Introduction
Some members of the community have problems that cannot be simply attended to by medicine or a visit to the clinic. Some of these people require specialized care and as such, there are various health support programs all over the world. In essence, the person-centred care is very important in our daily lives. By ensuring that the families and the patients are integrated into the decision making, the process is able to reap the best outcomes.
The person-centred care has to consider various aspects and values for it to be effective. It has to consider the family values, desires, lifestyles and circumstances among others (Coulter & Collins, 2011). All these are an indication of respect from the professional. Furthermore, the approach to accommodate individuals in the decision-making process is the key ingredient to a better health care system. In this, the decision-making approach ensures that: the services delivered are as per the health conditions, ensures that individuals focus more on themselves, there is a considerable reduction on the health professionals. This paper will conclude that a daily living model is an effective tool for use in person-cantered care.
Person cantered approach
The person-centred approach has been defined as a way of thinking and doing things that focus on the health professionals and the patients as being equal (Health innovation network, n.d.). Other terms that may be used as synonyms for person-centred care include patient-centred, family-centred, personalized care etc. Therefore, the approach is basically about giving individuals what they deem appropriate and as such, providing a platform for a symbiotic relationship (Davidson, et al., 2015). The relationship, therefore, is based on sharing of information between the two parties. The individual provides the professional with an in-depth analysis of his lifestyle and the problems while the health professional ensures that the medical, as well as health management tips, are effective.
Some of the most important factors to consider in person-centred care revolve around the patient/individual. Some of these include centralized care system where the patients and their values are considered the core, needs and preferences consideration, healthy working relationship in terms of communication, education and information sharing, wholesome involvement, efficient service delivery and emotional comfort (De Silva, 2014).
Because of the continued emphasis on this person-centred care, it is important to consider the merits. To begin with, the approach has the ability to improve the quality of health services delivered. The approach reduces the number of people treated in medical institutions and healthcare facilities, therefore, reducing the burden on health care experts. Furthermore, the system ensures that the personalized needs of individuals are catered for, especially for the aging. Still on the aspect of quality, the system, by ensuring a platform for open communication, ensure that the patients are virtually the decision makers about their health.
The aspect of specialized medical care is very important when trying to describe the importance of person-centred care. Some people may experience rare conditions which may require specialized care and by involving the professionals, rather than going to medical centres, the health needs are catered for. It is, in essence, a very important foundation for nursing.
 
Roper-Logan-Trenary Daily living model
The model was developed as a checklist to monitor the progress of a patient and focuses on the daily routines of human beings (Morgan & Yoder, 2012). Therefore, it is a measurement tool used by healthcare professionals to mark the different milestones in the recovery of a patient (Collin, 2014). However, the model focuses on ensuring that the patient has the ability to cope with the challenges alone and as such, is based on study and research into mannerism and the daily activities (Henderson, 2016). Therefore, by focusing on the aspect of living, they are able to focus energies on providing measures for independence (Frank, 2005). Some of the activities that are used include eating and drinking, communication, self-hygiene, sleeping, playing and work, maintenance of a safe environment, movement and mobilization, sexuality, controlling the temperature as well as death (Coulter & Collins, 2011). However, the activities may be grouped into two categories: activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living (Kitson, et al., 2013). The former encompasses those activities that are centred on the general daily tasks of an individual. Some of these tasks include hygiene, the dressing, and the eating habits, the mobility, and the continence management of an individual (Sepucha, et al., 2008). On the other hand, the latter refers to those activities that are more complex but are part of our daily routines. The instrumental activities are the following: shopping and transportation, meal preparation, medication management, household management, communication capability, financial management and the sociability as well as the mental health of an individual (Brownie & Nancarrow, 2013).
The model is incomplete by its own and as such, there are other factors that are considered in order to make it complete. The factors are those that influence our daily living and mainly include: environmental factors, biological factors, psychological factors, the sociocultural factors and finally the politico economics (Edvardsson & Innes, 2010). The five factors influence the lifestyle of any human being and as such, make the model more complete. All this has to be considered upon the admission of a patient and throughout the therapy. However, some patients may opt for other types of assistance such as in-home care, nursing homes and assisted living. Regardless, the dependence, as well as the independence of the individual, should be observed and taken into consideration. The aim of the observation is to determine the level of progress and the necessary modifications to the care plan in respect to the necessary measures to be taken (Edvardsson, et al., 2010).
The case of Jo Osbourne is very intriguing. From her history, it can be seen that she has numerous mental as well as physical challenges. To begin with, she has to come to terms with her bisexuality in which she is currently having an affair with Alice. It is regardless of the fact that she has two children with her divorced husband, Rajeev, jasmine, and Amira. The physical wellbeing is marred by the fact that she smokes as much as 20 cigarettes per day. Not only does she smoke cigarettes, she used to smoke cannabis sativa with Rajeev. All these might be the causes of her aggravated coughing and might worsen asthma and bronchitis conditions that she has. Therefore, the 12 activities of daily living can be employed in her case to ensure that she recovers properly as well as her independence is sustained.
The first activity that may be considered is personal hygiene. Personal hygiene of an individual is a very important measurement of the independence as well as the health of an individual (Iekman, et al., 2011). In this, bathing, oral hygiene, and the ability of Jo to care for her hair will display the independence. Furthermore, it may be an indication of her ability to properly carry out her duties in the workplace. The second consideration should be on the continence management as this demonstrates the ability of an individual to manage his/her body functions. Jo should demonstrate the ability to effectively use the bathroom if there is any progress in her health condition. Thirdly, the dressing may demonstrate the ability to properly select clothes as per the occasion, weather etc. Furthermore, because Jo works in a salon, this will demonstrate her ability to differentiate between casual clothing and the clothes required for work. The last aspect of ADL is the ability of Jo to switch positions properly and work independently.
However, the most important part of the daily activities are those that are classified as instrumental. The companionship, as well as the mentality around Jo, is one of the most critical determinants of her health status. The mental health of an individual is affected by the positive as well as the negative thoughts (Olsson, et al., 2013). Jo can be described to be in a negative state of mind because of the divorce and this is manifested in the smoking of cigarettes. However, with proper counselling and care, Jo may be in a better state of mind in about two months. The second factor to be considered in this category is the management of medication. Jo has asthma and bronchitis and as such, requires effective as well as proper medication in her daily routines. Furthermore, she is a frequent smoker which typically aggravates the diseases. Counselling and proper medication will play a major role in her recovery.
As previously stated, the main aim of a person-centred approach of care is to indulge the patient in the decision making as well as to cater for the preferences and the family customized needs (Jukema, et al., 2012). Therefore, it is essential to first understand the personal care required as well as the daily routines and activities of the individual. As with Jo, the main concern is her mental health, the physical wellbeing, on diseases such as asthma and bronchitis and the smoking behaviour she is so much fond of. The diseases, as well as the behavioural aspects of Jo’s life, form an intricate circle that needs to be broken up. Generally, the smoking aggravates the diseases while her previous cannabis smoking behaviour may have an effect on the mental health.
There are two types of person-centred care that may be considered in Jo’s case. However, we have to consider that, or rather assume, that the relationship between Jo and Alice surpasses the relationship between Jo and all her friends and families. However, we also have to consider that Jo has two children. Therefore, the three may be considered as family to her and will be involved in her decision making. Therefore, we have to consider the place or the location where she will receive the care. There are three type of assistance that can be offered to Jo: the home-based approach, the assisted living (Koren, 2010) and where she will be put in a nursing home (McMillan, et al., 2013). However, we may choose a transition system whereby she can be offered home-based care at the same time as assisted living, but with the help of the family members (Lawton, et al., 2013). All this will have to be in line with her preferences as well as her values.
As previously stated, there are various factors that make the ADL model more holistic. The psychological of the individual, the socioeconomics, the biology, environment and the politico-economics. All these will be used to assess improvement in the health condition as well as the independence. To begin with, the major concern is the mental health as well as the physical wellbeing. In this regard, we have to consider the biological factor as this affects the anatomy and physiology (Department of health, 2010). The divorce, as well as the usage of cannabis sativa, has led to depressions which have led to smoking. Therefore, in trying to help her overcome this situation, there need to be regular counselling sessions as well as proper medication. However, the main concern should be on her mental health. Furthermore, asthma, as well as bronchitis, will be critically evaluated and a proper medication procedure put on paper. The medication, as well as the counselling procedures, will provide a platform to establish the progress on health. Thereafter, if need be, they will be reviewed and necessary modifications will be put in place.
The second aspect that will need to be considered is Jo’s psychology. This factor affects the mental well-being of an individual on aspects such as beliefs, understanding, cognition, and the emotions (Coulter, et al., 2009).Therefore, it is important to exercise this therapy alongside her family and friends. Jo will need to prove the emotional capability as well as demonstrate her ability to understand the life situation she is in. Therefore, the professional will need to engage her in various activities while at the same time monitoring her daily routines and activities. All this will need to be kept in check with the main aim to determine behavioural as well as changes in the wellbeing.
Thirdly is the sociocultural impact of the surrounding on the lifestyle employed by Jo. The environment in which an individual life determines various factors such as expectations, social Statius, class etc. (McCance, et al., 2011). Therefore, by monitoring the environment that Jo is subjected to, some of her behaviours may be monitored to indicate the level of progress. However, the lifestyle in which she used to smoke cannabis, as well as cigarettes, has to be factored into her treatment therapy.
There are various applications of the person-centred approach in the various nursing fields. In this essay, the main focus has been on psychiatric nurses and gerontological practitioner (Beachy, n.d.). The former caters for the mental wellbeing of patients while the gerontological practitioner works with the elderly and provide a thorough assessment during the time that they provide healthcare to this group. Furthermore, they work in close relation to the family members to provide additional information and measures for the general well-being of the individual. As per the essay, Jo may be described to require both types of nursing because of her mental health condition as well as the inability to be independent.
To begin with, the obvious differences are based on the type of patients catered for. For the gerontological practitioners, the age group served is that of the elderly and who basically depend on their family members (The King’s Fund, 2012). In this, the emphasis is on ADL strategies that are meant to cater to the needs of the elderly. Therefore, the feeding, hygiene, mental control, medication, communication among other factors have to be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the method of care that is mainly emphasized is that of a nursing home because of the various needs associated with this age group. On the other hand, the psychiatric nurses cater for various age groups but are more inclined towards the young (Dwamener, et al., 2012). Therefore, the methodology employed for the treatment of these individuals is completely different from the elderly. The emphases may be on the mental wellbeing as well as the communication capability of individuals (Gill, 2013).
The similarities between the two groups lie on the frameworks employed for the assessment and treatment. The main emphasis in the treatment is to ensure that the patients are adequately involved in the decision making and as such, the medications provided are as per the specifications, preferences, and requirements of the individuals. Furthermore, all the nursing fields focus on proper communication between the professionals and the patients to ensure that the nurse understands the patient very well and as such, provides the relevant and the necessary medication and therapies.
 
 
Conclusion
Personal centred care is an integral part of our lives. Basically, the practice is between health professionals and individuals with health care needs. However, unlike clinics and hospitals where individuals have no connection with the healthcare professionals, the system is founded on a mutual understanding between the professional and the patient. One important part of this treatment is the daily living model which focuses on the living requirements of individuals. The model is made holistic other factors such as biology, psychology etc. However, all this should be as per the medical requirements of an individual.
 
 
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