned, they swear in order to show they are mature and can use words that are associated with adults. It is important to note that it is at this period in adulthood where individuals experiment on substances that are commonly used by adults such as cigarette, alcohol, and sex. Similarly, they also experiment on language.