Importantly, behavioral change is an inter-discipline that uses knowledge in medicine, and psychology to formulate sustainable and efficient treatment methods. In brief, this method appreciates that most diseases are avoidable, and treatable if patients minimize their exposure to the risk factors. Consequently, modern researchers and doctors look into ways of preventing the diseases rather than waiting to treat the ailment.
Randomized Trial of Lifestyle Modification and Pharmacotherapy for Obesity
Notably, this journal was written by Wadden et al. to evaluate the most effective method of treating patients with obesity. In essence, a randomized trial compared the efficacy of sibutramine, group sessions on lifestyle modification, a combination of the two, and use of sibutramine with a brief counseling done by primary care officer. Basically, sibutramine is a serotonin-morepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, which modifies an individual’s appetite. On the contrast, lifestyle modification is a method that trains patients on how to control their diet by checking the meals they eat and engaging in physical activities.
Generally, the method involved 180 women and 44 men who were between 18 and 65 years, and had a body mass index of 30 to 45. Basically, the eligible candidates were free from other lifestyle disease. Additionally, the female candidates were not pregnant or breastfeeding. Importantly, the subjects were randomly selected to each of the four groups, and the experiment was carried for 52 weeks. In week 0 (baseline), the subjects were required to maintain their ordinary lifestyle. Thereafter, they were prescribed to a balance diet of 1200 to 1500 kcal per day.
Notably, the results of the experiment showed that subjects who received a combined therapy lost a mean standard deviation of 12.1 to 9.8kgs in one year, whereas, those who received sibutramine alone lost 5.0 to 7.4kgs. Further, those who were treated with lifestyle therapy alone lost 7.5 to 8.0 kg, while the candidates who received sibutramine and counseling lost 7.7 to 8.0 kg. Conclusively, it was found out that the best weight loss plan occurs when medication is used as an adjunct to a proper health program.
The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network Over 32 Years
Evidently, there has been a sharp increase in obesity in the world. Generally, explanations for increase in obesity are attributed to societal changes that promote inactivity and excessive food consumption. Owing to the fact that obesity has spread among all socioeconomic groups, and cannot be explained using genetics, the study was conducted to find out if social associations influence its occurence. Generally, this research was based on the fact that social associations influence the manner in which people view themselves. Consequently, a close and regular association was presumed to yield to a high tolerance to obesity and hence an increase in behaviors that may lead to it.
In brief, offspring cohorts of 5209 people from the Framingham Heart Study program were used for the study. In total, 12067 off springs of the Framingham Heart Study were identified. Importantly, the individual’s relationships were programmed into a computer from the comprehensive data that had been compiled since 1971. The statistical information showed that among adult siblings, if one of them became obese, the other’s chances increased by 40%. Worse still, if these siblings were of the same gender, the probable increase was 50%. On the contrast, among siblings of the opposite sex, it reduced to 27%. Similarly, among married couples if a spouse became obese, there was a 37% increase. Nonetheless, there was no risk if an immediate neighbor became obese.
In conclusion, the study showed that there was a connection between social network and a spread in obesity. Nonetheless, the research also suggested that social network can play an important role on stopping this disease. Notably, social network can be harnessed to spread positive health behaviors since individual’s behavior are influenced by their social ties. Consequently, a combination of medical and public health intervention is necessary in eliminate the spread of obesity.
Decreasing Sedentary Behaviors in Treating Pediatric Obesity
Sedentary activities such as watching television and playing video games have been associated with increase in child obesity. Accordingly, a research was conducted by Epstein et al. to find out if replacing the time spent on sedentary activities by children would reduce chances of obesity. Notably, it has been observed that a reduction in sedentary activities is associated with an increase in physical activities.
In brief, ninety obese children who were between eight and twelve years were recruited in two cohorts, which begun one year apart. Moreover, the inclusion criteria required the children to be 20% and 100% overweight. Additionally, none of their parents was to be 100% overweight, and they had to be willing to report for counseling. Further still, the child was supposed to have no diet or psychiatric problem. The children were randomly placed into four groups for the study. Generally, these groups were categorized as low or high treatment for sedentary behavior, and low or high treatment for physical activity. Moreover, the families received the parent and children workbook to facilitate consistent implementation of the program. Notably, the dependent measures were done at the baseline, sixth, twelfth and twenty fourth months.
Generally, the study showed that there were no differences in the assessment results. Essentially, all methods showed that there was a reduction in overweight to 12.9% from a baseline of 20.8%. Additionally, physical work capacity also increased significantly by 33% from 341.1 kpm *min-1 to 454.2 kpm *min-1 at the baseline levels. Further still, there was significant decrease in the percentage of body fat which reduced from 6.4% to 2.0%.
Conclusively, it was found out that reducing access to sedentary behavior had an effect in increasing physical activities. Consequently, this was an effective method in in weight control and improving the family fitness. As a result, most families should implement this strategy so as to ensure a healthy growth of their children.
Wadden, T., Berkowitz, R., Womble, L., Sarwer, D., Phelan, S., Cato, R., Hesson, L., Osei, S., Kaplan, R., and Stankard, A. Randomized Trial of Lifestyle Modification and Pharmacotherapy for Obesity, 2005, 353, 2111-2102
Christakis, N., and Fowler, J. The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years. 2007, 357, 370-379
Epstein, L., Paluch, R., Gordy, C., and Dorn, G. Decreasing Sedentary Behaviors in Treating Pediatric Obesity, 154(3), 2000. 220-226