THE ABOVE WAS OUR ASSIGNMENT AND THE CLASS COMMENTED ON THEIR PART. I NEED COMMENTS ON THE CLASSES ANSWERS BELOW. THERE ARE THREE SEPARATE COMMENTS. I NEED ONE FOR YOU TO MAKE A NURSING COMMENT AS TO THEIR ANSWERS TO THE ABOVE TOPIC. SOMETHING THAT MAY BE RELEVENT IN THE NURSING FIELD. PATIENT CARE BELIEVF RELIGION. MAYBE ONE CAN USE DOMETHING IN STATISTICS. ONE REFERENCE FROM EACH OF THEM WITH THE URL SITE SO I CAN QUICKLY GO TO THE WEB IN CASE THE INSTGRUCTOR ASKS FOR FURTHER CLARRIFICATION THANKS.
Research: study of lives of humans.
Holistic approach. Describes a
lived experience to describe an exemplar of an experience. Unique to individual or special group, time,
or context. Influences by these
factors. Puts all the influences
together to make a whole reasoning. Subjective and intersubjective. Different perceptions influence
meaningfulness. Not generalized. The amount of rigor determines more or less
the worth of the findings.
Self-interpreting lived experiences.
Research: inductive technique that roots in data. Social-life related. Seeks to understand the interaction between
self and group from those involved and their perspective. Attaches meaning to situations. Uses symbols such as word, clothes, religious
objects to gain new insight. No previous
research on said area. Creates theoretical frameworks with relational
statements. Explores how people define
reality and how beliefs related to actions help explain human behavior.
How Do You Feel?
Phenomenological – “Phenomenologists view the person as integrated with the environment. The world shapes the person, and the person shapes the world” (Burns, et al., 2015). This type of research is based on how phenomena effects the person and the person’s perspective of the phenomenon, or his/her reaction and response to the phenomenon.
Grounded – “(I)nvolves exploring how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions. Reality is created by attaching meanings to situations. Meaning is expressed in such symbols as words, religious objects, patterns of behavior, and clothing” (Burns, et al., 2015). This theory includes the person’s worldview and how reality is filtered through what the person believes about the world and reality, and how this is reflected in the person’s response or reaction to reality.
Ethnographic – This type of research considers the culture of the subjects of interest. Considering the culture’s origin, way of living, and survival and how persons from various cultures filter their belief about health, illness, and pain etc. through their cultural beliefs. Researchers can study this from an emic perspective, which is from within the culture. Or from an etic perspective which is from outside of the culture and examining similarities and differences between various cultures (Burns, et al., 2015).
Differences – The phenomenological theory observes data from an ego-centric perspective. As if the person is without influence from outside entities or internal compulsion. The grounded theory will probably produce as many interpretations of data as there are persons to describe a phenomenon; the interpretation may be influenced by the perspective of the interpreter. The ethnographic theory may make broad inferences based on a culture and overlook that this is an individual within a culture.
Similarities – All three of these theories attempt to collect data that deals with the perspectives of the subjects of interest. How a person defines pain or illness and how the person responds to them is what qualitative research attempts to reflect.
Burns, N., Gray, J., & Grove, S. (2015). Introduction to Qualitative Research. Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from: https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/9781455770601/
Qualitative research can be defined as a method of inquiring a phenomenon through description. This method is seen as action research because it uses interview and observation methods. Qualitative methodology consists of illustration, instrumentation, conceptualization and sensitization (Boyd, C. 2001).
Differences between grounded theory and ethnographic research: Ethnographic method differentiates from grounded theory by necessitating the understanding the participants’ behavior in regard to specific culture. It is an attempt for the ethnographers to put focal point in one aspect such as culture instead of the whole situation. In grounded theory, researchers describe the most important category by which the study is centered and intertwine it with the event of participant behavior of certain phenomenon.
Grounded theory and ethnographic research differs on the approach of literature review via data collection before and after. Glaser (1978) stated grounded theorists ask for many literature reviews that are not related to area of interest. Ethnographers seek literature reviews based on thetopic of research before undertaking the study.
Clear differences exist between the two methods in sample selections. In grounded theory, researchers like to adopt theoretical sampling technique which helps in theory building (Glaser, 1978). During data collection phase of grounded theory, researchers collect codes and analyze data which lead to the formation of theory. While ethnographic research collects purpose sample which is for a particular aspect of a culture. The goal is to find a single case.
The final differences between the two methods are based on how researchers would present their findings. The researchers like to present findings of grounded theory on discussion of events relating to something or analysis of events based from collection of data. Whereas the ethnographers will focus on presenting their findings by chronicle participants behavior and activities.
Similarities between grounded theory and ethnographic research: The two types of research use natural context in their studies and apply holistic procedures to understand the phenomenon (Calvin, 2004). Second similarity is that both methods can utilize one data collection and adopt it, which leads to various interpretations, accuracy and reliability. The third similarity stems from the fact the two methods are presented with the perspective of real participants who are involved with the study. For example, clips of video, excerpts from real interview and stories of people can add credibility of the research findings.
Boyd, C. (2001). Philosophical foundations of qualitative research. In Munhall (Ed), Nursing research: A qualitative perspective (pp.65-90). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Calvin, A.C. (2004). Hemodialysis patients and end of life decisions. A theory of personal preservation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46, 558-566
Glaser, B. G. (1992). Basics of grounded theory analysis: Emergency vs. forcing. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology press.