Abstract
Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) is dangerous predicament that is experienced by persons who have been involved in traumatizing events, either directly or indirectly. The condition has a mental bearing and possesses greater potential in affecting an individual’s standard way of life and those diagnosed with it should be attended to as first as possible and more so if they are victims of child abuse. This is for the reason that it has the potential to leave far-reaching consequences on an individual if not attended to.
In this paper, issues of concern in regards to post-traumatic stress syndrome among victims of child abuse are primed; in addition, therapy methods applied to assist such victims in recovering are briefed.  In addition, statistics showing the extent of child abuse and the resulting effects of post-traumatic stress syndrome are highlighted. Over and above that, different therapy methods utilized in assisting victims of child abuse are explained.
Different forms of research methodologies such as the use of questionnaires, interviews, correlational research and intensive literature review of existing literature are utilized. This paper comes to a number of conclusions, one; it has been concluded that post-traumatic stress syndrome is a common condition faced by victims of child abuse. Two, it has also been found that not all victims of child abuse suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome as a number of factors such as the age of the child play a crucial role. A number of recommendations are made among which is the need for governments to educate the general public of the risk, abuse of young children has towards causing PTSD.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acknowledgement
First, I would like to thank my family for the help and support they have accorded me throughout my academic life up to this moment. They have been at my side in every step of the way.  Last but not least the help of friends and mates is highly appreciated.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table of contents
Key words
Chapter 1.  Introduction
Background Information………………………………………………………….Page 5
Problem Statement………………………………………………………………. page 6
Purpose Statement………………………………………………………………. Page 6
Nature of the Study……………………………………………………………… page 6
Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………..Page 7
Research Questions……………………………………………………………….Page 7
Assumptions………………………………………………………………………Page 8
Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………….. Page 8
Limitations……………………………………………………………………….. Page 8
Chapter 2.  Literature Review
                        General Information……………………………………………………….Page 9
Forms of post-traumatic stress syndrome………………………………….Page 9
Symptoms of Post-traumatic stress syndrome …………………………….Page10
Therapy methods…………………………………………………………..Page 11
Chapter 3. Methodologies
Research Methodology……………………………………………………………. Page 15
Chapter 4. Results………………………………………………………………..……….Page 18
Chapter 5. Conclusion and Recommendation ………………………………………….Page 23
References…………………………………………………………………………………Page 24
 
 
Key words (Post traumatic stress syndrome, therapy methods in child abuse, Child abuse,
           Victims of abuse)
 
Chapter 1. Introduction
Background Information
In life, people undergo a lot of situations that end up affecting them both physically and psychologically. Although the latter is internal and is rarely seen by the general public, the former is vivid on display, and people can easily resonate with it. This, therefore, makes it easy to overcome physical challenges as opposed to psychological problems. The fact that mental issues are rarely seen on the outside means that more often than not an individual suffering from them will have to deal with them all alone (Davydov, 2009). This ends up escalating the situations to extreme levels, more so to those people who are silent and not good at opening up to others to share personal things concerning what could be agonizing them. Such issues are not limited to adults as children have also been recorded to being victims of these tribulations. Among children, causes are diverse and include issues to do with molestation, for instance, rape or even loss of a loved one such as a parent. A child undergoing such matters has a probability of suffering mental anguish for a considerable period of time, and if not checked, it could develop to post-traumatic stress syndrome (Pynoos, Frederick, Nader, Arroyo, Steinberg, Eth & Fairbanks, 2007). A condition that is very volatile that if not checked it can quickly make one lose his mind which may develop further to one being insane. To be of assistance to young ones, and specifically child abuse victims, different therapeutic methods have been designed to facilitate them in recuperating in the journey of regaining back initial way of life; some of which will be highlighted in the course of writing this research work.
Problem Statement 
Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) is a predicament that is experienced by many people in all sectors all over the world. Though not talked about a lot, it has continued to affect families who have heard to grapple with the repercussions it breeds. The highest price has mostly been paid by families who have had to deal with this situation when their children have had to endure it, more so if they are victims of child abuse. Numerous therapeutic methods have been developed whose effectiveness has remained a topic of discussion among many. Over and above that, there seems to be a huge gap in literature concerning PTSD, something that has left many unaware of the existence of this perilous condition
Purpose Statement
For reasons stated above, it has emerged as an upright need and matter of urgency to analyze Post-traumatic stress syndrome apropos to the effectiveness of therapeutic methods utilized to assist victims of child abuse. This is imperative if child abuse victims are to be facilitated to regaining their initial lives after they have undergone misuse with success, and hence the principle purposes of this research work. In addition, this research work is intended to further existing literature concerning post-traumatic stress syndrome and to bridge existing gaps in terms of knowledge regarding PTSD and therapeutic methods that are adopted to help child abuse victims.
Nature of the Study
This research work will be primarily collapsed to an intensive literature review in conjunction with the use of different research methodologies such as the use of questionnaires and administration of interviews. This will come in handy in supplementing the gathering of information and data used in this study. Moreover, these will aid in the shedding of more light in regards to PTSD condition, and its effects. Over and above that, correlational research, which is defined as the relation between two variables will be utilized in correlating PTSD and therapeutic methods used to assist victims of child abuse. This is vital as it will bring out the correlation between PTSD and therapy methods among children.
Scope of the Study                                                                                                          
This research work includes background information in regards to post-traumatic stress syndrome and therapeutic methods that are applied to assist child abuse victims. Such abuses will be stated and elaborated in brief. In addition, the relationship between the two, that is, PTSD and therapeutic methods will be highlighted. In addition, the workability and challenges encountered during the implementation of the above will be acknowledged. Over and above that, limitations faced in the course of compiling this research work in conjunction with assumptions adopted by the writer will be highlighted. In conjunction with this will be the evaluation of several theories propagated by different authors concerning this topic, in the end, a concluding paragraph will be derived from the research work, from which then, the objective of this work will have been achieved.
Research Questions
(1). Is Post traumatic stress syndrome a common condition that affects many?
(2). Is the condition a preserve of adults only or are children also victims of the
same?
(3). To what extent do child abuse victims exhibit post-traumatic stress syndrome?
(4). Are therapeutic methods employed to assist child abuse victims overcome post
Traumatic Stress syndrome working or not and why?
 
Assumptions
In the begging stages of writing this paper, the following assumptions were adopted.
(1). Post-traumatic stress syndrome affects many people but they are not aware.
(2). It is very difficult to realize or know when a child is suffering from this condition.
(3). All child abuse victims suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome.
Hypothesis
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is major manifestation of child abuse victims. And as a response to this, several therapeutic methods have been developed. It is however imperative to note that not all child abuse victim’s show evidence of this condition, and if exhibited in some, it is essential to note that it may not always be a consequence of abuse; as other reasons may have contributed.
Limitations
The limited time frame did not warrant the writer to carry out extensive research. Over and above that, movements of the writer were limited as the same challenge did not allow the writer to travel as he would have required in the search for answers to some of the research questions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 2.  Literature Review
General Information
Yehuda (2002) defines post-traumatic stress syndrome as a condition of the mind that develops when a person, young or old, experiences traumatizing events, such as warfare, accident, sexual assault, the sudden death of a loved one, or other threats that are life-threatening. For one to suffer from this condition, you don’t have to personally experience the traumatizing events directly as witnessing has also been recorded to trigger post-traumatic stress syndrome.
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is a common condition among military personnel, as documented by Pynoos et al. who holds the belief that, it arises among military personnel as a consequence of physical damage to the brain caused by frequent blasts encountered during combat. Feelings of fear are natural among people, and they play a crucial role in the survival of man. It is fear that triggers sudden changes in the body that help to guard against eminent danger. What in biology is generally known as fight or flight mechanism, an essential reaction that shields a person from harm as he responds in one of the two ways (Taylor, Klein, Lewis, Gruenewald, Gurung & Updegraff, 2012). It is a distinct course that all people will experience a myriad of reactions after trauma, but it is expected of them to exhibit such feelings just for a while and then recover naturally. It becomes disheartening when these feelings last longer than three months and cause one great distress. It is however imperative to note that, it is those who continue to experience these problems for long that are said to be suffering from PTSD.
Forms of Post-traumatic stress syndrome
PTSD occurs in three ways; it can either be acute which means short-term, chronic which is ongoing or delayed on-set PTSD. Symptoms have been recorded by Lepine & Darves-Bornoz (2012) to suffice three months after the occurrence of the traumatizing event. In some instances, however, they could emerge years after the event, reasons for this are not yet known. Once symptoms are generated, and for one to be quoted as suffering from PTSD, the symptoms should occur on a continuous basis for at least one month and affect an individual’s way of life in terms of work and daily relationship with others. People who have experienced interpersonal traumas such as rape or child molestation are more likely to suffer from PTSD compared to those who have suffered non-assault based traumas such as accidents.
Symptoms of Post-traumatic stress syndrome                                                     
Symptoms of PTSD are classified into three major categories. One, re-experiencing symptoms, this are flashbacks of the traumatizing event that one experiences from time to time and elicits the same kind of fear that one had when they first experienced the traumatizing event. Apart from flashbacks, they also suffice as bad dreams or frightening thoughts. The problem with re-experiencing symptoms is that they may affect an individual’s daily routine in a significant way. Staying away from things and situations that reminds one of the traumatizing events is an excellent way to overcome them (Ehlers, Hackmann & Michael, 2004). Second are arousal symptoms, arousal symptoms include psychological and physiological conditions and are characterized by one, feeling tensed, having difficulties in sleeping, having angry outbursts, insomnia, difficult in maintaining concentration and a constant feeling of danger. These feelings are persistent and are not triggered by anything. They occur on a routine basis, although they have been recorded to occur randomly (Perry, 2004). Third are cognition symptoms, they have the tendency to make a person feel alienated from those people who have been close to them in terms of relationship such as family members. Cognition symptoms are very dangerous, and they mostly lead to depression if not managed early. Accompanying feelings include feelings of guilt or loss of interests to those things that one initially enjoyed.
The impact of harrowing events contributes far-reaching consequences among children than adults. According to Shannon et al., effects on children may lead to psychological problems that could affect the child growth pattern. This is not only because the child has little emotional resources to cope, but because the child’s development is significantly hampered. To illustrate, take two scenarios, one concerning an adult and the other one involving a child. If both suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome, there is a high probability that once they have healed, the adult will return to his usual way of life, there is, however, a high probability that the child will not. And will end up getting knocked off his development path therefore ultimately, lagging behind in terms of growth and development compared to his age mates. Pfefferbaum (2007) further argues that children suffer more if the perpetrator of the abuse is a close family member, say a parent or sibling as opposed to a neighbor. As against this, Widom (2009) is of the opinion that regardless of the perpetrator, the suffering emanating after that is the same.
Therapy methods
Several therapeutic methods have been formulated to assist child abuse victims undergoing PTSD among which Eye movement and Reprocessing (EMDR) method is one. Although this treatment method had been formulated to treat adults, it has been extended to children with success. The process is based on the principle of reducing long-term effects of nerve-racking memories by developing adaptive coping mechanisms thereby causing the brain to relieve present symptoms. The method involves having the child recollect distressing memories while receiving side by side eye movements, which functions as a respective sensory input. To illustrate, the child could be made to develop saccadic eye movements, which can be generated for example by having the therapists move his fingers or hand side by side and having the child follow the schedule until there is a reduction in disturbance emanating from the trauma (Wilson, Becker & Tinker, 2005).
When dealing with children or adolescents who have been assaulted sexually, group therapy is the treatment of choice. This method is based on the premise that, groups create a conducive environment where victims of sexual exploitation or any other abuse are able to meet, share and interact with other victims. Yalom and Leszcz (2005) are of the opinion that group therapy provides extra benefits compared to individual therapy for the reason that it is able to raise psychological and empowerment levels above other therapies, this fastens the healing process. In addition, as more time is spent in a group, there is development of more trust and connection which goes a long way to making people heal. This is very vital mostly among children. Over and above that, the greatest strength of group therapy is commonality; it comes with the advantage of helping children overcome feelings of shame while sharing their experiences as a majority of those around them have undergone the same. This is of paramount importance as it erodes causal indignity associated with sexual abuse.
Systems theory and betrayal is another therapeutic system that is commonly utilized to assist victims of sexual abuse. To start with, it is vital to understand that, a boundary insulates all components making up the system by protecting them from external elements that may interfere with the system (Karakurt & Silver, 2014). When a child is molested sexually, it is clear that both their sexual and physical health is broken through such heinous acts. This expresses a failing in the family systems ability to espouse appropriate relationships, and as a result of this failure, room is created where sexual abuses are propagated, and once it has occurred a betrayal in terms of broken boundaries suffices. This therapy method aims to amend this betrayal by making the child realize that he was not responsible for the abuse and that, the abuse shouldn’t mean that his family does not matter. This is important for some children tend to inhibit feelings of guilt as they blame themselves as they think that they could have done something to prevent what be fell them (Karakurt & Silver, 2014).
Social learning theory attempts to explain the behavior of child abuse victims. The method is based on the following premises, one that children learn by getting rewarded for the actions they commit and two that children learn by imitating actions of the people surrounding them. This theory tends to explain the life of victims of child abuse, in that, as they grow into adulthood, through these two mechanisms, there is always a possibility of them being perpetrators of the same kind of abuses that they were subjected to when they were young. This is because they might grow with the thought that it is always okay to take advantage of other people (Rotter, Chance & Phares, 2012). The cycle of molestation, if repeated continuously in a family tends to breed what is known as the cycle of violence or what is commonly referred to as intergenerational transmission of violence. The generality of this theory is however limited by the fact that only 20-30% of child abuse victims demonstrate the same behaviors when they are grown, adults. Interventions promoted through the adoption of social learning theory have the ability to bring to an end future child abuse and disregard when both the parent and the child are encouraged to develop effective relationship skills which should further be promoted in the family.
Recommended treatment of choice for children suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome is cognitive treatment therapy, also referred to as talking therapy. It has been identified as the most efficient treatment method to adopt for school going children. Cognitive treatment therapy is based on the proposition that many people, when bad things happen to them tend to steer clear of everything related to the situation,  and they accomplish this by avoiding thinking or talking about the situation altogether. The treatment method is based on the proposition to support children and young ones to talk and express their feelings in regards to the traumatic event voluntarily without coercion; this is intended to making them make sense of what happened as they talk about it. After this has been done, parents are required to keep on encouraging the affected children to express themselves freely until they accept that the situation occurred and that it was not their fault so that they move on (Foa & Rothbaum, 2001).
To further understand how children behaviors are developed. Pynoos et al. as referenced by Barkley (2011), holds the view that children behaviors are generated depending on how caregivers nurture them, and the type of bond formed between the child and the caregiver will affect how they relate to other people. According to Gilligan (2016), relationship bonds are eventuated in four types, secure, preoccupied, dismissive or fearful. 80% of abused children exhibit insecure behaviors while relating with people. As against this, secure attachments are an aftermath of consistent and appropriate nurturing. Parents who have their children raised by nannies can look at such behavioral changes as a pointer of ongoing abuse. Care should, however, be taken not to misinterpret some of the changes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 3
Research methodology
A comprehensive literature review was conducted to derive both published and unpublished papers addressing the subject matter of this paper. The former were mostly used while the latter were used to obtain general information which played a key role in shaping this work. Searches were done on Google and Google scholar using the following keywords. “Post-traumatic stress syndrome”, “therapy methods in child abuse”, “Child abuse” and the words “victims of abuse.” Titles of emerging articles and publication were read and noted to eliminate duplication in the subsequent process. During the screening process, both the titles and the accompanying abstracts were read to determine the eligibility of the papers for full consideration. In the case of the keywords, post-traumatic stress syndrome, full articles and reports were obtained and scanned through to determine their appropriateness. This was done in recognition of the aim of this paper to which it formed a vital part. All documents selected for evaluation were those that had information on, post-traumatic stress syndrome among children, effects of PTSD and statistics of PTSD to name a few. At full assessment, particular attention was given to make the most of each paper. Over and above that, references accompanying these documents provided an extra opportunity to interrogate further information derived, as a majority of the referenced papers were searched, some obtained and utilized in compiling this research work. Several benefits came with the adoption of literature review as a research methodology aid. To begin with, the writer was, able to understand the current state of research in regards to post-traumatic stress syndrome and therapy methods in child abuse, key questions in need of further research were identified, and finally, methodologies used in past studies were identified and incorporated in this work. Of note is that intensive literature review was the primary research methodology adopted and the rest were only utilized to supplement it.
Questionnaires were formulated to reflect the research questions highlighted initially. The survey was worded in such a way to reflect both open-ended and closed-ended questions. And can, therefore, be said to have embraced, both quantitative and qualitative approach as the writer was able to quantify some of the data to generate some statistics. In addition, answers obtained through open-ended questions were analyzed quantitatively (Peterson, 2015).  Advantages that were realized using this research methodology included faster data collection, low-cost consideration in conjunction with the ability to collect a significant amount of data from a vast pool of people, ability to analyze the answers more objectively and the advantage of comparing data obtained with facts from past researchers. Shortcomings included the inability to tell how authentic a respondent was and the validity of the data collected from them. This comes from the fact that, determining whether a person is saying the truth from mere observation is a challenge; moreover, the fact that some people gave contradicting responses worsened the shortcomings.
Interviews also played an important part of this research paper. An interview is defined as a conversation where one person asks questions and another answers them. They therefore basically involve transfer of information between two people. They can take place face to face but with modern day technological improvement, they can happen even where there is geographical separation. Interviews are very efficient in getting information concerning an individual’s experiences for the reason that the interviewer is able to develop in depth conversation which makes the respondent open up and give out all the information he could be having. They came in handy while interrogating victims of child abuse and recovering post-traumatic stress victims.
Another research methodology that was utilized is what is referred to as correlational research. Correlational research is a type of research which is non-experimental in nature and measures two variables to establish their relationship (Slavin, 2012). This was done by analyzing the relationship between post-traumatic stress syndromes apropos to therapy methods utilized in child abuse victims. The advantage that comes with this method is that it allows the researcher to collect more data as opposed to other research methods. It also opens up more room for further research, over and above that, it allows the researcher to know the course of the relationship. This is important as it enables the researcher to narrow down on the findings being sought. The major shortcoming of this method comes from its ability to uncover a relationship but it fails to explain the reason for the relationship, between two things.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 4
 Results
From the research that has been carried out in the course of compiling this paper, a number of results were arrived at. And they included the understanding that child abuse is a global problem that is experienced in every country in the world. Statistics show that in the US in the year 2015, more than 1600 children died of abuse (Besharov, 2010). In addition, in the same year, children advocacy centers around the country served more than 300,000 child abuse victims by providing advocacy and other forms of support to the children and their families. In South Africa, it is recorded that children cases are very common, recent information that was released to the public pointed that at least one girl child is raped every three minutes (Besharov, 2010).
Zambian Health and Well-being survey concluded that two girls in five under 18 years of age suffer from constant rape throughout the country, and this emanates from a family member or somebody that is closely related to the family. Although these statistics are just from a few countries, the trend is expected to be the same in other countries (Hjortsberg & Mwikisa, 2012). Other statistics show that one child dies every day because of abuse, 90% victims of child abuse end up knowing the perpetrator at one point in their lives. Most of these perpetrators usually fall in the age brackets of 18-44 years and belong to the two genders (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015).
The question to consider now is how many child abuse victims end up developing post-traumatic stress syndrome as a result of the abuse. At this point, it is imperative to note that child abuse refers to non-accidental trauma or physical damage directed to a child, mostly voluntarily. There is, however, a thin line when one has to differentiate between child abuse and disciplining of a child by a parent. The difference between the two is very small. It is possible for a parent to be a strict disciplinarian and for his actions to end up being interpreted as child abuse which could be further from the truth.
The manner through which child abuse turns into Post-traumatic stress syndrome is a complicated process. But many researchers agree to the following propositions. One, victims of child abuse who blame themselves and their families for the abuse tend to present higher levels of PTSD. This is supported by research that was conducted in Spain where more than 1500 university student formed the research sample (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015). Blaming of one’s family for the abuse eventuates when a child mind fails to comprehend the reason why those who are meant to protect and care for them ends being the ones who are molesting them. Responses sought from other people in the course of compile this research work also pointed to that direction. This kind of victims exhibits different behaviors among which is avoidance coping. For example, they tend to sleep more than usual, ignore the problem and others result in drug and substance abuse when they get to teenage life. Abuse of drugs is usually embraced as a divisionary tack tick as teenagers try to overcome traumatizing events of yesteryears. Second, a large number of females are recorded to suffer from PTSD than males. This is as a result of high levels of female fragility when it comes to emotions.
It is however important to note that, the likely hood of females encountering traumatic events is less compared to males. In the same line, women who are likely to develop PTSD are those who have experienced a mental disorder such as depression, those who were injured during the event and those who experienced other stressful events afterwards. The fact that sexual abuse is the commonest form of abuse and it is very entangling only serves to show the risk with which the girl child grows in.
The reason why various victims of child abuse suffer from PTSD and others do not undergo any problem is hard to figure out. The following factors have however been identified to playing a crucial role in determining the same as elaborated by Scheeringa et al. and supported by Besharov (2010).One, the degree of the threat subjected to the child. Some threats are more life-threatening than others, and their repercussion is, therefore, bigger and long-lasting. Two, the stage of development of the child, very young children even when abused sexually, will rarely suffer from PTSD for the reason that they are not in a position to fathom or understand the misuse subjected to them. At certain age brackets, however, the child will undergo a lot of mental anguish that will ultimately lead to post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Three, the relationship of the perpetrator with the child, consequences coming from abuse by close family members are long lasting compared to those of a stranger and more so if the child gets to know of the person who abused them. Four, the degree of support accorded to the child in helping them recuperate; some are supported while others are left to recover on their own. If the latter is the case, adults can easily recover that way, but a child will, however, find it difficult because of one reason or another. Five, the resilience of the victims, some people have greater ability to cope with situations and will, as a result, recover from threatening experiences faster. Resilience among children is, however, difficult to identify.
From the research question of whether post-traumatic stress syndrome is a common condition that affects many? Results obtained point to the positive. To illustrate, using data collected regarding a country such as America. It is projected that about 7% of the American population will suffer from PTSD at one point in their lives. This includes both adults and children (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015). The statics also seem to support the initial assertion that women suffer from this condition more than men. Traumatic events include rape, combat exposure, neglect for young ones among others as stated in the initial parts of this paper. The question of whether the condition is a preserve of adults only has been answered in the negative as children have been found to suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome. However, the difficulty that comes with children is that it is very problematic to discern when a child is suffering, and this is for obvious reasons of age.
The research question in regards to the extent with which child abuse victims suffer from PTSD was answered in the initial parts of this paper. Of note were the contributing determinants which were observed to include the age of the child at the time of abuse with chances of PTSD development being high with older children compared to infants. And secondly, the relationship of the toddler with the perpetrator of the crime, with a close relationship like that of a family playing a significant role in causing PTSD. The final research question regarding the workability of therapy methods utilized to assist child abuse victim is answered in the following way. Once a victim of child abuse is diagnosed with post-traumatic stress syndrome, there is no other better way to treat the person apart from the use of therapy. Different therapeutic methods have been stated and deeply explained in regards to this. However, for therapy treatment to work, it must start from an individual’s willingness to accept help from another person.
To prevent post-traumatic stress syndrome development as a consequence of child abuses, it is essential to avoid the exploitation from happening in the first place. The best place to begin is to have governments investigate child abuse cases and bring those responsible to book, the penalty for abusing a child should be very grand that perpetrators are frightened of engaging in the vice in fear of the consequences that would result after that. Most governments have not tightened laws concerning these matters, and for this reason, many have continued to engage in this vice and utilized existing lacunas in law to evade arrest consequently propagating a miscarriage in justice. This is important in view of the fact that for long, the burden of prevention has rested on children who have been left on their own when it comes to fighting abuse. This has been done on the backdrop of the reality that children are very vulnerable and powerless in the face of an aggressive adult.
The following additional steps should also be utilized, one, the general public needs to be made aware of the existence and spread of child abuse practices, this is a good place, to begin with since many are not aware that this problem is rampant in their midst. Once it has been done, people should be encouraged to be on the forefront in minimizing this vice by protecting young ones collectively. This is imperative as the adage goes, it takes a village to raise a child. Moreover, abusers should be reported to the authority as a good number of them are usually known. To illustrate, 34% of the children are abused by family members and 59% of individuals who are taken to be trustworthy, with a minute search, they can easily be identified (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 5
 Conclusion and Recommendation
From the research that has been carried out in this paper, the following conclusions have been arrived at, one, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) is a common condition that affects both, the young and the old, and in order to assist victims of child abuse, several therapeutic methods have been developed. Two, therapy methods that have been designed are working, and their usage in helping victims of child abuse in recuperating should be promoted. Third, many people in the world do not take child abuse issues with the seriousness it deserves, and some have continued to protect perpetrators while a few have gone to the extent of propagating the same vice directly by abusing young ones. Fourth, a conclusion is made that post-traumatic stress syndrome is a severe problem among victims of child abuse, and the best way to prevent its occurrence is to begin by avoiding the maltreatment from happening in the first place.
The following recommendations are made, one, governments need to educate their people on the role child abuse plays in triggering PTSD, two, the effectiveness of therapeutic methods employed in rehabilitating young ones should be quantified and for this reason, future research work should collapse themselves to this. Finally, the objectives of this paper as correlated from the research questions were achieved.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Yalom, I. D. with Leszcz, M.(2005). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy5.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Post-traumatic stress syndrome
Name
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) is dangerous predicament that is experienced by persons who have been involved in traumatizing events, either directly or indirectly. The condition has a mental bearing and possesses greater potential in affecting an individual’s standard way of life and those diagnosed with it should be attended to as first as possible and more so if they are victims of child abuse. This is for the reason that it has the potential to leave far-reaching consequences on an individual if not attended to.
In this paper, issues of concern in regards to post-traumatic stress syndrome among victims of child abuse are primed; in addition, therapy methods applied to assist such victims in recovering are briefed.  In addition, statistics showing the extent of child abuse and the resulting effects of post-traumatic stress syndrome are highlighted. Over and above that, different therapy methods utilized in assisting victims of child abuse are explained.
Different forms of research methodologies such as the use of questionnaires, interviews, correlational research and intensive literature review of existing literature are utilized. This paper comes to a number of conclusions, one; it has been concluded that post-traumatic stress syndrome is a common condition faced by victims of child abuse. Two, it has also been found that not all victims of child abuse suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome as a number of factors such as the age of the child play a crucial role. A number of recommendations are made among which is the need for governments to educate the general public of the risk, abuse of young children has towards causing PTSD.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acknowledgement
First, I would like to thank my family for the help and support they have accorded me throughout my academic life up to this moment. They have been at my side in every step of the way.  Last but not least the help of friends and mates is highly appreciated.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table of contents
Key words
Chapter 1.  Introduction
Background Information………………………………………………………….Page 5
Problem Statement………………………………………………………………. page 6
Purpose Statement………………………………………………………………. Page 6
Nature of the Study……………………………………………………………… page 6
Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………..Page 7
Research Questions……………………………………………………………….Page 7
Assumptions………………………………………………………………………Page 8
Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………….. Page 8
Limitations……………………………………………………………………….. Page 8
Chapter 2.  Literature Review
                        General Information……………………………………………………….Page 9
Forms of post-traumatic stress syndrome………………………………….Page 9
Symptoms of Post-traumatic stress syndrome …………………………….Page10
Therapy methods…………………………………………………………..Page 11
Chapter 3. Methodologies
Research Methodology……………………………………………………………. Page 15
Chapter 4. Results………………………………………………………………..……….Page 18
Chapter 5. Conclusion and Recommendation ………………………………………….Page 23
References…………………………………………………………………………………Page 24
 
 
Key words (Post traumatic stress syndrome, therapy methods in child abuse, Child abuse,
           Victims of abuse)
 
Chapter 1. Introduction
Background Information
In life, people undergo a lot of situations that end up affecting them both physically and psychologically. Although the latter is internal and is rarely seen by the general public, the former is vivid on display, and people can easily resonate with it. This, therefore, makes it easy to overcome physical challenges as opposed to psychological problems. The fact that mental issues are rarely seen on the outside means that more often than not an individual suffering from them will have to deal with them all alone (Davydov, 2009). This ends up escalating the situations to extreme levels, more so to those people who are silent and not good at opening up to others to share personal things concerning what could be agonizing them. Such issues are not limited to adults as children have also been recorded to being victims of these tribulations. Among children, causes are diverse and include issues to do with molestation, for instance, rape or even loss of a loved one such as a parent. A child undergoing such matters has a probability of suffering mental anguish for a considerable period of time, and if not checked, it could develop to post-traumatic stress syndrome (Pynoos, Frederick, Nader, Arroyo, Steinberg, Eth & Fairbanks, 2007). A condition that is very volatile that if not checked it can quickly make one lose his mind which may develop further to one being insane. To be of assistance to young ones, and specifically child abuse victims, different therapeutic methods have been designed to facilitate them in recuperating in the journey of regaining back initial way of life; some of which will be highlighted in the course of writing this research work.
Problem Statement 
Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) is a predicament that is experienced by many people in all sectors all over the world. Though not talked about a lot, it has continued to affect families who have heard to grapple with the repercussions it breeds. The highest price has mostly been paid by families who have had to deal with this situation when their children have had to endure it, more so if they are victims of child abuse. Numerous therapeutic methods have been developed whose effectiveness has remained a topic of discussion among many. Over and above that, there seems to be a huge gap in literature concerning PTSD, something that has left many unaware of the existence of this perilous condition
Purpose Statement
For reasons stated above, it has emerged as an upright need and matter of urgency to analyze Post-traumatic stress syndrome apropos to the effectiveness of therapeutic methods utilized to assist victims of child abuse. This is imperative if child abuse victims are to be facilitated to regaining their initial lives after they have undergone misuse with success, and hence the principle purposes of this research work. In addition, this research work is intended to further existing literature concerning post-traumatic stress syndrome and to bridge existing gaps in terms of knowledge regarding PTSD and therapeutic methods that are adopted to help child abuse victims.
Nature of the Study
This research work will be primarily collapsed to an intensive literature review in conjunction with the use of different research methodologies such as the use of questionnaires and administration of interviews. This will come in handy in supplementing the gathering of information and data used in this study. Moreover, these will aid in the shedding of more light in regards to PTSD condition, and its effects. Over and above that, correlational research, which is defined as the relation between two variables will be utilized in correlating PTSD and therapeutic methods used to assist victims of child abuse. This is vital as it will bring out the correlation between PTSD and therapy methods among children.
Scope of the Study                                                                                                          
This research work includes background information in regards to post-traumatic stress syndrome and therapeutic methods that are applied to assist child abuse victims. Such abuses will be stated and elaborated in brief. In addition, the relationship between the two, that is, PTSD and therapeutic methods will be highlighted. In addition, the workability and challenges encountered during the implementation of the above will be acknowledged. Over and above that, limitations faced in the course of compiling this research work in conjunction with assumptions adopted by the writer will be highlighted. In conjunction with this will be the evaluation of several theories propagated by different authors concerning this topic, in the end, a concluding paragraph will be derived from the research work, from which then, the objective of this work will have been achieved.
Research Questions
(1). Is Post traumatic stress syndrome a common condition that affects many?
(2). Is the condition a preserve of adults only or are children also victims of the
same?
(3). To what extent do child abuse victims exhibit post-traumatic stress syndrome?
(4). Are therapeutic methods employed to assist child abuse victims overcome post
Traumatic Stress syndrome working or not and why?
 
Assumptions
In the begging stages of writing this paper, the following assumptions were adopted.
(1). Post-traumatic stress syndrome affects many people but they are not aware.
(2). It is very difficult to realize or know when a child is suffering from this condition.
(3). All child abuse victims suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome.
Hypothesis
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is major manifestation of child abuse victims. And as a response to this, several therapeutic methods have been developed. It is however imperative to note that not all child abuse victim’s show evidence of this condition, and if exhibited in some, it is essential to note that it may not always be a consequence of abuse; as other reasons may have contributed.
Limitations
The limited time frame did not warrant the writer to carry out extensive research. Over and above that, movements of the writer were limited as the same challenge did not allow the writer to travel as he would have required in the search for answers to some of the research questions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 2.  Literature Review
General Information
Yehuda (2002) defines post-traumatic stress syndrome as a condition of the mind that develops when a person, young or old, experiences traumatizing events, such as warfare, accident, sexual assault, the sudden death of a loved one, or other threats that are life-threatening. For one to suffer from this condition, you don’t have to personally experience the traumatizing events directly as witnessing has also been recorded to trigger post-traumatic stress syndrome.
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is a common condition among military personnel, as documented by Pynoos et al. who holds the belief that, it arises among military personnel as a consequence of physical damage to the brain caused by frequent blasts encountered during combat. Feelings of fear are natural among people, and they play a crucial role in the survival of man. It is fear that triggers sudden changes in the body that help to guard against eminent danger. What in biology is generally known as fight or flight mechanism, an essential reaction that shields a person from harm as he responds in one of the two ways (Taylor, Klein, Lewis, Gruenewald, Gurung & Updegraff, 2012). It is a distinct course that all people will experience a myriad of reactions after trauma, but it is expected of them to exhibit such feelings just for a while and then recover naturally. It becomes disheartening when these feelings last longer than three months and cause one great distress. It is however imperative to note that, it is those who continue to experience these problems for long that are said to be suffering from PTSD.
Forms of Post-traumatic stress syndrome
PTSD occurs in three ways; it can either be acute which means short-term, chronic which is ongoing or delayed on-set PTSD. Symptoms have been recorded by Lepine & Darves-Bornoz (2012) to suffice three months after the occurrence of the traumatizing event. In some instances, however, they could emerge years after the event, reasons for this are not yet known. Once symptoms are generated, and for one to be quoted as suffering from PTSD, the symptoms should occur on a continuous basis for at least one month and affect an individual’s way of life in terms of work and daily relationship with others. People who have experienced interpersonal traumas such as rape or child molestation are more likely to suffer from PTSD compared to those who have suffered non-assault based traumas such as accidents.
Symptoms of Post-traumatic stress syndrome                                                     
Symptoms of PTSD are classified into three major categories. One, re-experiencing symptoms, this are flashbacks of the traumatizing event that one experiences from time to time and elicits the same kind of fear that one had when they first experienced the traumatizing event. Apart from flashbacks, they also suffice as bad dreams or frightening thoughts. The problem with re-experiencing symptoms is that they may affect an individual’s daily routine in a significant way. Staying away from things and situations that reminds one of the traumatizing events is an excellent way to overcome them (Ehlers, Hackmann & Michael, 2004). Second are arousal symptoms, arousal symptoms include psychological and physiological conditions and are characterized by one, feeling tensed, having difficulties in sleeping, having angry outbursts, insomnia, difficult in maintaining concentration and a constant feeling of danger. These feelings are persistent and are not triggered by anything. They occur on a routine basis, although they have been recorded to occur randomly (Perry, 2004). Third are cognition symptoms, they have the tendency to make a person feel alienated from those people who have been close to them in terms of relationship such as family members. Cognition symptoms are very dangerous, and they mostly lead to depression if not managed early. Accompanying feelings include feelings of guilt or loss of interests to those things that one initially enjoyed.
The impact of harrowing events contributes far-reaching consequences among children than adults. According to Shannon et al., effects on children may lead to psychological problems that could affect the child growth pattern. This is not only because the child has little emotional resources to cope, but because the child’s development is significantly hampered. To illustrate, take two scenarios, one concerning an adult and the other one involving a child. If both suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome, there is a high probability that once they have healed, the adult will return to his usual way of life, there is, however, a high probability that the child will not. And will end up getting knocked off his development path therefore ultimately, lagging behind in terms of growth and development compared to his age mates. Pfefferbaum (2007) further argues that children suffer more if the perpetrator of the abuse is a close family member, say a parent or sibling as opposed to a neighbor. As against this, Widom (2009) is of the opinion that regardless of the perpetrator, the suffering emanating after that is the same.
Therapy methods
Several therapeutic methods have been formulated to assist child abuse victims undergoing PTSD among which Eye movement and Reprocessing (EMDR) method is one. Although this treatment method had been formulated to treat adults, it has been extended to children with success. The process is based on the principle of reducing long-term effects of nerve-racking memories by developing adaptive coping mechanisms thereby causing the brain to relieve present symptoms. The method involves having the child recollect distressing memories while receiving side by side eye movements, which functions as a respective sensory input. To illustrate, the child could be made to develop saccadic eye movements, which can be generated for example by having the therapists move his fingers or hand side by side and having the child follow the schedule until there is a reduction in disturbance emanating from the trauma (Wilson, Becker & Tinker, 2005).
When dealing with children or adolescents who have been assaulted sexually, group therapy is the treatment of choice. This method is based on the premise that, groups create a conducive environment where victims of sexual exploitation or any other abuse are able to meet, share and interact with other victims. Yalom and Leszcz (2005) are of the opinion that group therapy provides extra benefits compared to individual therapy for the reason that it is able to raise psychological and empowerment levels above other therapies, this fastens the healing process. In addition, as more time is spent in a group, there is development of more trust and connection which goes a long way to making people heal. This is very vital mostly among children. Over and above that, the greatest strength of group therapy is commonality; it comes with the advantage of helping children overcome feelings of shame while sharing their experiences as a majority of those around them have undergone the same. This is of paramount importance as it erodes causal indignity associated with sexual abuse.
Systems theory and betrayal is another therapeutic system that is commonly utilized to assist victims of sexual abuse. To start with, it is vital to understand that, a boundary insulates all components making up the system by protecting them from external elements that may interfere with the system (Karakurt & Silver, 2014). When a child is molested sexually, it is clear that both their sexual and physical health is broken through such heinous acts. This expresses a failing in the family systems ability to espouse appropriate relationships, and as a result of this failure, room is created where sexual abuses are propagated, and once it has occurred a betrayal in terms of broken boundaries suffices. This therapy method aims to amend this betrayal by making the child realize that he was not responsible for the abuse and that, the abuse shouldn’t mean that his family does not matter. This is important for some children tend to inhibit feelings of guilt as they blame themselves as they think that they could have done something to prevent what be fell them (Karakurt & Silver, 2014).
Social learning theory attempts to explain the behavior of child abuse victims. The method is based on the following premises, one that children learn by getting rewarded for the actions they commit and two that children learn by imitating actions of the people surrounding them. This theory tends to explain the life of victims of child abuse, in that, as they grow into adulthood, through these two mechanisms, there is always a possibility of them being perpetrators of the same kind of abuses that they were subjected to when they were young. This is because they might grow with the thought that it is always okay to take advantage of other people (Rotter, Chance & Phares, 2012). The cycle of molestation, if repeated continuously in a family tends to breed what is known as the cycle of violence or what is commonly referred to as intergenerational transmission of violence. The generality of this theory is however limited by the fact that only 20-30% of child abuse victims demonstrate the same behaviors when they are grown, adults. Interventions promoted through the adoption of social learning theory have the ability to bring to an end future child abuse and disregard when both the parent and the child are encouraged to develop effective relationship skills which should further be promoted in the family.
Recommended treatment of choice for children suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome is cognitive treatment therapy, also referred to as talking therapy. It has been identified as the most efficient treatment method to adopt for school going children. Cognitive treatment therapy is based on the proposition that many people, when bad things happen to them tend to steer clear of everything related to the situation,  and they accomplish this by avoiding thinking or talking about the situation altogether. The treatment method is based on the proposition to support children and young ones to talk and express their feelings in regards to the traumatic event voluntarily without coercion; this is intended to making them make sense of what happened as they talk about it. After this has been done, parents are required to keep on encouraging the affected children to express themselves freely until they accept that the situation occurred and that it was not their fault so that they move on (Foa & Rothbaum, 2001).
To further understand how children behaviors are developed. Pynoos et al. as referenced by Barkley (2011), holds the view that children behaviors are generated depending on how caregivers nurture them, and the type of bond formed between the child and the caregiver will affect how they relate to other people. According to Gilligan (2016), relationship bonds are eventuated in four types, secure, preoccupied, dismissive or fearful. 80% of abused children exhibit insecure behaviors while relating with people. As against this, secure attachments are an aftermath of consistent and appropriate nurturing. Parents who have their children raised by nannies can look at such behavioral changes as a pointer of ongoing abuse. Care should, however, be taken not to misinterpret some of the changes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 3
Research methodology
A comprehensive literature review was conducted to derive both published and unpublished papers addressing the subject matter of this paper. The former were mostly used while the latter were used to obtain general information which played a key role in shaping this work. Searches were done on Google and Google scholar using the following keywords. “Post-traumatic stress syndrome”, “therapy methods in child abuse”, “Child abuse” and the words “victims of abuse.” Titles of emerging articles and publication were read and noted to eliminate duplication in the subsequent process. During the screening process, both the titles and the accompanying abstracts were read to determine the eligibility of the papers for full consideration. In the case of the keywords, post-traumatic stress syndrome, full articles and reports were obtained and scanned through to determine their appropriateness. This was done in recognition of the aim of this paper to which it formed a vital part. All documents selected for evaluation were those that had information on, post-traumatic stress syndrome among children, effects of PTSD and statistics of PTSD to name a few. At full assessment, particular attention was given to make the most of each paper. Over and above that, references accompanying these documents provided an extra opportunity to interrogate further information derived, as a majority of the referenced papers were searched, some obtained and utilized in compiling this research work. Several benefits came with the adoption of literature review as a research methodology aid. To begin with, the writer was, able to understand the current state of research in regards to post-traumatic stress syndrome and therapy methods in child abuse, key questions in need of further research were identified, and finally, methodologies used in past studies were identified and incorporated in this work. Of note is that intensive literature review was the primary research methodology adopted and the rest were only utilized to supplement it.
Questionnaires were formulated to reflect the research questions highlighted initially. The survey was worded in such a way to reflect both open-ended and closed-ended questions. And can, therefore, be said to have embraced, both quantitative and qualitative approach as the writer was able to quantify some of the data to generate some statistics. In addition, answers obtained through open-ended questions were analyzed quantitatively (Peterson, 2015).  Advantages that were realized using this research methodology included faster data collection, low-cost consideration in conjunction with the ability to collect a significant amount of data from a vast pool of people, ability to analyze the answers more objectively and the advantage of comparing data obtained with facts from past researchers. Shortcomings included the inability to tell how authentic a respondent was and the validity of the data collected from them. This comes from the fact that, determining whether a person is saying the truth from mere observation is a challenge; moreover, the fact that some people gave contradicting responses worsened the shortcomings.
Interviews also played an important part of this research paper. An interview is defined as a conversation where one person asks questions and another answers them. They therefore basically involve transfer of information between two people. They can take place face to face but with modern day technological improvement, they can happen even where there is geographical separation. Interviews are very efficient in getting information concerning an individual’s experiences for the reason that the interviewer is able to develop in depth conversation which makes the respondent open up and give out all the information he could be having. They came in handy while interrogating victims of child abuse and recovering post-traumatic stress victims.
Another research methodology that was utilized is what is referred to as correlational research. Correlational research is a type of research which is non-experimental in nature and measures two variables to establish their relationship (Slavin, 2012). This was done by analyzing the relationship between post-traumatic stress syndromes apropos to therapy methods utilized in child abuse victims. The advantage that comes with this method is that it allows the researcher to collect more data as opposed to other research methods. It also opens up more room for further research, over and above that, it allows the researcher to know the course of the relationship. This is important as it enables the researcher to narrow down on the findings being sought. The major shortcoming of this method comes from its ability to uncover a relationship but it fails to explain the reason for the relationship, between two things.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 4
 Results
From the research that has been carried out in the course of compiling this paper, a number of results were arrived at. And they included the understanding that child abuse is a global problem that is experienced in every country in the world. Statistics show that in the US in the year 2015, more than 1600 children died of abuse (Besharov, 2010). In addition, in the same year, children advocacy centers around the country served more than 300,000 child abuse victims by providing advocacy and other forms of support to the children and their families. In South Africa, it is recorded that children cases are very common, recent information that was released to the public pointed that at least one girl child is raped every three minutes (Besharov, 2010).
Zambian Health and Well-being survey concluded that two girls in five under 18 years of age suffer from constant rape throughout the country, and this emanates from a family member or somebody that is closely related to the family. Although these statistics are just from a few countries, the trend is expected to be the same in other countries (Hjortsberg & Mwikisa, 2012). Other statistics show that one child dies every day because of abuse, 90% victims of child abuse end up knowing the perpetrator at one point in their lives. Most of these perpetrators usually fall in the age brackets of 18-44 years and belong to the two genders (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015).
The question to consider now is how many child abuse victims end up developing post-traumatic stress syndrome as a result of the abuse. At this point, it is imperative to note that child abuse refers to non-accidental trauma or physical damage directed to a child, mostly voluntarily. There is, however, a thin line when one has to differentiate between child abuse and disciplining of a child by a parent. The difference between the two is very small. It is possible for a parent to be a strict disciplinarian and for his actions to end up being interpreted as child abuse which could be further from the truth.
The manner through which child abuse turns into Post-traumatic stress syndrome is a complicated process. But many researchers agree to the following propositions. One, victims of child abuse who blame themselves and their families for the abuse tend to present higher levels of PTSD. This is supported by research that was conducted in Spain where more than 1500 university student formed the research sample (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015). Blaming of one’s family for the abuse eventuates when a child mind fails to comprehend the reason why those who are meant to protect and care for them ends being the ones who are molesting them. Responses sought from other people in the course of compile this research work also pointed to that direction. This kind of victims exhibits different behaviors among which is avoidance coping. For example, they tend to sleep more than usual, ignore the problem and others result in drug and substance abuse when they get to teenage life. Abuse of drugs is usually embraced as a divisionary tack tick as teenagers try to overcome traumatizing events of yesteryears. Second, a large number of females are recorded to suffer from PTSD than males. This is as a result of high levels of female fragility when it comes to emotions.
It is however important to note that, the likely hood of females encountering traumatic events is less compared to males. In the same line, women who are likely to develop PTSD are those who have experienced a mental disorder such as depression, those who were injured during the event and those who experienced other stressful events afterwards. The fact that sexual abuse is the commonest form of abuse and it is very entangling only serves to show the risk with which the girl child grows in.
The reason why various victims of child abuse suffer from PTSD and others do not undergo any problem is hard to figure out. The following factors have however been identified to playing a crucial role in determining the same as elaborated by Scheeringa et al. and supported by Besharov (2010).One, the degree of the threat subjected to the child. Some threats are more life-threatening than others, and their repercussion is, therefore, bigger and long-lasting. Two, the stage of development of the child, very young children even when abused sexually, will rarely suffer from PTSD for the reason that they are not in a position to fathom or understand the misuse subjected to them. At certain age brackets, however, the child will undergo a lot of mental anguish that will ultimately lead to post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Three, the relationship of the perpetrator with the child, consequences coming from abuse by close family members are long lasting compared to those of a stranger and more so if the child gets to know of the person who abused them. Four, the degree of support accorded to the child in helping them recuperate; some are supported while others are left to recover on their own. If the latter is the case, adults can easily recover that way, but a child will, however, find it difficult because of one reason or another. Five, the resilience of the victims, some people have greater ability to cope with situations and will, as a result, recover from threatening experiences faster. Resilience among children is, however, difficult to identify.
From the research question of whether post-traumatic stress syndrome is a common condition that affects many? Results obtained point to the positive. To illustrate, using data collected regarding a country such as America. It is projected that about 7% of the American population will suffer from PTSD at one point in their lives. This includes both adults and children (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015). The statics also seem to support the initial assertion that women suffer from this condition more than men. Traumatic events include rape, combat exposure, neglect for young ones among others as stated in the initial parts of this paper. The question of whether the condition is a preserve of adults only has been answered in the negative as children have been found to suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome. However, the difficulty that comes with children is that it is very problematic to discern when a child is suffering, and this is for obvious reasons of age.
The research question in regards to the extent with which child abuse victims suffer from PTSD was answered in the initial parts of this paper. Of note were the contributing determinants which were observed to include the age of the child at the time of abuse with chances of PTSD development being high with older children compared to infants. And secondly, the relationship of the toddler with the perpetrator of the crime, with a close relationship like that of a family playing a significant role in causing PTSD. The final research question regarding the workability of therapy methods utilized to assist child abuse victim is answered in the following way. Once a victim of child abuse is diagnosed with post-traumatic stress syndrome, there is no other better way to treat the person apart from the use of therapy. Different therapeutic methods have been stated and deeply explained in regards to this. However, for therapy treatment to work, it must start from an individual’s willingness to accept help from another person.
To prevent post-traumatic stress syndrome development as a consequence of child abuses, it is essential to avoid the exploitation from happening in the first place. The best place to begin is to have governments investigate child abuse cases and bring those responsible to book, the penalty for abusing a child should be very grand that perpetrators are frightened of engaging in the vice in fear of the consequences that would result after that. Most governments have not tightened laws concerning these matters, and for this reason, many have continued to engage in this vice and utilized existing lacunas in law to evade arrest consequently propagating a miscarriage in justice. This is important in view of the fact that for long, the burden of prevention has rested on children who have been left on their own when it comes to fighting abuse. This has been done on the backdrop of the reality that children are very vulnerable and powerless in the face of an aggressive adult.
The following additional steps should also be utilized, one, the general public needs to be made aware of the existence and spread of child abuse practices, this is a good place, to begin with since many are not aware that this problem is rampant in their midst. Once it has been done, people should be encouraged to be on the forefront in minimizing this vice by protecting young ones collectively. This is imperative as the adage goes, it takes a village to raise a child. Moreover, abusers should be reported to the authority as a good number of them are usually known. To illustrate, 34% of the children are abused by family members and 59% of individuals who are taken to be trustworthy, with a minute search, they can easily be identified (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2015).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 5
 Conclusion and Recommendation
From the research that has been carried out in this paper, the following conclusions have been arrived at, one, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) is a common condition that affects both, the young and the old, and in order to assist victims of child abuse, several therapeutic methods have been developed. Two, therapy methods that have been designed are working, and their usage in helping victims of child abuse in recuperating should be promoted. Third, many people in the world do not take child abuse issues with the seriousness it deserves, and some have continued to protect perpetrators while a few have gone to the extent of propagating the same vice directly by abusing young ones. Fourth, a conclusion is made that post-traumatic stress syndrome is a severe problem among victims of child abuse, and the best way to prevent its occurrence is to begin by avoiding the maltreatment from happening in the first place.
The following recommendations are made, one, governments need to educate their people on the role child abuse plays in triggering PTSD, two, the effectiveness of therapeutic methods employed in rehabilitating young ones should be quantified and for this reason, future research work should collapse themselves to this. Finally, the objectives of this paper as correlated from the research questions were achieved.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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