With reference to psychological and neurological terms, memory at its simplest refers to a set of encoded neural connection within the brain. Additionally, it is the recreation and reconstruction of the experiences that occurred in the past trough the synchronous firing of the neurons involve in the original experience. It is clear that that although memory refers to the manner in which the memory is encoded, most psychologists thinks better of it as a type of collage or jigsaw puzzle rather than in the traditional manner in which the theorists viewed it as a collection of recordings and video clips stored as discrete wholes. The memories of the people are not within the brain like many scholars claims but are on-the-fly reconstructions from the scattered elements throughout the different areas of the brain. The memory relates to but differs from learning which is the process involving acquisition of knowledge of the world and modification of human behaviour ( National Institute on Aging, 2007). During the learning processes, the neurons firing integrative to produce a particular experience are altered to all the tendency of firing together again. For example, people learn new languages through studying but speak through using the memory to retrieve the words learned initially. Therefore, the memory depends on the learning since it allows people to store and retrieve the learnt information. However, the learning process also depends on the memory to some extent, in that the stored knowledge within the memory provides a framework that the new knowledge is linked through association and inference. The ability of the humans to recollect the past memories to imagine the future and plan future courses of action is an enormously important attribute in the survival and development of the humans.
Most psychologists overrule the fact the fat that human memory is a unitary process. However, several types of research claim that there are different memory types at psychological level that are work among the humans. It also seems progressively likely that these systems bring different parts of the brain into play. There are several methods of classifying the types of human memory depending on the criterion employed. With focus on the duration as criterion, there are three different types of the human memory including sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. Within human memory, there is the portion containing exactly what somebody knows often referred to as the declarative memory. The declarative memory contains facts, events, and other memories that people can consciously recall. To some extent, it is explicit owing to the fact that it contains information stored and retrieved (Kesner & Martinez, 2007). Moreover, declarative also represent the information on the experiences and events in time in a serial form from which people can reconstruct the actual events which took place at some given point in one’s life of to some extent the memory of the autographical events that are explicitly state able. In most cases, people see themselves as actors in such events while the emotional charge and the whole context surrounding the event usually considered memory part, not just the bare facts related to the events.
Within the memory, there is the unconscious component, which relates to how an individual knows the information within their memories. The procedural memory is the unconscious memory type with information regarding the skills, ways of doing things, and how to use the objects and body movements like playing guitar or riding bicycles. This memory encompasses the automatic sensory motor behaviours that greatly embedded that people are no longer aware of them and once acquired through learning, such body memories allow people to carry out the ordinary or normal motor actions automatically. To some extent, the procedural is often referred to as the implicit memory since the previous experience assists in the performance of the various tasks without explicit or conscious awareness of the previous activities undertaken, even though it is more appropriately a subset of the implicit memory (Thornton, 2008). The sense data are not sored in their raw form, but rather organized into a mental representation that allows for comparison. On the other hand, knowledge is a different form of memory, which does not require sensory simulation to activate. For example, when someone forms a mental image of what others look like in their absence or remembers the sound quality of their voices, he/she is referencing the knowledge representation of that person which is viewed as an interrupted form of sense data. He/she literally lacks the image or the sound within the memory, but the information at hand allows the mind to reconstruct it.
The propositional theory gives an alternative to the dual-code theory suggesting the manner in which the mind handles the sensory information is more abstract than the words and images. The mental representations are expressed in these methods. With focus on the on the long-term memory, people store the concepts rather than the sensory information of the actual things. People have different methods of understanding the relationship between the memory and knowledge. Through propositional theory, it is clear that the understanding of the people regarding the relationships is what shapes the knowledge of the people. According to the theory, people do not store the various forms of images but rather the meanings of the involved concepts. As a result, there is creation of the verbal and visual codes through transformation f the propositional codes (Fox, 2008). The knowledge within the long-term memory is assumed to be represented in different propositional formats such as schemas, rules, and the semantic nets. With comparison of the declarative and procedural knowledge, declarative is assumed a representation of the formal proposition such as the rule while procedural involves an active process and procedure. Everything that people see within their field of vision, whether images or the actual environment is unconsciously perceived at glance, but rather a raw sense information without recognition. People recognize things through scanning, moving gazes around the environment, and separating individual items for the purpose of their recognition and testing them against the memories. Most psychologists and scientists hold that conclusions can only be valid if they hold all the possibilities. The procedures of reasoning with the mental models on the counter-examples tend to refute such invalid references since they establish the validity by ensuring that conclusions hold over all the models used with the premises. That reasoning often focuses on the subset of the possible models.
References
Fox, E. (2008). Emotion science: Cognitive and neuroscientific approaches to understanding human emotions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kesner, R. P., & Martinez, J. L. (2007). Neurobiology of learning and memory. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
National Institute on Aging. (2007). Understanding memory loss. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging.
Thornton, S. (2008). Understanding human development: Biological, social, and psychological processes from conception to adult life. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.