Terrorism is an everyday threat in these modern times. Terrorism does not consider race gender, political affiliation etc. but the human population in general. It has been defined as the use of force and violence in order to terrorize populations and/or governments because of certain affiliations which might be based on religion, politics etc. The main way terrorists usually intend to achieve their goals is by creating an atmosphere of fear. More to this is the fact that terrorists do not recognize anyone as innocent: anyone can become a victim. This, in itself, has always been described as a coward’s way because of the indirect approach.
Terrorism in its sense can be as a result of various factors such as unemployment, radicalization, and politics among others and is currently being felt in most parts of the world. It is because of this that terrorism has become a subject of study.
Jenkins, B.M., & Johnson, J (1975). International Terrorism: A Chronology, 1968-1974.
The article by Jenkins and Johnson focuses on terrorism activities that occurred in the international front in the period between January 9, 1968, and April 26, 1987, a total of 507 incidents. In the context of explaining international terrorism, the authors have excluded all terrorist activities which were carried within countries. Considering some terrorist dominated both in national and international fronts, terrorist activities within their countries have been excluded. The article further on goes into detail of the most active terrorist groups between the above stated period mainly to show the evolution of this inhuman act. Most of the data were collected from the press release within this period. Considering that terrorism has varying definitions from country to country and region to region, only incidents regarded as terrorism internationally have been included in the article.The article is useful to my research as Jenkins & Johnson have arranged the events in a sequential order and therefore it is easy to determine when terrorism really picked up.
It is this knowledge that can be used to determine which factors both nationally and internationally contributed to the surge in terrorism.That stated, the article is directed at various researchers, policy makers and professionals who have an interest in terrorism and the consequences that come with it.As a matter of fact, it is directed to any party interested in international relations and international terrorism.The main shortcoming of the article is the inability to fully verify the data collected.It has been stated that the data and the activities were collected from press releases but were yet to be specified which in itself might be misleading.Furthermore, there is no indication of the links between international terrorists which can be useful in research.Regardless of the shortcomings of this article, it contains an invaluable amount of information for my research on terrorism.
Baudrillard, J.(2002).The Spirit of terrorism. London.New York: Verso
Baudrillard is a French author who is renown for his exemplary works.In this article, Baudrilland.J mainly focuses on the drive behind terrorist activities.The point of reference is the world trade center bombing on September 11.This he regards might have been the repercussions that came with the strategies that the United States had employed as a superpower.The United States strategies had consequently brought violence throughout the world What drives a terrorist? He describes this a s a pact and sacrificial obligation whose core is symbolism.The main argument is that an increase good does not necessarily mean the diminishing of evil.These two advance together and are correlated.the article is particularly useful in relating various terrorist activities around the globe forming a basis for further research.Furthermore, various perspectives through which most people view terrorism has been observed.Such a view is that terrorism and Islam are related, Baudrillard indicates that is just a misinterpretation.In essence, all these are vital for my research considering that September 11 is still regarded as the mother of terrorist activities because of the scale of the bombing.
Jenkins, B.M. (1974). Terrorism and Kidnapping. California: Santa Monica,2-10.
The article by Jenkins tries to bring out the definition of terrorism.He states that terrorism is a pejorative term, that can either be based and used by the government or the bodies being oppressed.He, therefore, states some of the objectives that can define terrorism. .Furthermore, the article tries to explore the trends that are becoming trademarks of terrorism and the main objectives behind terrorism activities.All that is meant to give the reader an overview of terrorism.The main objective is to look into kidnapping as a form of terrorism and the various forms of kidnapping with the motives behind it.The article is very useful for any research that is concentrated around kidnapping as a form of terrorism. Jenkins, B.M goes to full lengths to try and uncover the ideologies and motives behind this.The article forms a basis or introduction to terrorism and kidnapping and its usefulness is limited to the background information about this violent act.Furthermore, this article requires a follow up with more explanation and discussions considering that it is relatively shallow.All that stated, the usefulness of the article for my research may be limited because of its shallowness and therefore can be primarily used as a platform for other research.Regardless of the shallowness in the article, it can be regarded as highly reliable since the author focuses on cases of kidnapping that have been investigated and verified.
Crenshaw, M. (1981).The Causes Of Terrorism.Comparative Politics,379-399.
The book by Crenshaw, M defines terrorism by primarily three questions: how terrorism occurs, the process through which terrorism works and the social and political effects of terrorism.The main findings in the article are primarily based on theories such as that those behind drive and motivation.The article presents only a preliminary set of ideas about the problem of causation.Furthermore, some historical cases of terrorism have been used in illustrating terrorism, not as demonstrations of hypotheses.The illustrations have been derived from the best known and most documented examples of terrorism:NarodnayaVolya and the combat organisation of the Socialist-revolutionary party in Russia,anarchist terrorism in Europe,republican army and its predecessors and successors,among others which form the basis for the study,This is because Crenshaw, M considers that terrorism has been mainly viewed in a historical perspective and no theoretical background has been focused accorded to it.According to Crenshaw, M, explaining the sources of terrorism cannot be regarded as a simple task, but the theoretical order based on the different types and causes of terrorism can be a very sound and useful beginning.
Considering that the article gives information about various terrorist groups from time memorial, it is useful in research in the perspective that it offers an insight into the historical context of terrorism.The main shortcoming of the article is that it has more focus on terrorists and the theories that force them into this act but does not consider other bodies such as the government and the role it plays.Considering my research, the article will be particularly helpful in giving more insight to the theoretical analysis of terrorism and the various groups that were historically associated with terrorism.Furthermore, the article provides some insight into various countries and their history in relation to terrorism, which is essentially vital and useful for research.
Bjargo, T.(2005).Root causes of Terrorism, myths, reality, and way forward.London and New York; Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
The book title says it all.this book by Bjargo looks into detail on aspects of terrorism such as the roots or foundation, the social and mental characteristics of terrorism and terrorist event; cities among others.Furthermore, the author has gone to bring out case scenarios of terrorism such as those in the middle east and Palestine.Primarily, the collection of data and related reports is obtained from papers that were presented at the Oslo expert meeting in terrorism.This meeting was composed of o ver 30 international experts on terrorism.More to this is that some knowledge in this book is as a result of the contribution of various authors and researchers in the field of terrorism.Considering that terrorist activities have been prevalent in some regions of the world, Bjargo has focused on some insurgency groups and the uprising, and to an extent, the focus has shifted to the state sponsorship of terrorist activities.This may be regarded as a clear view considering that sometimes government agencies have been involved in the funding of terrorist related activities.
The books features indulge the reader in deep details about terrorism and some of the figures include classification of the organizations and their ideologies.suicide bombings, generalized pathways to terrorism, comparison of poverty and terrorism, a model based on structural analysis of extremist violence and intensification of zero sum terrorism cycle among others.This is the author’s way of summarizing the too much detail contained therein.More to this is the fact that the book addresses the possibilities and ways in which terrorism can be reduced in the coming years based on the factors contained in the book.In essence, the book is useful to academic experts and policy makers in the field of terrorism but can be used by undergraduates and graduates in any course related to terrorism.Furthermore, comparisons of various terrorism related factors is a useful tool to students and researchers.To ensure that what is contained in this book is reliable, the contributions and papers were thoroughly revised and edited to fit in.That stated, the main shortcoming of the article is the focus on the middle east and the terrorist activities that have been witnessed in this region but regardless of this, it is useful in my research primarily because of the vast knowledge the book has in the middle east.
It is very difficult to define terrorism since it encompasses various aspects that cannot be easily defined.It is because of this reason that various scholars have focused on terrorism as a topic of study.many aspects have been covered such as the ideologies, the human complex among others all in an attempt to really understand what terrorism is.There are various levels of terrorism beginning from simple kidnappings to air hijack to the bombing, such as in the world trade center.On a rudimentary definition, terrorism can be defined as a criminal activity.Any criminal is a person who does not follow the rules of the ‘system’.The concept is that terrorism does not follow the rule of law but on a bigger and extra scale.
The book was written by Jenkins, B.M., & Johnson, J primarily focuses on the terrorism events between the stated periods. By indicating the chronological order of attacks during this period, the authors simply try to give an insight on the trend that has become a norm of the modern world. The book focuses on organizations that were major players in the terrorist activities during this period ranging from air hijacking to bombing. In their perspective, terrorism is any activity, either personal or otherwise, that can endanger the lives of innocent civilians.
The spirit of terrorism by Baudrillard, J mainly focuses on the human being as a constant in terrorism.In defining terrorism, many people have Islam in mind but that is just a misconception, as per his opinion.The chronology of events by Jenkins, B.M., & Johnson is described as minor terrorist activities in comparison to the world trade center bombing on September 11.This is the event that brought terrorism to a whole new level. He furthermore states that this terrorist activity does not primarily involve extremist but may have been fuelled by the government mainly because of the activities around the globe. More to this is that the book necessitates the need to understand that good and evil tend to be on the same frequency at all times
Considering that the authors have taken into consideration that the international and national events of terrorism, Jenkins, B.M. has gone solo to try and explain that the terrorist motives can begin at a county level with activities such as kidnapping for money or ransom.Though not affecting a large crowd of innocent civilians, it may be regarded as terrorism because of the eventuality that the activity may end up causing bodily harm to an individual.
Finally, the books by Bjargo, T, and Crenshaw, M can be observed that they give more insight into the motives of terrorists and the consequences that may arise from this.In particular, Bjargo, T data can be considered very reliable considering the papers are from the terrorist experts meeting in Oslo and have been verified. In conclusion, all these books give different perspectives into terrorism and hence are particularly important to researchers and people interested in terrorism.
Baudrillard, J. (2002). The Spirit of Terrorism. London.New York: Verso.
Bjargo, T. (2005). root causes of Terrorism, myths, reality, and way forward. London and New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
Crenshaw, M. (1981). The Causes Of Terrorism. Comparative Politics, 379-399.
Jenkins, B. M. (1947). Terrorism and kidnapping. California: Santa Monica.
Jenkins, B. M., & Johnson, J. (1975). International Terrorism: A Chronology,1968-1974.