Annotated Bibliography
 
In this journal, the authors suggest that certain television viewing habits have a negative impact on children. The habits examined were sleeping habits and sleep disturbance. In this respect, the authors conducted a study that mainly involved questionnaires. One questionnaire assessed the children’s sleep behavior while the other assessed the viewing habits of the selected children. On a good measure, the children selected were from kindergarten all the way to the fourth grade and from three elementary schools. It was found out that most of the television viewing practices tested were associated with at least one type of sleep disturbance. The sleep disturbances tested include bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, parasomnia, night walking, daytime sleepiness and anxiety around sleep. More to this was the fact that the most significant habit that was associated with sleep disturbance was increased daily television viewing at bedtime. The authors try to connect sleep disturbance and television viewing habits in order to convince parents on monitoring the television viewing habits, especially at bedtime, to their children.
 
 
 
 
Lillard, Angeline S and Jennifer Peterson. “The immediate impact of Different types of television on young children’s executive function.” 128.4 (2011).
 
In this journal, the authors assert that fast-paced television programs have a negative impact on the executive function in preschool children. In this context, the executive functions are working memory and self-regulation. The study was particularly conducted practically whereby children were randomly assigned to conduct one of the following tasks: watch a fast-paced cartoon, watch an educational cartoon or draw for 9 minutes. After this, the children were given tasks that mainly required executive function. In essence, the results obtained indicated that children who were exposed to the fast-paced cartoon performed significantly worse than the other two groups, with the children assigned the drawing task performing superbly. The study was meant to show that fast-paced television programs have a negative impact on the executive function. This was done in order to show parents that these programs can, on a short-term, impair the executive function of young children.
 
Mares, Marie-Louise. “Positive effects of television on social behavior: A meta-analysis.” 1996.
 
In this report, Mares asserts that television viewing does not necessarily lead to negative behaviors, as is most often suggested. In the study, her main focus was the social behavior associated with television viewing. The method used in obtaining data is meta-analysis which in its sense is a method that particularly focuses on the analysis of empirical data that is obtained from numerous sources. More so, the method for obtaining the final results involves selection of the sample, coding, which is basically the comparison of various groups subjected to various programs, and statistical analysis. The main programs involved included; prosocial, aggressive, antisocial, un-aggressive, self-selected exposure and roleplaying. Just for good measure, there was a control group which was basically neutral. The results indicated that children who are subjected to prosocial programs tend to exhibit social behaviors, altruistic behavior, and self-control. The comparison of different programs was done in order to try and show parents on the importance of monitoring the programs that the children view.
 
Can television be good for children? 2010
 
In this article, the author tries to focus more on the educational importance of television to children. He asserts that children’s television is a potentially important medium and that in certain circumstances it can be a very powerful educational tool. More so, he describes television as an informative and inspirational tool which is culturally relevant to the modern child. In the research, he tries to obtain data from all the necessary literature centered on children learning and television viewing. To drive the point home, the author emphasizes on how children develop televisual literacy which is different from adults. Children experience four stages of cognitive development which can be applied to television and rely on the age of children. In this application of televisual skills, the child is able to develop various benefits such as communication, socialism, education, critical thinking, school readiness etc. All these educational benefits associated with television are outlined in order to try and show parents the importance of television to growing children.