The Respiratory System & the Gastrointestinal Tract
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The Respiratory System & the Gastrointestinal Tract
The Respiratory System
The lungs have one primary function, and that is to ensure that the atmospheric gasses get into contact with the blood. The process through which gasses are taken in and out of the lungs is identified as ventilation while the movement of both oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air is identified as respiration. These processes, therefore, call for a complex that is elaborately designed. For instance, the system must be designed in such a way that it functions effectively and efficiently and with little or no muscular effort. In the same way, the lungs are made in such a way that they are protected, and also have a self-defensive mechanism protecting it from the contaminants in the environment. Knowledge regarding the architecture of the chest and that of the lungs is beneficial in that one can understand the therapeutic procedures that taken to rectify a disordered respiratory system.
The respiratory system is composed of conducting airways whose function is to allow the passage of air from the environment to the gas-exchange surface. The respiratory system consists of two primary parts, the upper and lower airways.
The Upper Airways
The upper airways are composed of the oral cavity, the nose, the larynx, and the pharynx with the larynx marking the transition between the two primary parts (Ionescu, 2013).
The Nose
The nose serves as a structure for filtering and air conditioning. Compared to the mouth, the structures has a higher resistance to airflow, but most adults breathe using the structures, especially during moments of rest (Ionescu, 2013). Some factors that make people shift from breathing through the nose to the mouth include instances when there is high nasal resistance attributed to swollen membranes of the mucous and when a person is experiencing some rapid breathing which could be as a result of exercise (Ionescu, 2013). The nose has three primary functions which include filtering, humidifying, and heating the inspired air such that the air that reaches the nasopharynx has considerable amounts of heat and water vapor (Ionescu, 2013). Figure 1 shows a detailed overview of the respiratory system.
Figure 1: The Respiratory System (Ionescu, 2013).
The Pharynx
The pharynx is identified as the space lying behind the nasal cavity and extends down the larynx from the tongue. The inspired gasses change their direction of flow at the posterior of the nasopharynx where the foreign particles are trapped in the sticky mucous membrane (Beachey, 2018). The lymphatic tissues found in both oropharynx and nasopharynx avail protection from foreign agents that might have been infectious (Beachey, 2018). Both the laryngopharynx and oropharynx are both air and food passages with the former marking the separation between respiratory and digestive tracts (Beachey, 2018).
Larynx
The organ is commonly known as the voice box and acts as the valve. It is identified as the voice box because it has the vocal cords that control how much the trachea opens (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). The organ has other functions besides controlling speech which is to ensure that the lower airway is protected from aspirating liquids and solids when an individual is swallowing and breathing (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Specifically, the epiglottis prevents these materials from entering the lower airways by diverting food from the glottis to the esophagus (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Figure 2 shows the epiglottis, the vocal cords, and the glottis.
Figure 2: The epiglottis, the vocal cords, and the glottis (Ionescu, 2013).
The Lower Airways
The lower airways are separated from the upper ones by the larynx, and they divide in a pattern identified as the dichotomous branching (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Each airway divides into many smaller airways. The lower airway is composed of the trachea and the main bronchi (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010).
The Trachea and Main Bronchi
The trachea separates into divisions, the left, and right mainstream bronchi. The point at which the trachea divides in bronchi is identified as Carina (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). The inspired air at this point saturates with water at 100% where it is warmed to the standard body temperature of 37 degrees. Figure 3 indicates the trachea and the segmental bronchi (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010).
Figure 3: The trachea and the segmental bronchi (Ionescu, 2013).
The Gastrointestinal (GI) system
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is the longest tube that runs through the body and is composed of different sections that digest different materials from the time when they are consumed to when the waste products are expelled. The entire operations taking place in the GI system is controlled by hormones (Reece, 2013). The hormones are triggered from the time when food is put in the mouth. Every part of the GI system is composed of hormones that carry out different functions (Reece, 2013). For example, the presence of food in the stomach activates some hormones that influence the secretion of acid (Reece, 2013). It is, however, worth noting that the nutrients obtained from the foods in the GI tract are not processed here but rather taken to the liver where they are further broken down, distributed to the respective organs or stored (Reece, 2013).  Figure 4 illustrates the gastrointestinal system.
Figure 4: The gastrointestinal system (Leung, 2014).
The Esophagus
The esophagus plays the role of passage for food that has been chewed in the mouth. The organ has layer identified as the squamous epithelial lining whose role is to pro offer protection for the esophagus from trauma (Reece, 2013). The submucosa found in the layer secretes mucous through the mucous glands and aids food to pass down through the esophagus (Reece, 2013). On the same note, the organ has a lumen which is surrounded by muscles layers that assist in propelling food into the stomach through peristalsis (Reece, 2013).
The Stomach
The stomach is composed of four regions, which are, the fundus, the cardio, the pylorus, and the body with each region having a distinct role. For example, the fundus is responsible for collecting gasses that result from digestion, the body secretes both hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, while the pylorus secretes gastrin, mucus, and pepsinogen (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). The primary functions of the stomach include temporary storage of food and also control the rate at which particles of food enter the duodenum (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). Additionally, the stomach supports antibacterial action and as well as the release of acids. Lastly, the stomach plays a part in the preliminary digestion of both lipase and pepsin (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
The Small Intestine
The small intestine is where most of both mechanical and chemical breakdown takes place. It is also the place where useful materials are absorbed. The organ has two major parts which include the duodenum and the ileum (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). The primary function carried out by the duodenum is the neutralization of acidic contents. The organ also initiates further digestion. On the other hand, absorption of food takes place in the ileum (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). The organ is considered be the longest among these parts to increase the surface area for the absorption of food. The lining of the ileum is composed of villi which further increase the surface are for absorption (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
The Pancreas
The organ’s primary function is to secrete enzymes that help in the digestion of food. The enzymes secreted by the organ include the peptidase, the lipase and the amylase for proteins, fats, and carbohydrate digestion respectively (Couture & Baud, 2008). The secretions done by the organ are regulated by hormones that also influence the release of bile by the gallbladder (Couture & Baud, 2008). Bile is an agent that emulsifies fats, that is fats are converted to water soluble substances and also creates favorable working conditions for the pancreatic enzymes (Couture & Baud, 2008).
The Large Intestine
The products that reach this organ are a waste because the essential nutrients have been absorbed. Therefore the role of the organ is to absorb water and pass the remainder of the waste to the rectum for expulsion (Couture & Baud, 2008).  The organ also absorbs minerals such as sodium and potassium. In addition to the absorption process, the organ also secretes mucus which is used as a lubricant for the intestinal walls (Couture & Baud, 2008).
Conclusion
I conclusion, understanding the physiology and anatomy of the body systems allows both the nurse and other individuals to conduct a successful assessment because they can identify system disorders. For example, a good comprehension of these systems will assist in the interpretation and recognition of evaluation data related to the history of a patient as well as their physical exams.
References
Beachey, W. (2018). Respiratory care anatomy and physiology: Foundations for clinical practice. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.
Couture, A., & Baud, C. (2008). Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children. Berlin: Springer.
Ionescu, C. M. (2013). The Human Respiratory System: An Analysis of the Interplay between Anatomy, Structure, Breathing and Fractal Dynamics. London: Imprint: Springer.
Leung, P. S. (2014). The gastrointestinal system: Gastrointestinal, nutritional and hepatobiliary physiology. Dordrecht : Springer
Leung, P. S. (2014). The gastrointestinal system: Gastrointestinal, nutritional and hepatobiliary physiology. Dordrecht : Springer
Marieb, E. N., & Hoehn, K. (2010). Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
Reece, W. O. (2013). Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. Arnes, AI: Wiley.
Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. (2008). Principles of anatomy and physiology. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Respiratory System & the Gastrointestinal Tract
The Respiratory System
The lungs have one primary function, and that is to ensure that the atmospheric gasses get into contact with the blood. The process through which gasses are taken in and out of the lungs is identified as ventilation while the movement of both oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air is identified as respiration. These processes, therefore, call for a complex that is elaborately designed. For instance, the system must be designed in such a way that it functions effectively and efficiently and with little or no muscular effort. In the same way, the lungs are made in such a way that they are protected, and also have a self-defensive mechanism protecting it from the contaminants in the environment. Knowledge regarding the architecture of the chest and that of the lungs is beneficial in that one can understand the therapeutic procedures that taken to rectify a disordered respiratory system.
The respiratory system is composed of conducting airways whose function is to allow the passage of air from the environment to the gas-exchange surface. The respiratory system consists of two primary parts, the upper and lower airways.
The Upper Airways
The upper airways are composed of the oral cavity, the nose, the larynx, and the pharynx with the larynx marking the transition between the two primary parts (Ionescu, 2013).
The Nose
The nose serves as a structure for filtering and air conditioning. Compared to the mouth, the structures has a higher resistance to airflow, but most adults breathe using the structures, especially during moments of rest (Ionescu, 2013). Some factors that make people shift from breathing through the nose to the mouth include instances when there is high nasal resistance attributed to swollen membranes of the mucous and when a person is experiencing some rapid breathing which could be as a result of exercise (Ionescu, 2013). The nose has three primary functions which include filtering, humidifying, and heating the inspired air such that the air that reaches the nasopharynx has considerable amounts of heat and water vapor (Ionescu, 2013). Figure 1 shows a detailed overview of the respiratory system.
Figure 1: The Respiratory System (Ionescu, 2013).
The Pharynx
The pharynx is identified as the space lying behind the nasal cavity and extends down the larynx from the tongue. The inspired gasses change their direction of flow at the posterior of the nasopharynx where the foreign particles are trapped in the sticky mucous membrane (Beachey, 2018). The lymphatic tissues found in both oropharynx and nasopharynx avail protection from foreign agents that might have been infectious (Beachey, 2018). Both the laryngopharynx and oropharynx are both air and food passages with the former marking the separation between respiratory and digestive tracts (Beachey, 2018).
Larynx
The organ is commonly known as the voice box and acts as the valve. It is identified as the voice box because it has the vocal cords that control how much the trachea opens (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). The organ has other functions besides controlling speech which is to ensure that the lower airway is protected from aspirating liquids and solids when an individual is swallowing and breathing (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Specifically, the epiglottis prevents these materials from entering the lower airways by diverting food from the glottis to the esophagus (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Figure 2 shows the epiglottis, the vocal cords, and the glottis.
Figure 2: The epiglottis, the vocal cords, and the glottis (Ionescu, 2013).
The Lower Airways
The lower airways are separated from the upper ones by the larynx, and they divide in a pattern identified as the dichotomous branching (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). Each airway divides into many smaller airways. The lower airway is composed of the trachea and the main bronchi (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010).
The Trachea and Main Bronchi
The trachea separates into divisions, the left, and right mainstream bronchi. The point at which the trachea divides in bronchi is identified as Carina (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). The inspired air at this point saturates with water at 100% where it is warmed to the standard body temperature of 37 degrees. Figure 3 indicates the trachea and the segmental bronchi (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010).
Figure 3: The trachea and the segmental bronchi (Ionescu, 2013).
The Gastrointestinal (GI) system
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is the longest tube that runs through the body and is composed of different sections that digest different materials from the time when they are consumed to when the waste products are expelled. The entire operations taking place in the GI system is controlled by hormones (Reece, 2013). The hormones are triggered from the time when food is put in the mouth. Every part of the GI system is composed of hormones that carry out different functions (Reece, 2013). For example, the presence of food in the stomach activates some hormones that influence the secretion of acid (Reece, 2013). It is, however, worth noting that the nutrients obtained from the foods in the GI tract are not processed here but rather taken to the liver where they are further broken down, distributed to the respective organs or stored (Reece, 2013).  Figure 4 illustrates the gastrointestinal system.
Figure 4: The gastrointestinal system (Leung, 2014).
The Esophagus
The esophagus plays the role of passage for food that has been chewed in the mouth. The organ has layer identified as the squamous epithelial lining whose role is to pro offer protection for the esophagus from trauma (Reece, 2013). The submucosa found in the layer secretes mucous through the mucous glands and aids food to pass down through the esophagus (Reece, 2013). On the same note, the organ has a lumen which is surrounded by muscles layers that assist in propelling food into the stomach through peristalsis (Reece, 2013).
The Stomach
The stomach is composed of four regions, which are, the fundus, the cardio, the pylorus, and the body with each region having a distinct role. For example, the fundus is responsible for collecting gasses that result from digestion, the body secretes both hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, while the pylorus secretes gastrin, mucus, and pepsinogen (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). The primary functions of the stomach include temporary storage of food and also control the rate at which particles of food enter the duodenum (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). Additionally, the stomach supports antibacterial action and as well as the release of acids. Lastly, the stomach plays a part in the preliminary digestion of both lipase and pepsin (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
The Small Intestine
The small intestine is where most of both mechanical and chemical breakdown takes place. It is also the place where useful materials are absorbed. The organ has two major parts which include the duodenum and the ileum (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). The primary function carried out by the duodenum is the neutralization of acidic contents. The organ also initiates further digestion. On the other hand, absorption of food takes place in the ileum (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008). The organ is considered be the longest among these parts to increase the surface area for the absorption of food. The lining of the ileum is composed of villi which further increase the surface are for absorption (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
The Pancreas
The organ’s primary function is to secrete enzymes that help in the digestion of food. The enzymes secreted by the organ include the peptidase, the lipase and the amylase for proteins, fats, and carbohydrate digestion respectively (Couture & Baud, 2008). The secretions done by the organ are regulated by hormones that also influence the release of bile by the gallbladder (Couture & Baud, 2008). Bile is an agent that emulsifies fats, that is fats are converted to water soluble substances and also creates favorable working conditions for the pancreatic enzymes (Couture & Baud, 2008).
The Large Intestine
The products that reach this organ are a waste because the essential nutrients have been absorbed. Therefore the role of the organ is to absorb water and pass the remainder of the waste to the rectum for expulsion (Couture & Baud, 2008).  The organ also absorbs minerals such as sodium and potassium. In addition to the absorption process, the organ also secretes mucus which is used as a lubricant for the intestinal walls (Couture & Baud, 2008).
Conclusion
I conclusion, understanding the physiology and anatomy of the body systems allows both the nurse and other individuals to conduct a successful assessment because they can identify system disorders. For example, a good comprehension of these systems will assist in the interpretation and recognition of evaluation data related to the history of a patient as well as their physical exams.
References
Beachey, W. (2018). Respiratory care anatomy and physiology: Foundations for clinical practice. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.
Couture, A., & Baud, C. (2008). Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children. Berlin: Springer.
Ionescu, C. M. (2013). The Human Respiratory System: An Analysis of the Interplay between Anatomy, Structure, Breathing and Fractal Dynamics. London: Imprint: Springer.
Leung, P. S. (2014). The gastrointestinal system: Gastrointestinal, nutritional and hepatobiliary physiology. Dordrecht : Springer
Leung, P. S. (2014). The gastrointestinal system: Gastrointestinal, nutritional and hepatobiliary physiology. Dordrecht : Springer
Marieb, E. N., & Hoehn, K. (2010). Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
Reece, W. O. (2013). Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. Arnes, AI: Wiley.
Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. (2008). Principles of anatomy and physiology. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.