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Summary for Doc1
Title: The effects of whole-body vibration weighted vest on vertical jump power and flexibility.
Authors: Jonathan Gonzalez, Oscar Gomez, Luis Macias, Murat Karabulut.
Introduction: Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a reliable technique that enhances power generation, muscle strength, bone mineral mass, as well as flexibility. WBV has been utilized in sports and rehabilitation courses to improve athletic performance, mobility among musculoskeletal deficiencies patients, and boost bone mass and strength. Weighted Vest or hypergravity is a method associated with increased anaerobic power activities such as sprinting. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of both WBV and weighted vest combined has never been tried on the performance of a vertical jump.
Purpose: the main aim of this study was to determine how a combination of WBV and the weighed vest impacted anaerobic training, and more so, the vertical jump.
Methods: The study involved 29 participants who had volunteered. Fifteen of them were males aged 22.2 ± 2.7 years while fourteen were females aged 22 ± 3.2 years. Before being tested, the subjects completed a Health Status Questionnaire named PAR-Q and also consented. The participants were then required to rest for 5 minutes upon arrival prior to recording the heart rate and blood pressure (BP). After that, they engaged in 5 minutes warm-up sessions on a cycle ergometer at 50 rpm with 2.0 kg and 1.5 kg for men and women respectively. 3 counter-movement jumps with 30 seconds rest intervals were utilized in assessing the height of the vertical jump. As for flexibility, a seat-and-reach box was used to measure it. The subjects were randomly tested for these conditions: whole-body vibration plus weighted vest (WVP), weighted vest (WV), Whole-body vibration (VP), and body weight (BW). The participants undertook five sessions each taking one hour. The exercises were mainly vigorous squats at a position of 120 degrees of the knee elasticity and a vibration frequency of 30 Hz based on the condition being tested. The subjects were allowed to rest for 30 seconds between each session of the squats. Vertical height jump was then immediately re-examined and after that, hemodynamics 5-10 minutes after termination of the exercise. Flexibility was determined amid BP readings. The participants were warned against engaging in any heavy exercise 24 hours before starting the session and were also told not to eat anything 3 hours before the test.
Results:  A combination of weighted vest and full body vibration significantly increased the height of the vertical jump in men but it did not change in the female subjects. WVP had almost the same effect as weighted vest and whole-vibration when used separately. On the other hand, sit-and-reach following WVP improved in all the subjects but was higher among the female participants compared to men. An integration of WBV and WV was also associated with a rise of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both male and female subjects.
Conclusion/Future research: anaerobic exercises are crucial in any sports programs. This study assumed WBV and WV combined as the warm-up and examined its effect on the strength of the vertical jump as well as flexibility. Based on the findings, it was concluded that exercises based on full body vibration or weighted vest had the capacity to cause the necessary psychological effects observed in an old-fashioned warm up. These modifications include high enzyme activity, increased metabolic reactions, and enhanced contractility of muscles, just to mention a few. Future research should look into the collective outcomes of WV and WBV as a warm-up tool in power training.
Summary for Doc2
Title: The evaluation of osteogenic inducing microRNAs for bone tissue engineering application.
Authors: Astrid S. Gutierrez, Marco, A. Arriaga, May-Hui Ding, and Sue Anne, Chew, Ph. D.
Introduction: Bone problems occur as a result of underlying medical conditions, genetic defects, or trauma which undermine the body’s ability to maintain a normal bone density and functionality.  Bones tend to regenerate with time. Allografts or autografts can be used to promote healing whenever the bone damage is severe. Since the traditional methods of bone regulation put the patients under multiple risks, bone tissue engineering is an optional way to graft an individual’s bone. It redevelops a functional bone by utilizing biomaterials, bioactive elements, and/or stem cells individually or when combined. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) whose source is humans can separate into various cell lineages, one of them being osteogenesis, which is the basis of this study. MSCs containing miRNA which has the potential to induce osteogenesis are considered more effective.
Objective: To examine and determine which miRNA drawn from the literature review is highly capable of encouraging osteogenesis in MSCs.
Hypothesis: The study assumed that the different miRNA varied in terms of their effectiveness on the osteogenesis induction in transfected MSCs.
Methods: The literature review was used to choose and settle on 5 miRNAs that can promote osteogenesis. Then, alpha MEM containing FBS, L-Glutamate, and Penicillin-Streptomycin supplements was used to culture hMSCs. Induction of osteogenic differentiation was then performed on a medium encompassing, Ascorbic acid, Dexamethasone, and Glycerol 2-Phosphate additives. The different miRNAs together with Lipofectamine were later utilized in cell transfection. On the 14th day, calcium deposits could be identified with the help of ARS.
Results: It was observed that miRNA-26a triggered catenin by decreasing GSK3β. There was a mediated osteoblast separation by miRNA 194. miRNA 335 was associated with downregulation which prevents osteogenic differentiation. On the other hand, miRNAs 196 and 218 demonstrated some catenin signaling.
Discussion and conclusion: The five miRNAs which were experimented were chosen based on their ability to cause osteogenic differentiation on MSCs, their potential to do so without relying on other elements known in promoting osteogenesis. They were also selected as they all could trigger expression or signal pathways. A high mRNA level was experienced on day 2 on the MSCs transferred through miRNA 26a or 196. On day 7, it was noted that there was a rise I the level of mRNA for the MSCs transfected with the diverse miRNA compared to those transfected with negative control. The amount of alkaline phosphate (ALP) had significantly increased by day 2 on the MSCs transfected using miRNA 196, 335, and 218. Also, miRNA 26a, 196 and 218 had shown high levels on calcium stains unlike 194 and 335.
Future works: It was determined that miRNAs 26a, 218, and 196 had the potential to encourage osteogenesis through the up-regulation of RUNX2gene expression which led to the production of calcium. Nevertheless, it is important that researchers should search for an ideal miRNA so that these miRNA can be compared against it.
Acknowledgments: some of the supporters of this study were the UTRGV, the FRC, SMART, as well as the Engaged Scholarship and Learning Office.