Name
Institutional Affiliation
 
 
 
Review Questions from Chapters 15 &17
Review Questions for Chapter 15

  1. Ethical principles offer different viewpoints. Normative ethics, for instance, focus on making human behavior morally acceptable by determining what moral standards should be adhered to. On the other hand, the consequential ethical theory asserts that a moral act is one whose outcomes have the highest balance of good over bad. As for ethical principles, they assist caregivers and the ethics committee to solve ethical dilemmas (Pozgar, 2018). They have moral frameworks that aide in analyzing particular ethical dilemmas and making the right decisions.
  2. Religion plays a central role in an individual’s healthcare choices as it is a point of reference for what appropriate actions are as guided by the diverse divinities. On the other hand, it has been proven that spirituality enables patients to experience more comfortable and improved healing.
  3. Situational ethics is a theory which asserts that the outcomes of an action justify the means. It tends to answer the questions why good people might behave differently in the same situations or why good people may act immorally sometimes (Pozgar, 2018). In a nutshell, the concept suggests that a change in circumstances can alter one’s moral character. For instance, an individual might be forced to eat the flesh of dead humans if it is the only means of surviving even if they strongly believe that cannibalism is wrong.
  4. The consultative role of the ethics committee in handling ethical dilemmas mainly entails offering consultation services for groups and individuals in the community who have difficulties in making treatment decisions and handling end-of-life concerns. It offers options and suggests the best and most viable ways to manage real conflicts experienced by patients while minding their clients’ best interests (Pozgar, 2018).

Review Questions for Chapter 17

  1. Case law and statutory enactments have largely impacted patient autonomy with regards to making healthcare choices. For instance, the courts often refer to the Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospital case where it was decided that everyone who is mentally stable has a right to decide what should be done with their own body.
  2. Euthanasia-the merciful ending of life for the terminally ill persons.

Advance directives-the instructions that individuals give which indicate what should be done regarding their health if they are incapable of making health-related choices due to sickness or incapacity.
Futility of treatment-the situation whereby the continuing treatment has been recognized as useless to the patient by a physician based on evaluation and medical judgment (Pozgar, 2018).
Withholding and withdrawal of treatment-withholding means not starting treatment on the patient while the withdrawal of treatment is the discontinuation of medical interventions when death is forthcoming and cannot be prevented through the existing treatment.
Do-not-resuscitate orders– instructions not to resuscitate when a patient suffers a cardiac or respiratory arrest.

  1. Autopsies reveal what led to an individual’s death. As for organ donations, they are done to help save the lives of individuals with end-stage organ failure. On the other hand, failure to provide informed consent to patients during research, experimentation, and clinical trials is considered unethical and can result in serious law implications.
  2. Human genetics helps in identifying whether individuals are at risk of having inherited diseases. This can help in taking health precautions and treatment aimed at preventing death due to those diseases in the future (Pozgar, 2018). Stem cell research can impact end-of-life issues by enabling the development of organs which can be used to save the lives of individuals who need an organ transplant.
  3. Genetic markers are important as they are utilized in determining the link between an inherited disease and its causative cells so that to know how susceptible an individual is to that condition.
  4. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) was enacted mainly to prevent discrimination based on a person’s genetic information by health insurers and employers.

 
 
References
Pozgar, G. D. (2018). Legal aspects of health care administration. Jones & Bartlett Learning.