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Article One

  1. Reference:

Clark, K. B. & Clark, M. P. (1950). Emotional factors in racial identification and preference in Negro children The Journal of Negro Education, 19(3), 3415-350. Doi: 10.2307/2966491
Video: Dixion, Fuller, D. (2011). Doll test. Retrieved from

  1. Hypothesis:

H1: If children are aware of their racial identities, they develop racial attitudes and egos.
H0: White skin colour is considered superior compared to other colours.

  1. Variables:

Independent Variable (IV): racial identity of the Negro children, and there are three considerations under which the variable was tested. They are:

  1. Age of Negro children.
  2. Schooling in northern mixed school/southern segregated school.
  3. Skin color.

Dependent Variable (DV) racial attitude. However, this variable is measured by the experimenters based range of questions to test their understanding on the study subject as follows:

  1. A) Questions (1-4) measured racial preference.
  2. B) Questions (5-7) measured knowledge of racial differences.
  3. C) Question (8) measured self-identification.


  1. Type of research:

Development Design
The study adopted the developmental design because it deals with change in behaviour, intelligence, and maturity of children at distinct ages. As such, a cross-sectional design was adopted. Developmental design as a method of research that address and assess changes of participants over some period of time. For instance, developmental design would be an appropriate method in assessing differences in both social and academic development of children living in different lifestyles. That is, some from neighbourhoods with high income and others in low income environments. The most obvious reasons why the research design used mostly in children is because it is in several methods which include cross sectional, cross sequential, and longitudinal.
Longitudinal Studies
Longitudinal method is used in assessing changes that occur in a stipulated time frame. That is, under study are observed for days, months, or even years depending on the type of data that the researcher wants to have. For example, in this case, aim is to identify racial identification among the Negro children. Hence, the researcher would not just go in the field on a single and come up with results. Instead, they would take time to observe, and later identify if there is racial identification among the Negro children. Results obtained in longitudinal studies can avail both quantitative and qualitative data concerning the racial identification of the Negro children. However, longitudinal design is associated with challenges such as lack of control, standardization, and the amount of time taken to complete a project.
Cross Sectional Studies
In a study where development is being assessed, cross sectional studies is best suited. Also, unlike longitudinal technique where one does not have control over the amount of time required in conducting research, this technique allows the researcher to determine their schedule. For example, if the main aim of research is to identify academic development, the researcher can take the subjects to be different age groups rather than observing a particular age group that would take a lot of time to develop. In brief, the researcher can select three year age children, those with nine years, and so forth at the same time. The assumption made here is that the difference in age between the selected age groups represent a natural growth and development and that in the case longitudinal study technique was used, the sae results would be reflected.
Cross Sequential Studies
The method is a combination of both cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques in that it attempts to reduce the amount of time taken to conduct a study and also minimize the assumptions made. In this technique, different age groups are studied for some period of time where changes in development are assessed after some period of time. The test aims at assuring that the subject studies over a period like say 6 years of development are the same people.
The design is recommended for studies whereby the experimenters choose participants within different age groups, whereas the developmental design was adopted mainly because it enables the researcher to obtain useful developmental data which are not limited to behaviour, intelligence and maturity within a relatively short duration leading to a conclusion. This is because the type of experiment does not involve measuring the same participants at different ages.
Moreover, the experimenters hypothesized significant relation between age of respondents and knowledge of racial differences, racial self-identification, and racial preferences. As such, the experiment involved children between (3 to 7) years of age and grouped them into two classes (Northern mixed class, and Southern segregated class) with consideration of skin tone. It is worth noting that knowledge of racial preferences was not based on the use of the word Negro, but on skin colour.

  1. Participants:

The participants for the study were 253 Negro children, 116 boys, and 137 girls within the age range between (3 to 7) years old. However, it is important to note that the one hundred and nineteen children belonged to Northern mixed schools which had both racially mixed nursery and public primary schools, while the rest one hundred and thirty-four children were in the Southern segregated schools which has segregated nursery school and public school. In addition, the children from ages 5 onwards were admitted in the public school sector for both the Northern and the Southern segregated schools alike. A fact that significantly impacted their knowledge of racial differences comparatively to that of the children between the age of 3 to 4 who were in nursery mixed schools or segregated schools.

  1. Procedures:

In conducting this study, the experimenters tested the children individually within conducive environment after engaging with them through play for quite some time to create good rapport. Initially two unclothed dolls of similar size, legs, hands, and head position, eyes, hairstyle just to mention, with white diapers, but different skin color were used to test attitude of children one at a time as the others wait within a watching distance to keep them together. The experimenters adopted different approaches to show the dolls, the first half of the participants (children) were shown the dolls starting with the white because there was not much sensitivity on white skin, comparatively. However, the second group responded to questions that involve giving the experimenter the doll that was colored or white interchangeably to affirm their knowledge and attitude towards skin tone.
Moreover, among the eight questions that were asked differently, the experimenter exhausted questions on racial preferences (1-4), racial differences (questions 5-7), and self-identification (question 8) without openly creating crisis among the segregated children. The disturbed children who never respondent to all questions either because of change in mood, or lack of rapport with the experimenters was insignificant and could not alter the study outcomes. But a more inclusive approach is advisable to ensure that the participation of children is maximized at a response rate.

  1. Measures/Materials

Parent Report Form
The assessment was to determine the identification and preference among the Negro children.
The materials when conducting the study include: two dolls that were identical in all aspects except for skin color.
Forced Choice Assessment
The validity of the results, that is, whether the results and theory were correlating, was analysed and noted that the children were aware of racial and ethnic differences and played part in building their egos. The children were requested in most cases to justify their decisions for selecting different dolls, a fact that enhance the effective realization of their perception based on the study hypotheses. But, to affirm the reliability of the study, a set of five drawings of children with similar aspects excluding skin color were presented to the children one at a time. The video presentation entailed experimenters and children (3 to 7 years) subjected to different cases with decisions to select from based on the questions. They were told to identify the pictures of their preferences based on personal considerations.
Moreover, the children including the dark skinned, never wanted to be associated with either dark dolls or dark pictures representations. This approach enhanced better participation of the children comparatively to situations that does not involve pictures.  Although there was lack of maturity especially among the children below the age of five, but the experimenters strived to create conducive environment before engaging them in the study to enhance good rapport so that more accurate data could be obtained regarding the study topic. The study had moderate to high reliability because the children enjoyed their involvement, but the few emotional ones who never respondent to the questions relating to racial facets was really insignificant.
Clark, K. B. & Clark, M. P. (1950). Emotional factors in racial identification and preference in Negro children The Journal of Negro Education, 19(3), 3415-350. Doi: 10.2307/2966491
Video: Dixion, Fuller, D. (2011). Doll test. Retrieved from