The CELL
Name
Institutional Affiliation
 
 
The Cell
 
Prokaryotic cells vs. Eukaryotic cells.
Complete the chart below.

Prokaryote only Eukaryote only Characteristics common to both
nucleoid Membrane-bound nucleus The presence of a plasma membrane
Have a circular DNA The DNA is linear Cell membrane
unicellular multicellular ribosomes

Plant cell structures vs. Animal cell structures.
In the chart below, place organelles and structures that are found only in plants in column 1, and place organelles and structures that are found only in animal cells in column 2.

Plant cell Animal cell
Cell wall centrioles
chloroplast cilia
glycosomes plastids

 
Cell Theory
List and understand the supporting facts

  • Cell theory is a fundamental principle in biology which implies that every living things is made up of a single or multiple cells.
  • It also suggests that the cell is the central structural and functional unit among all living organisms (Alberts, et al. 2013).
  • The cells originate from cells that existed formerly.
  • It is inside the cells that the flow of energy takes place.
  • Chemically, all cells are similar in related species.

Organelles: for each organelle listed on the left, tell where it is found and what its function is in the chart below:

Organelle Location function
Chloroplast cytoplasm Synthesizing of food within the plant
Mitochondria cytoplasm Energy production for the cell
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum cytoplasm Making and storing lipids and hormones
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum Throughout the cell but highly concentrated near the nucleus and Golgi apparatus Production of proteins
Nucleolus Inside the nucleus Synthesis of rRNA
ribosome    
Golgi apparatus cytoplasm Sorting and packaging proteins into membrane- bound vesicles
Chromatin/chromosome nucleus Packaging and protecting the structure and sequence of DNA
centrosome centrosome Involved in cell division
lysosome cytoplasm Breaking down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates into small particles

 
Endomembrane system
What organelles compose this endomembrane system?
Nucleus:
Nucleolus
Nuclear envelope/membrane/pores
Nucleoplasm
DNA location
Chromatin/chromosome- understand the two terms relationship.
Chromatin is the DNA and protein matter that build up the chromosomes (Alberts, et al. 2013). Chromosomes are the DNA strands that consist of chromatin.
Remaining structural components:
Cell/plasma membrane- covered in detail next review. The phospholipid bilayer
Cytoplasm-cytosol and the organelles suspended in it, ions, proteins
Cell wall – Nucleus, chloroplast, vacuole
Transport vesicles
Vacuoles
Contractile vacuoles-membrane folds, tubules, and water tracts
Cytoskeleton
Consists of Microfilaments, Microtubules and intermediate filaments. A cytoskeleton supports and keeps the cell in shape and allows movement via its components which are fibrous (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Cilia vs. Flagella
Cilia are petite and occur in hundreds while flagella are long and few.
 
 
Unit 3 Cell membrane Review
Cell membrane structure

Cholesterol
Transport proteins

Review the diagram below and identify the major components. Include phospholipids, transport proteins, cholesterol.
 
 

Hydrophobic tails
Hydrophilic heads
Phospholipids

 
Phospholipid bilayer: Hydrophilic heads & hydrophobic tails-
Which is which?  Match term to correct part of phospholipid.
Concentration gradient– the movement of solute from a highly concentrated region to a lowly concentrated region via a solution or gas.
Passive transport-the movement of ions across a cell membrane in absence of energy.
Diffusion– movement of molecules from a highly concentrated area to a lowly concentrated region (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Osmosis– the movement of molecules from a low to a high concentrated solution across a semipermeable membrane.
Facilitated diffusion-the passive and spontaneous movement of particles through a natural membrane with the help of integral proteins.
Selective/semi permeability- the nature of being partially penetrable.
Active Transport– penetration of particles through a cell membrane into a highly concentrated region in presence of energy and enzymes. The difference between this process and passive energy is that active transport cannot happen without energy.
Endocytosis & Exocytosis- endocytosis involves trapping an outside molecule into the cell by covering it with the cell membrane while exocytosis is the fusion of the vesicles and the plasma membrane to release substances outside the cell (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Phagocytosis vs. Pinocytosis- phagocytosis is the absorption of any type of substances into the cell while pinocytosis is specific on the particles it transports.
Define the following terms:
Solute- the substance which dissolves in a solvent to form a solution
Solvent- a liquid in which a substance dissolves
Solution- a mixture of two substances, a solute and a solvent
Isotonic-solutions where the osmotic concentration of the dissolved solute is similar (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Hypertonic- a solution where the molar concentration of the solute is higher outside a membrane than inside.
Hypotonic-a solution with greater osmotic concentration inside a membrane than outside.
What happens to plant and animal cells in hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions?
Diagram 1.       The cell is gray.
Answer the following questions for the diagram below.

  1. What is the relationship of the cell in comparison to the solution that surrounds it? (Hint: use one of the terms above about tonicity)

Basically, the cell and the solution surrounding it is hypotonic. This is because, the cell has a higher concentration of the solution compared to its surrounding.
 

  1. Which way will the water move in relation to the cell? (into or out of the cell)

Water will move into the cell where the solute is more concentrated.
Diagram 2.
For each diagram, left to right, you are provided the tonicity of the cell.  Which way does the water move, in relation to the cell?
Hypertonic- moves-outside the cell
Isotonic- moves-no movement
Hypotonic- water moves-inside the cell
The terms below relate to what occurs to cells when water moves in or out of the cell.
Turgid/Turgor pressure-the force created by the osmotic flow of water
Lysis- cell fragmentation due to wearing out of the cell membrane
Plasmolysis-the shrinking of the protoplast due to water loss on a plant cell (Alberts, et al. 2013).
 
 
Photosynthesis
The process in which plants manufactures its own food
Autotrophs
Autotrophs are important in photosynthesis as they generate glucose by using sunlight energy, soil water, and carbon dioxide.
Write out the Photosynthesis Summary Equation.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Alberts, et al. 2013).
What are the reactants? Carbon dioxide and water
What are the products? Glucose and oxygen
What energy source is required for Photosynthesis to begin? Sunlight
What is the organelle of photosynthesis? Chloroplast
What are the structures of the chloroplast? Chlorophyll, grana, and stroma
What part of photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoids? Light-dependent reactions
What part of photosynthesis takes place in the stroma? Calvin cycle
What are the primary pigments of photosynthesis? Chlorophyll found in the chloroplast, and phycocyanin found in Cyanobacteria
What wavelengths of light do they absorb? Long and Short.  What wavelengths do they reflect? Red and blue.
What are the secondary pigments of photosynthesis that produce the fall coloration? Carotenoids
What are stomata and what is their function? The small openings in plant leaves that allow the intake of carbon dioxide and expulsion of oxygen.
What is the function of roots/ veins? Absorbing water and nutrients and form the foundation of the plant. Veins transport the nutrients all over the plant.
Stage of Photosynthesis (light reactions and Calvin cycle/dark reactions)
What reactant of the Summary Equation enters the Light Dependent Reaction?
12 H2O + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi +light and chlorophyll = 6 O2 + 12 NADPH + 18 ATP. 8.
What is photolysis? The breakdown of molecules through sunlight
What is released as a result of photolysis? Hydrogen and oxygen
What happens to the electrons that are released? Hydrogen bonds with NADP to form NADPH.
What is produced in the Light Dependent Reaction that is used in the Light Independent/Dark Reaction? ATP and NADPH
What product of the Summary Equation is produced or released in the light dependent reaction? ATP
What Reactant of the Summary Equation Enters the Light Independent Reaction/Calvin cycle? None
What happens or changes to the products of the Light dependent reaction that enter the Calvin Cycle? They combine with hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide
What product is directly produced and removed from the Light independent reaction? C3H6O3-phosphate
What does the product above become with some minor metabolic changes? 3-caebon sugar
How is Carbon fixation accomplished in the Calvin cycle? Carbon is reacted to generate G3P
Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis gathers the glucose molecule while cellular respiration breaks it down.
 
 
Unit 2 Organic Chemistry
Organic compounds vs. Inorganic compounds
What makes a compound organic? The presence of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Inorganic? Lack of carbon atoms
 
Functional groups (phosphate groups, amino groups, carboxyl groups)
Know the structure of each of these groups, and which organic compounds they are found in. You can draw them for your own use.
Phosphate groups- they are made up of a phosphorous atom which is linked to four oxygen molecules. One of its oxygen atoms is usually bonded to one carbon. They are found in organic phosphates which are salts.
Amino groups-consist of a nitrogen atom which is bonded by single bonds to hydrogen, aryl, or alkyls. They belong to organic compounds known as amines.
Carboxyl groups- contains a carbon atom which is attached to oxygen via a double bond and connected to a hydroxyl group in a single bond. Their formula is COOH. They are found in carboxylic acids.
 
Hydrolysis
It is the decomposition of a compound through water. It is used in breaking down ATP into ADP.
Dehydration synthesis
It involves combining two elements after the elimination of water. It is useful in the formation of large compounds.
Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and examples)
Know the process of joining two monosaccharides together to create a disaccharide- Dehydration synthesis
Be able to give examples of several monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharide examples (3) Disaccharide examples (2) Complex carbohydrates  (3)
 
Glucose
Sucrose Peas
Fructose
 
Lactose Beans
Galactose
 
maltose Vegetables

Lipids (Saturated vs. Unsaturated; Phospholipids, Steroids)
Saturated fatty acid- A fat whose fatty acids are primarily single-bonded.
Unsaturated fatty acid-Fats that contain at least one double bond in its chain of fatty acids.
What process is used to put the fatty acid chain on a glycerol molecule? Condensation polymerization reaction.
Hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic
Define hydrophilic- friendly with water and other polar substances reactions.
What part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic? The heads
Define hydrophobic- resists water
What part of the phospholipid is hydrophobic? The tails
Proteins, types and functions
What is a protein composed of, and what does it do?
A protein is made up of amino acids. Proteins are important in body-building.
Amino acids
Name the three parts of the amino acid that come off the common Carbon.
Carboxyl group, amino group, and the R group
Identify each of the three parts. (Amino Acid ID game)
-COOH, -NH2, and “R” group
Peptide Bonds
How are they formed? Through the reaction between a carboxyl and amino groups of different molecules.
What two parts of each amino acid do they join together? Amino group and carboxyl group
 
Enzymes – substances which increase the speed of a chemical reaction(s) within cells.
Levels of Protein structure
Complete the chart below.

Protein structure level definition
Primary The arrangement of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
Secondary The manner in which a polypeptide chain folds into a 3-D shape.
Tertiary The complex structural pattern of a protein’s polypeptide chain.
Quaternary A protein which consists of many polypeptide chains.

 
Protein Denaturation
The alteration of secondary and secondary and secondary structures of proteins. It happens when the alpha-helix and beta pieces unfold into normal shape.
Define what a Solute is. A solute is the substance which dissolves in a solvent to form a solution
Define what a solvent is. A solvent is a liquid in which a substance dissolves
Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, ATP)
Nucleotide
Name its three parts and be able to identify each of them on a diagram.  (Nucleotide ID game)
What are the two possible sugars used in a nucleotide? Deoxyribose and ribose
 
Complete the Table below.

  DNA RNA ATP
What sugar does it have? Deoxyribose Ribose Ribose
What nitrogen bases does it have? Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine Adenine, thymine, uracil, and cytosine adenine
Provide the pairings of the nitrogen bases of each nucleic acid
 
Guanine-cytosine
Adenine-thymine
Adenine-uracil
Thymine-cytosine
N/A
What is its structure?
 
G-C A-T A-U T-C C10H16N5O13P3

 
 
 
Unit 3 Energy Review
 
Chemical potential energy vs. kinetic energy
Kinetic energy-determined through the velocity and mass of an object
Chemical potential energy- emanates from the position of something
Energy Transformation- refers to the conversion from one type of energy into another. For instance, electrical energy is mainly often changed into light energy.
Laws of Thermodynamics
Know the two laws and understand how they apply to metabolism and energy transformation.
Energy is neither developed nor destroyed as per the conservation law. Energy is obtained by eating food and utilized in various cellular functions in the body.
The second law is that energy transference if not totally efficient. For instance, during photosynthesis, some light energy may be lost as heat.
ATP
Know its structure. C10H16N5O13P3. Understand how it is built and broken, using the terms endergonic and exergonic.
Endergonic Reactions- a reaction where energy is taken in from the surrounding to synthesize ATP
 
Exergonic reactions – Involves the release of energy into the surroundings by breaking down the ATP
 
Metabolism and metabolic pathways
Metabolism-the series of chemical processes within organisms that sustain life.
Metabolic pathways- A set of chemical reactions that occur inside a cell. For example, glycolytic pathway, and oxidative pathway.
Enzymes
What are they? Substances which increase the speed of a chemical reaction(s) within cells.
Levels of Protein structure
How do they work? Enzymes accelerate a reaction by lessening the activation energy
What is activation energy? The average energy necessary to undertake a certain chemical process.
What is an active site? The location where molecules combine and go through a reaction
How do you denature an enzyme? By exposing it to extremely high temperatures.
 
 
Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration and energy conversion
What does cellular respiration do in relation to energy conversion?
During cellular respiration, food energy is changed into energy that can support body functions.
Oxidation-Reduction reaction (redox reactions)
Explain an oxidation reaction-one that involves the addition of oxygen to another substance
Explain a reduction reaction-one that involves loss of electron
How do these two reactions support each other? Through gaining or losing of electrons, stability in various elements is achieved.
Aerobic vs anaerobic metabolism

  Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration
Where does it take place? cytoplasm mitochondria
How many ATP are generated? 2 ATP 38 ATP
Does it require oxygen? No Yes

 
Alcohol and Lactic acid fermentation:
What type of respiration are these metabolic pathways? Aerobic respiration
What is the product of alcohol fermentation? Ethanol
How many ATP are generated? 2
What is the product of lactic acid fermentation? Lactic acid
How many ATP are generated? 2
Which stage of respiration is considered the most primitive or ancient? Glycolysis
Glycolysis
Where does glycolysis take place? cytoplasm
How many ATP are net produced in glycolysis? four
How many H atoms? two
What are the molecules that are the created at the end of glycolysis? (hint: it now enters the mitochondria) Pyruvic acid, ATP, and NADH molecules.
Transition reaction
What is the reactant that enters into the mitochondria for this “stage”? Pyruvate
How many H atoms are generated? 8 atoms
Citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle
What is the product that enters the Citric Acid Cycle? Pyruvate
What is released as a byproduct? Carbon dioxide
How many ATP are produced in the citric acid cycle? 38
All of the electrons generated from glycolysis, transition reaction and the citric acid cycle travel via the coenzymes, NADH and FADH2 to what stage? Oxidation stage
Electron transport chain/system
In the electron transport system, H+ ions are pumped across the mitochondrial membrane, and then they come back through what important protein/enzyme? Complex I protein
What does the energy released in this protein/enzyme make? Ubiquinone
How many ATP are made in the final stage? Between 32 and 34
What does oxygen do in the final stage?  Accepting electrons and absorbs protons from water
What is the final electron acceptor? Oxygen
Do the electrons in the electron transport system help create ATP as well?  (Simple yes or no for understanding) No
How is water made in the final stage? Glucose splits down in presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
Write out the summary equation of Aerobic Cellular Respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
What are the Reactants in the summary equation?
Glucose and oxygen
What are the Products of summary equation?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the Total (net) ATP production across all phases of cellular respiration? 36
 
 
Unit 1 Lesson 1
Biology –the study of living organisms?
Characteristics of living things (Also called properties of life in class notes.)

  • Reproduction
  • Growth and development
  • Homeostatis
  • Sensitivity
  • Response to the surroundings

Levels of organization= Hierarchy of life (from the smallest to the largest)

  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ systems
  • organisms

Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic organisms
Both have plasma membranes, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA. However, prokaryotic organelles lack nucleus and their structures are not membrane bound.
Taxonomy and classification of life – how are living things named and related?
Organisms are named through binomial nomenclature based on their genus and species categories. They are also related as they share the same ancestors.
Carl Linnaeus – who is he?
He is considered as the father of taxonomy, a concept which is utilized in naming animals.
3 domains of life

  • Archaea
  • Eukarya
  • Bacteria

Kingdoms of domain Eukarya

  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Protista
  • fungi

Evolution and Natural selection (covered in the discussion)
Charles Darwin-the biologist who came up with evolution theory
Adaptation-a characteristic that is shared by all members of a population to help them cope
Lesson 2
Science and the scientific method

  1. Observe
  2. Develop a hypothesis
  3. Experiment the hypothesis
  4. Analyze data
  5. Make conclusions

Hypothesis-a suggestion which is made based on little information which acts as the starting point for more research.
Lesson 3
Energy and nutrient movement in ecosystems
How does energy move through the ecosystem?
Through a one-way stream from primary producers to the different types of consumers
How much energy goes from one level to the next?-At least 10 percent
How do nutrients move through the ecosystem? Through recycling
Energy pyramid-
What does it represent? The flow of energy in an ecosystem
What is each box or level called? Trophic level
What does each box or level represent? The different types of organisms that belong there
What are they and how are they defined? They are either producers or consumers
Trophic levels in food chains/food webs
What is a trophic level? The position of an organism from the beginning of the chain
How much energy moves from one level to the next? Around 10 percent
What is the difference between food chains and food webs? A food web has more than one food chain. A food chain consists of one path only for finding food.
Organism vs. Population vs. Community vs. Ecosystem
Which is the smallest? Organism is the smallest followed by community, population, then an ecosystem.  Which is the largest?  How are they related or interconnected? They are interconnected since they chare common resources.
Producers-plants which make their own food
Consumers-organisms which cannot produce their own nourishments and depend on others.
Detritivores-heterotrophs which depend on decomposing materials for food
Decomposers –organisms that rely on dead organisms or waste from living things for food.
Producers make their own food and they are eaten by consumers. When consumers die, they decompose, they are consumed by decomposers which are then eaten by detritivores which eventually decompose to form nutrients which are absorbed by plants.
Herbivores-animals that feed on plants only for energy
Omnivores-organisms that can eat both plants and animals
Carnivores-animals that strictly feeds on other animals.
Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
Autotrophs manufacture their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. For example, plants and algae. On the other hand, heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food but instead, they eat other organisms. For example, animals and fungi.
Biotic vs. abiotic factors
Biotic-non-living elements in the surroundings such as temperature and which impact ecosystems
Biotic- living factors in an ecosystem, for instance plants matter and animals
Hydrologic cycle – the process in which water circulates within the earth and the atmosphere. It involves evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection.
Carbon cycle- the process in which carbon is exchanged on all the spheres of the earth. Carbon is absorbed by plants and used to make food which is then eaten by living things. It in that way that organisms absorb carbon which is stored and then breathed out as carbon dioxide.
Lesson 4 Evolution and Natural selection
What is natural selection? The adaptation process or living things to their surroundings for continued reproduction.
Who are the two naturalists who first described natural selection? Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell
What are the three principles necessary for natural selection, according to Darwin? Variation, heredity, and selection.
Define adaptation and variation.
Adaptation is the manner in which living things get used to their surroundings while variation is the changes in environment.
The evidence provided to support Evolution includes:  1. Observation

  1. Fossils
  2. Molecular biology
  3. Anatomy
  4. Biogeography

What is artificial selection?  It is the cross breeding of animals and plants to create more desirable features. How is it different from natural selection? Artificial selection differs from natural selection as it involves human intervention or manipulation.
 
 
Unit 2 Inorganic Chemistry
Atomic structure: protons, neutrons, electrons
Complete the chart below.

  Protons Neutrons Electrons
location nucleus nucleus Outside nucleus
Charge +1 0 -1
Important factor Neutron/proton ratio charge stability

 
Define the following terms:
Atomic number- the number of protons within the nucleus
Mass number-the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Isotope-elements of the same compound which differ in atomic number
 
Electron configuration and valence electrons
Know how many electrons are able to fill each of the first three shells.
Be able to determine how many valence electrons an atom has. Practice below.

Element Atomic number Total # of electrons # of valence electrons
C 6 6 4
Cl 17 17 7
O 8 8 6
N 7 7 5

 
Element vs. Compound
A compound is made up of atoms of diverse elements while an element only contains one type of atoms.
List the 6 most common elements in the human body

  • Carbon
  • Oxygen
  • Calcium
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen
  • phosphorous

Trace elements and examples. (Assignment)
Trace elements are those found in small amount in a particular location. Some examples include copper, iron, and zinc
Covalent Bonds vs. Ionic bonds vs. Hydrogen bonds
In covalent bonds, a single or more electrons pairs are shared among two atoms while ionic bonds are characterized by the removal of one or more electrons from a particular atoms and then linked to another atom. Hydrogen bond occurs when an atom of hydrogen forms a covalent bond with an atom which is more electronegative.
Properties of water due to hydrogen bonds
What water properties are created due to hydrogen bonds? Cohesion and a high surface tension
PH scale, acids vs. bases
Define an acid and a base.
An acid is a chemical molecule with a capability of giving out protons or hydrogen ions and accepting electrons. A base is a compound that offers electrons and accepts protons.
Know the pH scale and the measurements that determine if something is an acid or a base.
PH scale is the tool used to determine the acidity or alkalinity of a substance which can dissolve in water. It ranges from 1-14. Values below 7 reflect acidity while those above 7 indicate basicity. 7 is the neutral point.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Alberts, B., Bray, D., Hopkin, K., Johnson, A. D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., & Walter, P. (2013). Essential cell biology. Garland Science.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The CELL
Name
Institutional Affiliation
 
 
The Cell
Unit 3 Cell Structures
Prokaryotic cells vs. Eukaryotic cells.
Complete the chart below.

Prokaryote only Eukaryote only Characteristics common to both
nucleoid Membrane-bound nucleus The presence of a plasma membrane
Have a circular DNA The DNA is linear Cell membrane
unicellular multicellular ribosomes

Plant cell structures vs. Animal cell structures.
In the chart below, place organelles and structures that are found only in plants in column 1, and place organelles and structures that are found only in animal cells in column 2.

Plant cell Animal cell
Cell wall centrioles
chloroplast cilia
glycosomes plastids

 
Cell Theory
List and understand the supporting facts

  • Cell theory is a fundamental principle in biology which implies that every living things is made up of a single or multiple cells.
  • It also suggests that the cell is the central structural and functional unit among all living organisms (Alberts, et al. 2013).
  • The cells originate from cells that existed formerly.
  • It is inside the cells that the flow of energy takes place.
  • Chemically, all cells are similar in related species.

Organelles: for each organelle listed on the left, tell where it is found and what its function is in the chart below:

Organelle Location function
Chloroplast cytoplasm Synthesizing of food within the plant
Mitochondria cytoplasm Energy production for the cell
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum cytoplasm Making and storing lipids and hormones
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum Throughout the cell but highly concentrated near the nucleus and Golgi apparatus Production of proteins
Nucleolus Inside the nucleus Synthesis of rRNA
ribosome    
Golgi apparatus cytoplasm Sorting and packaging proteins into membrane- bound vesicles
Chromatin/chromosome nucleus Packaging and protecting the structure and sequence of DNA
centrosome centrosome Involved in cell division
lysosome cytoplasm Breaking down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates into small particles

 
Endomembrane system
What organelles compose this endomembrane system?
Nucleus:
Nucleolus
Nuclear envelope/membrane/pores
Nucleoplasm
DNA location
Chromatin/chromosome- understand the two terms relationship.
Chromatin is the DNA and protein matter that build up the chromosomes (Alberts, et al. 2013). Chromosomes are the DNA strands that consist of chromatin.
Remaining structural components:
Cell/plasma membrane- covered in detail next review. The phospholipid bilayer
Cytoplasm-cytosol and the organelles suspended in it, ions, proteins
Cell wall – Nucleus, chloroplast, vacuole
Transport vesicles
Vacuoles
Contractile vacuoles-membrane folds, tubules, and water tracts
Cytoskeleton
Consists of Microfilaments, Microtubules and intermediate filaments. A cytoskeleton supports and keeps the cell in shape and allows movement via its components which are fibrous (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Cilia vs. Flagella
Cilia are petite and occur in hundreds while flagella are long and few.
 
 
Unit 3 Cell membrane Review
Cell membrane structure

Cholesterol
Transport proteins

Review the diagram below and identify the major components. Include phospholipids, transport proteins, cholesterol.
 
 

Hydrophobic tails
Hydrophilic heads
Phospholipids

 
Phospholipid bilayer: Hydrophilic heads & hydrophobic tails-
Which is which?  Match term to correct part of phospholipid.
Concentration gradient– the movement of solute from a highly concentrated region to a lowly concentrated region via a solution or gas.
Passive transport-the movement of ions across a cell membrane in absence of energy.
Diffusion– movement of molecules from a highly concentrated area to a lowly concentrated region (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Osmosis– the movement of molecules from a low to a high concentrated solution across a semipermeable membrane.
Facilitated diffusion-the passive and spontaneous movement of particles through a natural membrane with the help of integral proteins.
Selective/semi permeability- the nature of being partially penetrable.
Active Transport– penetration of particles through a cell membrane into a highly concentrated region in presence of energy and enzymes. The difference between this process and passive energy is that active transport cannot happen without energy.
Endocytosis & Exocytosis- endocytosis involves trapping an outside molecule into the cell by covering it with the cell membrane while exocytosis is the fusion of the vesicles and the plasma membrane to release substances outside the cell (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Phagocytosis vs. Pinocytosis- phagocytosis is the absorption of any type of substances into the cell while pinocytosis is specific on the particles it transports.
Define the following terms:
Solute- the substance which dissolves in a solvent to form a solution
Solvent- a liquid in which a substance dissolves
Solution- a mixture of two substances, a solute and a solvent
Isotonic-solutions where the osmotic concentration of the dissolved solute is similar (Alberts, et al. 2013).
Hypertonic- a solution where the molar concentration of the solute is higher outside a membrane than inside.
Hypotonic-a solution with greater osmotic concentration inside a membrane than outside.
What happens to plant and animal cells in hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions?
Diagram 1.       The cell is gray.
Answer the following questions for the diagram below.

  1. What is the relationship of the cell in comparison to the solution that surrounds it? (Hint: use one of the terms above about tonicity)

Basically, the cell and the solution surrounding it is hypotonic. This is because, the cell has a higher concentration of the solution compared to its surrounding.
 

  1. Which way will the water move in relation to the cell? (into or out of the cell)

Water will move into the cell where the solute is more concentrated.
Diagram 2.
For each diagram, left to right, you are provided the tonicity of the cell.  Which way does the water move, in relation to the cell?
Hypertonic- moves-outside the cell
Isotonic- moves-no movement
Hypotonic- water moves-inside the cell
The terms below relate to what occurs to cells when water moves in or out of the cell.
Turgid/Turgor pressure-the force created by the osmotic flow of water
Lysis- cell fragmentation due to wearing out of the cell membrane
Plasmolysis-the shrinking of the protoplast due to water loss on a plant cell (Alberts, et al. 2013).
 
 
Photosynthesis
The process in which plants manufactures its own food
Autotrophs
Autotrophs are important in photosynthesis as they generate glucose by using sunlight energy, soil water, and carbon dioxide.
Write out the Photosynthesis Summary Equation.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Alberts, et al. 2013).
What are the reactants? Carbon dioxide and water
What are the products? Glucose and oxygen
What energy source is required for Photosynthesis to begin? Sunlight
What is the organelle of photosynthesis? Chloroplast
What are the structures of the chloroplast? Chlorophyll, grana, and stroma
What part of photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoids? Light-dependent reactions
What part of photosynthesis takes place in the stroma? Calvin cycle
What are the primary pigments of photosynthesis? Chlorophyll found in the chloroplast, and phycocyanin found in Cyanobacteria
What wavelengths of light do they absorb? Long and Short.  What wavelengths do they reflect? Red and blue.
What are the secondary pigments of photosynthesis that produce the fall coloration? Carotenoids
What are stomata and what is their function? The small openings in plant leaves that allow the intake of carbon dioxide and expulsion of oxygen.
What is the function of roots/ veins? Absorbing water and nutrients and form the foundation of the plant. Veins transport the nutrients all over the plant.
Stage of Photosynthesis (light reactions and Calvin cycle/dark reactions)
What reactant of the Summary Equation enters the Light Dependent Reaction?
12 H2O + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi +light and chlorophyll = 6 O2 + 12 NADPH + 18 ATP. 8.
What is photolysis? The breakdown of molecules through sunlight
What is released as a result of photolysis? Hydrogen and oxygen
What happens to the electrons that are released? Hydrogen bonds with NADP to form NADPH.
What is produced in the Light Dependent Reaction that is used in the Light Independent/Dark Reaction? ATP and NADPH
What product of the Summary Equation is produced or released in the light dependent reaction? ATP
What Reactant of the Summary Equation Enters the Light Independent Reaction/Calvin cycle? None
What happens or changes to the products of the Light dependent reaction that enter the Calvin Cycle? They combine with hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide
What product is directly produced and removed from the Light independent reaction? C3H6O3-phosphate
What does the product above become with some minor metabolic changes? 3-caebon sugar
How is Carbon fixation accomplished in the Calvin cycle? Carbon is reacted to generate G3P
Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis gathers the glucose molecule while cellular respiration breaks it down.
 
 
Unit 2 Organic Chemistry
Organic compounds vs. Inorganic compounds
What makes a compound organic? The presence of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Inorganic? Lack of carbon atoms
 
Functional groups (phosphate groups, amino groups, carboxyl groups)
Know the structure of each of these groups, and which organic compounds they are found in. You can draw them for your own use.
Phosphate groups- they are made up of a phosphorous atom which is linked to four oxygen molecules. One of its oxygen atoms is usually bonded to one carbon. They are found in organic phosphates which are salts.
Amino groups-consist of a nitrogen atom which is bonded by single bonds to hydrogen, aryl, or alkyls. They belong to organic compounds known as amines.
Carboxyl groups- contains a carbon atom which is attached to oxygen via a double bond and connected to a hydroxyl group in a single bond. Their formula is COOH. They are found in carboxylic acids.
 
Hydrolysis
It is the decomposition of a compound through water. It is used in breaking down ATP into ADP.
Dehydration synthesis
It involves combining two elements after the elimination of water. It is useful in the formation of large compounds.
Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and examples)
Know the process of joining two monosaccharides together to create a disaccharide- Dehydration synthesis
Be able to give examples of several monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharide examples (3) Disaccharide examples (2) Complex carbohydrates  (3)
 
Glucose
Sucrose Peas
Fructose
 
Lactose Beans
Galactose
 
maltose Vegetables

Lipids (Saturated vs. Unsaturated; Phospholipids, Steroids)
Saturated fatty acid- A fat whose fatty acids are primarily single-bonded.
Unsaturated fatty acid-Fats that contain at least one double bond in its chain of fatty acids.
What process is used to put the fatty acid chain on a glycerol molecule? Condensation polymerization reaction.
Hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic
Define hydrophilic- friendly with water and other polar substances reactions.
What part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic? The heads
Define hydrophobic- resists water
What part of the phospholipid is hydrophobic? The tails
Proteins, types and functions
What is a protein composed of, and what does it do?
A protein is made up of amino acids. Proteins are important in body-building.
Amino acids
Name the three parts of the amino acid that come off the common Carbon.
Carboxyl group, amino group, and the R group
Identify each of the three parts. (Amino Acid ID game)
-COOH, -NH2, and “R” group
Peptide Bonds
How are they formed? Through the reaction between a carboxyl and amino groups of different molecules.
What two parts of each amino acid do they join together? Amino group and carboxyl group
 
Enzymes – substances which increase the speed of a chemical reaction(s) within cells.
Levels of Protein structure
Complete the chart below.

Protein structure level definition
Primary The arrangement of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
Secondary The manner in which a polypeptide chain folds into a 3-D shape.
Tertiary The complex structural pattern of a protein’s polypeptide chain.
Quaternary A protein which consists of many polypeptide chains.

 
Protein Denaturation
The alteration of secondary and secondary and secondary structures of proteins. It happens when the alpha-helix and beta pieces unfold into normal shape.
Define what a Solute is. A solute is the substance which dissolves in a solvent to form a solution
Define what a solvent is. A solvent is a liquid in which a substance dissolves
Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, ATP)
Nucleotide
Name its three parts and be able to identify each of them on a diagram.  (Nucleotide ID game)
What are the two possible sugars used in a nucleotide? Deoxyribose and ribose
 
Complete the Table below.

  DNA RNA ATP
What sugar does it have? Deoxyribose Ribose Ribose
What nitrogen bases does it have? Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine Adenine, thymine, uracil, and cytosine adenine
Provide the pairings of the nitrogen bases of each nucleic acid
 
Guanine-cytosine
Adenine-thymine
Adenine-uracil
Thymine-cytosine
N/A
What is its structure?
 
G-C A-T A-U T-C C10H16N5O13P3

 
 
 
Unit 3 Energy Review
 
Chemical potential energy vs. kinetic energy
Kinetic energy-determined through the velocity and mass of an object
Chemical potential energy- emanates from the position of something
Energy Transformation- refers to the conversion from one type of energy into another. For instance, electrical energy is mainly often changed into light energy.
Laws of Thermodynamics
Know the two laws and understand how they apply to metabolism and energy transformation.
Energy is neither developed nor destroyed as per the conservation law. Energy is obtained by eating food and utilized in various cellular functions in the body.
The second law is that energy transference if not totally efficient. For instance, during photosynthesis, some light energy may be lost as heat.
ATP
Know its structure. C10H16N5O13P3. Understand how it is built and broken, using the terms endergonic and exergonic.
Endergonic Reactions- a reaction where energy is taken in from the surrounding to synthesize ATP
 
Exergonic reactions – Involves the release of energy into the surroundings by breaking down the ATP
 
Metabolism and metabolic pathways
Metabolism-the series of chemical processes within organisms that sustain life.
Metabolic pathways- A set of chemical reactions that occur inside a cell. For example, glycolytic pathway, and oxidative pathway.
Enzymes
What are they? Substances which increase the speed of a chemical reaction(s) within cells.
Levels of Protein structure
How do they work? Enzymes accelerate a reaction by lessening the activation energy
What is activation energy? The average energy necessary to undertake a certain chemical process.
What is an active site? The location where molecules combine and go through a reaction
How do you denature an enzyme? By exposing it to extremely high temperatures.
 
 
Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration and energy conversion
What does cellular respiration do in relation to energy conversion?
During cellular respiration, food energy is changed into energy that can support body functions.
Oxidation-Reduction reaction (redox reactions)
Explain an oxidation reaction-one that involves the addition of oxygen to another substance
Explain a reduction reaction-one that involves loss of electron
How do these two reactions support each other? Through gaining or losing of electrons, stability in various elements is achieved.
Aerobic vs anaerobic metabolism

  Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration
Where does it take place? cytoplasm mitochondria
How many ATP are generated? 2 ATP 38 ATP
Does it require oxygen? No Yes

 
Alcohol and Lactic acid fermentation:
What type of respiration are these metabolic pathways? Aerobic respiration
What is the product of alcohol fermentation? Ethanol
How many ATP are generated? 2
What is the product of lactic acid fermentation? Lactic acid
How many ATP are generated? 2
Which stage of respiration is considered the most primitive or ancient? Glycolysis
Glycolysis
Where does glycolysis take place? cytoplasm
How many ATP are net produced in glycolysis? four
How many H atoms? two
What are the molecules that are the created at the end of glycolysis? (hint: it now enters the mitochondria) Pyruvic acid, ATP, and NADH molecules.
Transition reaction
What is the reactant that enters into the mitochondria for this “stage”? Pyruvate
How many H atoms are generated? 8 atoms
Citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle
What is the product that enters the Citric Acid Cycle? Pyruvate
What is released as a byproduct? Carbon dioxide
How many ATP are produced in the citric acid cycle? 38
All of the electrons generated from glycolysis, transition reaction and the citric acid cycle travel via the coenzymes, NADH and FADH2 to what stage? Oxidation stage
Electron transport chain/system
In the electron transport system, H+ ions are pumped across the mitochondrial membrane, and then they come back through what important protein/enzyme? Complex I protein
What does the energy released in this protein/enzyme make? Ubiquinone
How many ATP are made in the final stage? Between 32 and 34
What does oxygen do in the final stage?  Accepting electrons and absorbs protons from water
What is the final electron acceptor? Oxygen
Do the electrons in the electron transport system help create ATP as well?  (Simple yes or no for understanding) No
How is water made in the final stage? Glucose splits down in presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
Write out the summary equation of Aerobic Cellular Respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
What are the Reactants in the summary equation?
Glucose and oxygen
What are the Products of summary equation?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the Total (net) ATP production across all phases of cellular respiration? 36
 
 
Unit 1 Lesson 1
Biology –the study of living organisms?
Characteristics of living things (Also called properties of life in class notes.)

  • Reproduction
  • Growth and development
  • Homeostatis
  • Sensitivity
  • Response to the surroundings

Levels of organization= Hierarchy of life (from the smallest to the largest)

  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ systems
  • organisms

Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic organisms
Both have plasma membranes, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA. However, prokaryotic organelles lack nucleus and their structures are not membrane bound.
Taxonomy and classification of life – how are living things named and related?
Organisms are named through binomial nomenclature based on their genus and species categories. They are also related as they share the same ancestors.
Carl Linnaeus – who is he?
He is considered as the father of taxonomy, a concept which is utilized in naming animals.
3 domains of life

  • Archaea
  • Eukarya
  • Bacteria

Kingdoms of domain Eukarya

  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Protista
  • fungi

Evolution and Natural selection (covered in the discussion)
Charles Darwin-the biologist who came up with evolution theory
Adaptation-a characteristic that is shared by all members of a population to help them cope
Lesson 2
Science and the scientific method

  1. Observe
  2. Develop a hypothesis
  3. Experiment the hypothesis
  4. Analyze data
  5. Make conclusions

Hypothesis-a suggestion which is made based on little information which acts as the starting point for more research.
Lesson 3
Energy and nutrient movement in ecosystems
How does energy move through the ecosystem?
Through a one-way stream from primary producers to the different types of consumers
How much energy goes from one level to the next?-At least 10 percent
How do nutrients move through the ecosystem? Through recycling
Energy pyramid-
What does it represent? The flow of energy in an ecosystem
What is each box or level called? Trophic level
What does each box or level represent? The different types of organisms that belong there
What are they and how are they defined? They are either producers or consumers
Trophic levels in food chains/food webs
What is a trophic level? The position of an organism from the beginning of the chain
How much energy moves from one level to the next? Around 10 percent
What is the difference between food chains and food webs? A food web has more than one food chain. A food chain consists of one path only for finding food.
Organism vs. Population vs. Community vs. Ecosystem
Which is the smallest? Organism is the smallest followed by community, population, then an ecosystem.  Which is the largest?  How are they related or interconnected? They are interconnected since they chare common resources.
Producers-plants which make their own food
Consumers-organisms which cannot produce their own nourishments and depend on others.
Detritivores-heterotrophs which depend on decomposing materials for food
Decomposers –organisms that rely on dead organisms or waste from living things for food.
Producers make their own food and they are eaten by consumers. When consumers die, they decompose, they are consumed by decomposers which are then eaten by detritivores which eventually decompose to form nutrients which are absorbed by plants.
Herbivores-animals that feed on plants only for energy
Omnivores-organisms that can eat both plants and animals
Carnivores-animals that strictly feeds on other animals.
Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
Autotrophs manufacture their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. For example, plants and algae. On the other hand, heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food but instead, they eat other organisms. For example, animals and fungi.
Biotic vs. abiotic factors
Biotic-non-living elements in the surroundings such as temperature and which impact ecosystems
Biotic- living factors in an ecosystem, for instance plants matter and animals
Hydrologic cycle – the process in which water circulates within the earth and the atmosphere. It involves evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection.
Carbon cycle- the process in which carbon is exchanged on all the spheres of the earth. Carbon is absorbed by plants and used to make food which is then eaten by living things. It in that way that organisms absorb carbon which is stored and then breathed out as carbon dioxide.
Lesson 4 Evolution and Natural selection
What is natural selection? The adaptation process or living things to their surroundings for continued reproduction.
Who are the two naturalists who first described natural selection? Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell
What are the three principles necessary for natural selection, according to Darwin? Variation, heredity, and selection.
Define adaptation and variation.
Adaptation is the manner in which living things get used to their surroundings while variation is the changes in environment.
The evidence provided to support Evolution includes:  1. Observation

  1. Fossils
  2. Molecular biology
  3. Anatomy
  4. Biogeography

What is artificial selection?  It is the cross breeding of animals and plants to create more desirable features. How is it different from natural selection? Artificial selection differs from natural selection as it involves human intervention or manipulation.
 
 
Unit 2 Inorganic Chemistry
Atomic structure: protons, neutrons, electrons
Complete the chart below.

  Protons Neutrons Electrons
location nucleus nucleus Outside nucleus
Charge +1 0 -1
Important factor Neutron/proton ratio charge stability

 
Define the following terms:
Atomic number- the number of protons within the nucleus
Mass number-the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Isotope-elements of the same compound which differ in atomic number
 
Electron configuration and valence electrons
Know how many electrons are able to fill each of the first three shells.
Be able to determine how many valence electrons an atom has. Practice below.

Element Atomic number Total # of electrons # of valence electrons
C 6 6 4
Cl 17 17 7
O 8 8 6
N 7 7 5

 
Element vs. Compound
A compound is made up of atoms of diverse elements while an element only contains one type of atoms.
List the 6 most common elements in the human body

  • Carbon
  • Oxygen
  • Calcium
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen
  • phosphorous

Trace elements and examples. (Assignment)
Trace elements are those found in small amount in a particular location. Some examples include copper, iron, and zinc
Covalent Bonds vs. Ionic bonds vs. Hydrogen bonds
In covalent bonds, a single or more electrons pairs are shared among two atoms while ionic bonds are characterized by the removal of one or more electrons from a particular atoms and then linked to another atom. Hydrogen bond occurs when an atom of hydrogen forms a covalent bond with an atom which is more electronegative.
Properties of water due to hydrogen bonds
What water properties are created due to hydrogen bonds? Cohesion and a high surface tension
PH scale, acids vs. bases
Define an acid and a base.
An acid is a chemical molecule with a capability of giving out protons or hydrogen ions and accepting electrons. A base is a compound that offers electrons and accepts protons.
Know the pH scale and the measurements that determine if something is an acid or a base.
PH scale is the tool used to determine the acidity or alkalinity of a substance which can dissolve in water. It ranges from 1-14. Values below 7 reflect acidity while those above 7 indicate basicity. 7 is the neutral point.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Alberts, B., Bray, D., Hopkin, K., Johnson, A. D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., & Walter, P. (2013). Essential cell biology. Garland Science.