Chapter 1
Q.1
From my experience, the biological, psychological, and societal systems interact to produce certain effects in an individual/individuals. Societal factors play a significant role in their biological and eventually psychological systems. For instance, a person can live in poverty due to lack of unemployment as a result of corruption by the government. Consequently, those jobless households can lack access to sufficient and nutritious foods, and this can lead to malnutrition. What is more, this malnutrition can produce mental issues, such as poor concentration.
Q.2
From my culture, which has become increasingly technological and somehow abandoned the traditions, children have become more independent. For instance, it is expected that when a child does wrong. They should not be beaten but rather, talked to. Besides, my culture believes that a teenager is someone who is between 13-17 years. Adulthood is said to begin frim age 21 to 25 years and at this time one ought to have acquired a job or at least, should be earning some income. What is more my culture holds the view that elder hood begins at 65 years, which is also the life expectancy.
Chapter 2
Q.1
The theory which is most like my own beliefs regarding development is the social learning theory. This is because from a personal experience, most of the values that I have and the behaviours I acquired during childhood were learned through observation and imitation. Children often observe adults’ behaviours and try to imitate their behaviours since they consider them as their role models and hence social learning. The theory which contrasts with my beliefs is the evolutionary theory. This is because I think that human beings do not evolve to survive in particular situations. Human beings are instead, creative such that they come up with survival strategies.
Q.2
There are various mechanisms explained in the seven theories of development regarding how children grow into adulthood. The main process that changes is the thinking capacity whereby one’s understanding and interpretation of things as well as the ability to make logical decisions increases. Physical changes are also inevitable during the growth and development of children. Most of the physical changes for instance, are seen during adolescent.
Chapter 6
Q.1
I would ensure that the childcare arrangement for a toddler concentrates one language development since it is crucial for children in this stage and making a mistake can have dire consequences on the child. For effective language development, I would use simple language to talk to the toddlers together with non-verbal communication since they tend to imitate almost everything an adult does
Q.2
As a 3 or 4 years old child the imaginary companion I would create for myself is one who is of the same age as me but of a different gender. This is mainly because at this age, children take great notice of their gender and they want to discover more. For now it is hard to have an imaginary companion since I am surrounded with many friends and family members. In adulthood there is an equivalent imaginary companions whose role is mainly to be life partners.
Chapter 7
Q.1
My earliest recollections of my own moral development is that bad behaviours are heavily punished. Knowing what was right or wrong was largely shaped by my parents as well as in school. As a child, I learned what is bad and what is bad. For example, I learned that cheating is not a good virtue. The main challenge in trying to comply with the standards for good behaviour was peer influence.
Q.2
The media influences children through what they hear and see. In my case, what I would hear and see on the television influenced me a lot. I used to like children programmes and imitate how they were singing and talking as well. The media would satisfy my curiosity as I could access to what I could not hear or see physically.